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-HJC Jir§ 3}H$- 

luataor €oronatorum 

being the TRANSACTIONS of the 




CIRCA. 1500 A.D. 



H. Keble, Peintkk, Margate. 







♦►• «<♦ 


Besant, Sir Walter ... ... ... ... 105 

Greiner, Gotthelf ... ... ... ... 202 

Kupferschmidt, Csesar ... ... ... ... 211 

Sayer, Antony ... ... ... ... 181 

Speth, George William ... ... ... ... 97 


Africa, South ... ... ... ... 95, 96, 219 

Australia, South ... ... ... ... 144 

Australia, Western ... ... ... ... 150 

Canada ... ... ... ... ... 152 

England ... ... ... ... ... 95, 150, 218 

Germany ... ... ... ... ... 94 

Ireland ... ... ... ... ... 95, 219 

Norway ... ... ... ... ... 95 

Saxony ... ... ... ... ... 94 

Scotland ... ... ... ... ... 219 

Switzerland ... ... ... ... ... 94 

United States of America ... ... ... 94, 220 


Friday, 4th January ... ... ... ... 1 

Friday, 1st March ... ... ... ... 59 

Friday, 3rd May ... ... ... ... 97 

Monday, 24th June, St. John's Day in Harvest ... ... 105 

Friday, 4th October ... ... ... ... 172 

Friday, 8th November, Installation ... ... ... 196 


Alnwick Lodge ... ... ... ... 136 

Apron, An old Masonic ... ... ... ... 137 

Born, Ignatius von ... ... ... ... 58 

Breastplate, Masonic ... ... ... ... 137 

Breastplate, Masters ... ... ... ... 54 

Chivalric Orders, The ... ... ... ... 56 

Drummond — Earls of Perth ... ... ... 138 

French Prisoners' Lodges ... ... ... ... 58 

Jewel, Silver Masonic ... ... ... ... 137 

Knights of Malta ... ... ... ... 54 

Lee, Bro. Jesse, of Manchester ... ... ... 139 

Man with a Greek Name ... ... ... ... 216 

Meason-word, The ... ... ... ... 56 

Miracle Play, The ... ... ... ... 138 

Naymus Grecus ... ... ... ... 216 

Plate, Old Masonic ... ... ... ... 136 

Pottery, Masonic ... ... ... ... 139 

Sackville and Martin Folkes ... ... ... 56 

Templar Crosses ... ... ... ... 54 

Wheeler's Lodge ... ... ... ... 140 



Table of Contents. 

Baker, Edwin 

Block, Cecil Macartney 

Boileau, Sir Francis G. M., Bart. 

Boyce, Walter James 

Chataway, The Hon. James Vincent 

Cowper, William Henry 

Frias, Guillermo Rafael 

Haslip, Lewis Christopher ... 

Hooker, Richard 

Jackson, W. Grierson 

James, John 

Janson, Lamens 

Kenning, George 

Kraszinski, Henry Mark 

Kupferschmidt, Csesar 

Maclaren, Duncan Mark 

MacNair, Thomas 

Martyn, Rev. Charles J. 

Mason, Rev. Henry J. 

Massey, Stanley Franklin 

Moore, Charles John 

Parvin, Theodore Sutton 

Penfold, Abel 

Powell, Charles Champney ... 

Reed, Commander George Henry Baynes 

Schreiner, Frederick Samuel 

Schwerin, Herman H. 

Scott, Thomas 

Singleton, William R. 

Sheer, Walter 

Strasser, Solomon 

Sumner, William Thomas 

Sutherland, Henry 

Travers-Drapes, G. F. 

Ward, Horatio 

Waring, Walter, M.D. 

Weber, Louis Robert 

West, George 

Wise, Capt. Charles Driver ... 


The Alnwick Lodge Minutes. By W. H. Rylands, F.S.A. 

Publication of the Manuscript, 4 ; Errors in Transcription, 5; Rules of a 
Purely Operative Character, 6 ; Marks used, 7; Minute of December, 1748, 
Erection of a Speculative Lodge, 8 ; List of Members, etc., 10 ; List of 
Officers, 13; Discussion, Visiting Brethren as Founders, 14 ; The term " To 
erect a Lodge," 15 ; Fees for Admission, 18; Reply. 

The 47th Proposition of the 1st Book of Euclid, as part of the 
Jewel of a Past Master. By Thomas Greene, L.L.D. 
Jewels of Past Masters in Scotland, Ireland and England, 27 ; Importance 
of the Square, 28; Pax Triplex, 29; Discussion, Chinese Symbolism of the 
Square and Compasses, 30 ; Allusions in Shakespeare, 31 ; Addendum by 
W. H. Rylands, 33; Egytian Symbolism, 35 ; The Master's Badge, 36; The 
47th Proposition not in use as a Past Master's Jewel before about 1800; 40. 










































Table of Contents. v. 


Military Masonry. By R. P. Gould. ... ... ... 42 

Robert Guillemard, 42; Colonel Oudet, 43; Lea Amis cm Captivity, 45; 

Civil War Roster in the United States, 47; Roster in tlie War of the 
Revolution, 47. 

An Interesting Masonic Sword. By W. II. Rylands, F.S.A. ... 49 

A Curious Certificate. By F. J. W. Crowe. ... ... 51 

The Miracle Play. By E. Conder, Jun., F.S.A. ... ... W 

Introduction of the Miracle Play into England, 01 ; The Craft Gildsand the 
Miracle Play, 62; The MSS. Extant, 63; The York Plays, 63; The 
Chester MS. Plays, 66; The Coventry Mysteries, 68; The Townley MS. 
Plays, 69; The Digby MS. Plays, 70; The Cornish MSS., 70 ; The New- 
castle MS. and Plays, 71; Other MS. texts of Plays, 72; Moralities and 
Interludes, 73 ; The Plays and the Players, 74; Conclusion, 79; Discussion, 

The "Settegast" Grand Lodge of Germany. By G. W. Speth. ... 83 

In Memoriam : G. W. Speth. ... ... ... 97 

,, : Sir Walter Besant. ... ... ... 105 

Naymus Grecus. By G. W. Speth. ... ... ... 108 

Theories as to Name, 109 ; Manuscripts ascribed to Marcus Graecus, 110; 
Who was Marcus Graecus? 112; Possible connection between Naymus 
Greens and Marcus Graecus, 113. 

MarCUS Graecus Eversus. By W. J. Chetwode Crawley, LL.D. ... 114 

Works of Marcus Graecus, 115; Roger Bacon and Marcus Graecus, 117; 
Development of Myth of Marcus Graecus, 119; Lack of Proof of Identity 
of Naymus Grecus with Marcus Graecus, 124 ; Recipe of Marcus Graecus 
bearing on Architecture, 125. 

Leicestershire Masonry, part II. By E. Conder, Jun., F.S.A. ... 126 

Records of the Borough of Leicester, 1327-1509, Various Gilds, 127; The 
" Othe of Thocoupacious,' 127 ; Mention of Masons, 128. 

Remarks on the " Sloane Family" of the Old Charges of British 
Freemasons, including the John T. Thorp and John 

Strachan MSS. By Dr. W. Begemann. ... ... 153 

Some Masonic Antiquities at the Glasgow International 

Exhibition Of 1901. By E. Conder, Jim. ... ... jgs 

Knights of Malta. By Ladislas de Malczovich. ... ... 1(53 

The "Testament of Solomon." — A Contribution to the 

Legendary Lore of the Temple. By Rev. W. E. Windle. ... 172 

Extracts from the Testament, 173; Employment of demons in building 
the Temple, 174; Visit of the Queen of Sheba, 175 ; Legends of the corner- 
stone and pillar, 176; The falling away of Solomon, 176. 

Antony Sayer. By Albert F. Calvert. ... ... ... i^i 

Inaugural Address. By Gotthelf Grciner. ... ... 197 

Wheeler's Lodge. By W. J. Chetwode Crawley, LL.D. 205 



Table of Contents. 

History of the Howe Lodge, No. 587, A. D. Brooks 
Retrospect of the Burrell Lodge, No. 1829, A. J. Carpenter 
Antiquity of Chester Masonry, John Armstrong 
Records of the Dublin Gild of Merchants, 1438-1671, 

H. F. Berry 
The little Red Book of Bristol, ed. by F. B. Bickley ... 
Historical Sketch of Lodge St. Andrew, No. 179, J. Smith 
History of the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel), 

D. Murray Lyon 
Philo-Musicse et Architectures Societas, 1725-7, ed. 

by W. H. Rylands 
Transactions of the Lodge of Research, No. 2 9, 

Leicester, 1900-1, ed. by J. T. Thorp 
Medals of British Freemasonry, G. L. Shackles 

n n n i) • " 

Cornwall Freemasonry, J. G. Osborn... 


G. W. Speth 
G. W. Speth 
W. J. Hughan 

G. W. Speth 
G. W. Speth 
G. W. Speth 

R. F. Gould 

W. J. Hughan 

W. J. Hughan 
W. J. Hughan 
R. F. Gould 
W. H. Rylands 

Audit Report 

Meeting of the Lodge of St. Alban, Adelaide, and the late Bio. G. W. Speth 

Toast, the W.M., Bro. Gotthelf Greiner 











Alnwick Lodge Minutes 

Apprentice Degree in the Ancient Way 

Apron, Old Masonic 

Audit Report 

Ayr Squaremau 

Breastplate, Master's 
Bristol, Little Red Book of... 

Certificate, A Curious 
Chivalric Orders ... 




51, 137 



Degrees, Various ... 
Dublin Gild of Merchants 

" Erection " of a Lodge 
Exhibits ... 



2, 59, 105, 172 

47th Proposition as P.M.'s Jewel 
Freemasonry in Adelaide ... 

,, Australia, Western 

,, Bloemfontein 

,, England ... 

,, Germany ... 

,, Ireland 

,, Kimberley... 

,, Montreal ... 

,, Newcastle... 

,, Norway 

,, Omaha 

„ Saxony 

„ Scotland ... 

,, Switzerland 

,, U.S. of America 

French Prisoners ... 

Gormogon Satirical Medal .. 
Gypsies — Fabricators of Artillery 

Hammermen Chair 
Harodim, Durham Court of... 



95, 150, 218 













54, 163 

219, 220 



Jewel, Silver Masonic 

Knights of Malta ... 

Liverpool Mas. Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
Lodges in Montreal under Grand Lodge 
of England 

Lodges, Chapters, etc., alluded tor- 
Alfred Lodge No. 340 ... 193 
Alnwick Lodge ... ... 9, 136 

Alpha Lodge ... ... 207 

American Union Lodge ... 48 

Les Amis en Captivite ... 42 

Apollo University Lodge ... 193 

Apple Tree Tavern ... ... 181 

Atholl Grand Lodge ... ... 172 

Berlin Grand Lodges ... 83 

Bnrrell Lodge No. 1829 ... 87 

Catongate Kilwinning No. 2 ... 9, 166 

Cestrian Lodge ... ... 87 

Country Stewards' Lodge ... 1!'.! 

Crown (Tavern) ... ... 181 

Devon Lodge No. 1138 ... L62 

Druids' Lodge of Love and Liberality 213 


Lodges, Chapters, etc., referred to:- 

Duudee Lodge No. 123 
Ferdinaude Caroline, Hamburg 
48th Foot Lodge No. 218 
„ „ „ No. 982 
Germania Lodge, Berlin 
Glasgow, St. John No. 3 bis ., 
Glasgow, St. Mungo No. 27 
Goose and Gridiron ... 
Grand Lodge of Hamburg 
Grand Lodge of Scotland 
Grand Masters' Lodge, Dublin 
Grand Stewards' Lodge 
Hierarchal Lodge 
Howe Lodge No. 587 
Humanftas Lodge, Berlin 
Humber Installed Masters 
Ionic and Prudence Lodge 
Ireland, Grand Lodge of 
Johannes in Orlagau, Neustadt 
Kaiser Frederick Grand Lodge 
Kilwinning Mother Lodge 
Kircaldy Lodge 
Lambton Lodge 
Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's 

Chapel) ... 131 

Lodge of Harmony, Mauritius 
Lodge of Prudence ... 
Lodge of Prudence and Peter... 
Lodge of Research No. 2429 
Lodge of St. Alban, Adelaide ... 
Lodge of Temperance No. 169 
Lodge of True Friendship 
Lodge of Unity No. 183 
Lodge of Virtue No. 177 
Lodge L'Immortalite de l'Ordre 
Marquess of Dalhousie No. 1159 
Melrose, Ancient Lodge of 
Minden Lodge 

Minorca, Prov. Grand Lodge of 
Mirror of Wisdom, Charlottenburg 
Moira Lodge No. 92 ... 
New Horn Lodge 
Old Horn Lodge 
Old King's Arms 
Old Lodge St. John's 

Old Union Lodge 

Old Westminsters' Lodge 

One Tun Lodge 

Operative Lodge of Falkirk 

Pestalozzi Lodge, Berlin 

Pilgrim Lodge No. 238 

Prudence Lodge No. 1550 

Quebec, Grand Lodge of 

Queen's Arms 

Queen's Head 

Restoration Lodge 

Rising Star, Kimberley 

Roman Lodge 

Royal Alfred Lodge... 

Boyal Alpha Lodge ... 

Royal Chester Lodge 

Royal Cumberland Chapter ... 

Royal Lodge 

Royal Standard, Halifax 

Royal York Grand Lodge, Berlin 

Royal York of Friendship 

Rummer and Grapes... 

St. Andrew's Lodge No. 179 ... 




172, 215 








193, 209 








• 94 


131, 166, 193 











39, 208 



39, 208 








Lodges, Chapters, etc., referred to:— 

St. Andrew's Lodge, Dumfries 167 

St. George, Montreal ... 152 

St. John No. 16, Falkirk ... 166 

St. John's Lodge, Omaha ... 220 

St. Lawrence, Montreal ... 152 

St. Paul, Montreal ... ... 152 

St. Peter's Lodge ... ... 207 

Sanquhar Kilwinning No. 194... 54, 137 

Settegast Grand Lodge ... 83 

Shakespeare Lodge ... ... 50 

Ship Lodge, St. Ives... .. 213 

Union Lodge No. 95 ... ... 4 7 

L' Union des Coeurs, Geneva ... 94 

Victoria Lodge, Berlin ... 84 

Washington Lodge ... ... 48 

Well-disposed Lodge... ... 207 

Western Australia, Grand Lodge 150 

Zu den drei Schwertern, Dresden 94 

Zum goldenen Apfel, Dresden 91 

Making Masous at Sight ... ... 208 

Marcus Graecus Eversus ... ... 114 

Masonic Antiquities at Glasgow ... 165 

,, Archasological Institute ... 107 

Benefit Society of 17^9 ... 135 

Chest ... ... ... 167 

,, Halfpennies ... ... 192 

Mallet ... ... ... 167 

Punch Bowl ... ... 167 

Snuff Box ... ... 167 

Master's Mallet ... ... ... 166, 167 

Meason Word ... ... ... 56 

Medals, Folkes ... ... ... 56 

Medal, Sackville ... ... ... 56 

Medals of British Freemasonry ... 190 

Military Masonry ... ... ... 42 

Miracle Play ... ... ... 60,138 

Moralities ... ... ... 73 

Narbonue, Primitive Rite of 


Naymus Grecus 

... 108, 216 

Nine Worthies Medal 


Palestine Pilgrim Text Society 


Persons alluded to : — 

Abercorn, Duke of 




Alanus, Mazon 


Allen, W. ... 


Ambrosse, N. 


Amery, Col.... 


Amherst, Earl 


Ampthill, Lord 


Anderson, Rev. G. R. ... 


Anderson, J. 

... 6, 7, 10, 13 

Anderson, J., of Swarland 


Anderson, R. 


Anderson, T. 

... 7, 10, 13 

Anderson, W. 

7, 10 

Andrewes, N. 


Andrews, I 


Archer, W. ... 


Armitage, E. 


Armstrong, J. 


Armstrong, J. 

87, 218 

Arnway, J. .. 


Ashmole, E. 


Athey, T. ... 


Atkinson, R. 

7, 10 





Aytoun, Prof. W. E. ... 


Bacon, R. 


Bain, G. W... 



Persons alluded to: — 

Baker, E. ... 


Baldwin, I. ... 


Baldwin, L 


Balmborough, W. 

7, 10 

Banks, Sir J. T. 


Barberini, Prince 


Barlow, Dr. W- 


Barrett, J. L. 


Barron, E. J. 


Barry, Dr. ... 


Bartholomew of Ruspoli 


Bateman, Miss M. 


Belgrave-Ninnis, Dr.... 


Bell, J. 


Benedict XIV., Pope... 


Bent, J. 


Berry, H. F. 



112, 122 

Besant, Sir W. 


Best, J. 


Bickley, F. B. 


Biggs, H. S. 


Billson, F. W. 


Block, C M. 


Bobbin, Tim 


Bogle, J., sen. 


Boileau, Sir F. G. M. 


Born, I. von... 


Kowyer, Sir G. H. 

54, 169 

Boyce, W. J. 


Boyd, W., Earl of Kilmarnock... 


Bradshaw, J. 


Braine, F. W. 


Brandt, R. ... 


Broadhead, W. H. ... 


Brooks, A. D. 


Brown, N. ... ... 5, 7, 

9, 10, 13 

Brune, Marshal 


Buchanan, J. 


Burgess, J. W. 


Burne, J. ... 


Burnes, Dr 


Burnham, J. 


Burns, R. 

91, 167 

Burton, R. ... 


Caboga-Cerva, Count 


Candida, C... 


Canon, S. 


Carenton, R. 

7, 10, 13 

Carew, R. ... 


Carmichael, G. 


Carpenter, A. J. 


Carpenter, J. A. 


Castle, E. J. 


Castles, E. .. 


Castletown, Lord 


Ceschi, G. ... 




Charles Albert King of Sardinia 


Charles Edward, Prince 


Chataway, Hon. J. V. 


Chaucer, G.... 


Chew, J. 


Chrisp, C. ... 


Clanfield, S. 


Clay, R. K. ... 


Clement XII., Pope ... 


Clerke, S. H. 


Cockburn, A. 

172, 215 

Cole, J. 


Collier, J. 


Collorcdo-Mausfeld, P. 


Columbine ... 


Colyer, T. ... 





Persons alluded to: — 

Condor, K.,jiin. 


Confucius ... 


Connaught, Duke of ... 


Cook, Capt. ... 


Coombs, R. ... 


Cooper, T. J. 


Coward, R 


Cowper, VV. H. 


Cox, B. W. ... 


Crawford, G. 


Crawley, Dr. J. Chetwodo 190, 

219, 220 

Crossley, J. ... 


Crowe, F. J. W. 


Cuthbertson, I). 

10, 25 

Dalrymple of Woodhead, J.D.G. 


D'Avennes, Prisse 


Davidson, T. 


Davidson, T. 

11, 23 

De Cossou, Baron 


De Gorham, G. 

61, 80 

De Guileville, G. 


Denholm, W. M. 


Depew, CM. 


Derlyng 11 


Dermott, L 


Desaguliers, J. T. 


Dickson, Dr. G. 


Dixon, Lt. Col. G. W.... 


Down, Lord Bishop of 


Drummond, J. 


Dunckerley, T. ... 39, 

139, 214 

Dn Theil 


Dymmok, J. 


Edward VIL, King ... 

150, 108 

Elders, E. M. L. 


Elliott, Capt. J. 


Elliott, 11. .. 


Eugene, Archduke 



45, 46 

Fergus, A. ... 


Ferguson, J. 


Ffordy, C. ... 


Pitz-Stephen, W. 


Flavelle, H. E. 


Folkes, M. ... 


Forshaw, C. F. 


Francis Joseph, Emperor 


Francis de Khevenhiiller-Metsch 


Francis de Kollowrat-Krakowsky 


Frederich Leopold of Prussia, 

Prince ... 


Freeman, J. W. 


Frias, G. K. ... 


Fripp, J. D. ... 


Krisius, Kircb. F. 


Gammon, J 


Gardiner, H. 


Garrett, T. ... 


Geminiani ... 


George, H.R.H. Prince of Wales 


George, T. R. G. 


Gibson, Rfv. B. 


Cile-, H. A.... 


Giovanni de Tommasi 


Godfrey, A. W. 


Goethe. J. W. von 


Goldney, F. H. 


Gonino, Miss 


Goodman, J. F- 


(ioul.i, R, F. 

152, 196 

Gow, W. 


C radon, A. ... 


Graecns, Marcus 


Gray, J. 


Persons alluded to :— 

Greatbach, R. V. 

Grecus, Naymus 

Creenlees ... 

Greiner, G. ... 

Griffiths, W. Jl. 

Clipper, Dr. VV. 

Guido de Thun and Hohcnstcin 

Guillemard, R. 

Haarburger, I. H. 

Ilaarhoff, D. J. 

Halsey, E. D. 

Hamel, F. E. 

Hamilton, A. 

Hamilton, A. 

Hannam, W. 


Harrison, R. 

Harrison, T. 

Harrison, T. 

Hart, Commodore, J. E. 

Haslip, L. C. 

Heckethorn, C. W. ... 

Hemming', A. 

Hemming, Rev. S. 

Henderson, G. 

Henderson, J. 

Hiam, J. 

Higden, Ralph 

Higden, Ranulf 

Higgenet, Randall 


Hoefer, J. Ch. F. 

Hogg, J. 

Horye, T. ... 

Holme, Randle 

Hompesch, Grand Master 

Hooker, R. ... 

Hopkyns, S. 

Horsfall, R. 

Horsley, Rev. J. W. ... 

Hovenden R. 

Hozier, Hon. J. 

Hudson, J. ... 

Hudson, R. ... 

Hudson, T. ... 

Hughan, W.J. 

Hughes, Admiral A. K. 

Hume, Sir P. 

Hunter, A. ... 

Hutchinson, General 

Hutchinson, Dr. T. B. 

Hutson, T. ... 

Jackson, VV. G. 

James, J. 

James, J. 

Janson, L. ... 

Jenkins, T. .. 

John of Banbury 

John de Hnpleskote ... 

John de Thornham ... 

John de Tvberton 

John Swafham 


Jones, S. 


Cennard, H. 

Kenning, G. 

Ker. /:• W. L. 

Kipps, VV. ... 

Knowles, J. J. W. ... 

Kraszinski, 11. M. 

Kupferschmidt, C. 

Lake, Dr. K. 

Lam ball, J. 





196, 218 





95, 150 








7, 10 

7, 10 










63, 81 






6, 7, 10, 13 







97, 105 



7, 10 


152, 213 









7, 10, 13 












192, 212 





196, 211 

2, 106 



Persons alluded to : — 


Lancaster, G. F. 


Lane, J. 


Lardner, H. J. 


Laycock, J. 


Le Couteulx de Canteleu, Comte 


Lee, J. 


Lee, Jesse ... ... 57 

, 137, 139 

Leon, M. 


Le Strange, Hamon ... 


Lewis, Prof. H. 


Lindsey, G. 

10, 25 

Lobingier, C. S. 


Lowry, J. M. 


Luck, H. C. 


Lynch, D. ... 


Lyon, D. M. 

51, 131 

McArdell, J. 


McDougal, J. 


McGeen, W. 


Mackell, T. 

11, 13 

Mackey, A. G. 


Ma' kie, A. ... 


McKinley, President 


McKinstry, Col. J. ... 


Maclaren, D. M. 


McLennon, D. 


McLeod, J. M. 


McMahon, Mrs. 


MacNair, T. 


Maiden, Rev. C. H. ... 


Mallet, General 


March, Earl of 


Marcus Graecus 


Mark ham, Admiral ... 


Marks, Prof. 


Martell, C. ... 


Martyn, Rev. C. J. 


Marvin, W. T. E. 


Massey, S. F. 


Mason, Rev. H. J. 

134, 143 

Mat Mazoun 






Menon, General 


Mercer, L. ... 


Meredith, Sir J. C. ... 


Mesua, J. 


Meyer, C. W. 


Miller, D. ... 


Milles, P. ... 


Mills, M. ... 

7, 10, 13 

Mills, P. ... ... ... 6, 

7, 10, 13 

Mills, T. 




Moody, J. J... 


Moor, J. 

10, 13 

Moore, C. J... 


Moray, R. ... 


Moreau, General 


Morris, J. 


Moss, C. B. ... 


Mosse, Surgeon-General, C.B. ... 


Muir, T. 


Murat, J. 

42, 46 

Murdoch, R. A. 


Murray of Broughton 


Mylln,J. ... 


Nash, W. L.... 


Naymus Greens 


Neal, J., jun. 


Nealson, J. ... 


Neeley, B. ... 


Nelson, Horatio 


Newall, W. ... 



Persons alluded to : — 

Newton, J. ... .... ... 191 

Nicholson, J. ... ... 7 

Nodier, J. E. C. ... ... 43 

Norfolk, Duke of ... 182 

Northcote, Lord ... ... 218 

Noton, G. H. ... ... 140 

Ogden,T. ... ... ... 139 

Oliver, Rev. S. ... ... 135 

Osborn, J.G. ... ... 213 

Othenio de Lichnowsky ... 169 

Oudet, J. J.... ... ... 43 

Padgett, R.... ... .. 22 

Parker, General E. S. ... 47 

Parkinson, T. ... ... 193 

Parvin, T. S. ... ... 142 

Paul I., Emperor of Russia ... 168 

Pavitt, G. W. ... ... .59 

Payne, G. ... ... ... 182 

Penfold, A. ... ... ... 93 

Pennell, J. ... ... ... 205 

Peter of Bagworth ... ... 127 

Philippsohn ... ... 84 

Phillipps, W. H. ... ... 145 

Pichegru, General ... ... 44 

Pilkington, Rev. J. H. ... 220 

Piranesi ... ... ... 54 

Pius VII., Pope ... ... 168 

Plunkett, Lord ... ... 219 

Powell, C. C. ... ... 142 

Proctor ... ... ... 9 

Putman, Genl. R. ... ... 48 

Raduor, Earl of ... ... 220 

Ragon, J. M. ... ... 105 

Ramsay, Allan ... ... 166 

Ramsay, A. J. ... ... 219 

Ramsay, A. M. ... ... 57 

Ramsay, Hon. C. M. ... 219 

Rancliffe, Lord ... ... 135 

Reed, G. H. B. ... ... 141 

Reiiaudin, Capt. ... ... 58 

Renwick, P. ... ... 11 

Richard Braunston ... ... 129 

Richard Skempston ... ... 128 

Robert de Craft ... ... 128 

Robert de Hatherne ... 128 

Robert de Swafham ... ... 128 

Roberts, T. ... ... ... 11 

Robir son, E. ... ... 6 

Robinson, M. ... ... 6,10 

Robson, R. ... ... ... 7, 10 

Eoe, Commodore F. ... ... 47 

Roger de Hathern ... ... 128 

Rogers, Archdeacon ... ... 76 

Rollo, Lord ... ... 135 

Roome, C. ... ... ... 47 

Rosenberg ... ... ... 85 

Ross, P. ... ... ... 46 

Russell, J. ... ... ... 150 

Rylands, W. H. 97, 133, 191, 196, 199 

Sackville, L. C. ... ... 56 

Sadler, H. ... ... ... 37 

St. Clair, J. V ... 56 

St. Clair, J.... ... ... 56 

St. Clair, W... ... ... 56,166 

Savournin, Sergeant ... ... 43, 45 

Sayer, Antony ... ... 181 

Schreiner, F.S. ... ... 141 

Schuyler, Dr. N. ... ... 48 

Schwerin, H. H. ... ... 142 

Scott, T. ... ... ... 143 

Scriven, D. G. ... ... 219 

Settegast, Prof. ... ... 83 

Shackles, G. L. ... ... 190,196 

Shakespeare, W. ... ... 75 



Persons alluded to : — 

Shepherd, R. 
Shepherd, T. 
Silberbauer, C. F. 
Simon, F. VV. 
Simon lo Quarreour ... 
Sinclair, J. O. 
Singleton, \V. R. 
Skidmore, T. 
Slicer, VV. ... 
Smith, Sir G. 
Smith, J. 
Smith, Miss L. T. 
Smith, R. ... 
Smith, S. 
Smith, VV. ... 
Smith, W. ... 
Snead, VV. ... 
Snowdon, G... 
Snowdon, R. .. 
Somore, R. ... 
Sparks, H. J. 
Spence, VV. ... 
Speth, G. VV. 
Sporryowre, R. 
Spratt, E. .. 
Steer, H. A.... 
Stephan le Mazoun ... 
Stephenson, T. 
Stevenson, R. 
Stewart, J. O. 
Stewart, R. K. 
Stokoe, E. ... 
Storer, A. 
Storer, E. G. 

Strachan, J 

Strasser, S. ... 
Sudlow, R. C. 
Summer, VV. T. 
Sussex, Duke of 
Sutherland, H. 
Swan, J. 
Swanston, M. 
Tate, J. 
Taylor, T. ... 
Telfair, A. ... 
Templeton, Viscount... 
Thew, G. ... 
Thew, G., jun. 
Thomas, J. E. 
Thomas de Chesham... 
Thomas le Masoun 
Thompson, J. 
Thorp', J. T. 
Tijou, T. J. R. 
Tobin, 1'. ... 
Todmorden ... 
Travers-Drapes, G. F. 
Turnbull, E. T. 
Turnbull, K. 
Yardy, A. ... 
















7, 10 


150, 220 




10, 25 





10, 2b 



2, 134, 191, 196 








7, 10 

Persons alluded to: - 

Vardy, J. ... 
Vaesar- Smith, R. V. ... 

Verily, A. ... 
Yilleneuve, Admiral ... 
Vyse, Howard 
Walker, G. ... 
Walker, R. ... 
Walter, J. ... 
Walworth, W. 
VVanne, J. ... 
Ward, H. ... 
Ward, J. 
Waring, Dr. W. 
Warner, Col. S. 
Warren, Sir C. 
Washington, General... 
Watson, Rev. D. 
Watson, W.... 
Wayne, Gen. A. 
Weber, L. R. 
Webster, Sir A. F. W. E. 
West, G. 
Whyt, P. ... 
Wiebe, C. C. 
Will de Barkeby 
Williams, C. 

Williams, J 

Willoughby, VV. 

Wilson, J. \i. 

Wingate, General Sir F. R. 

Wise. Capt. C. D. 

Woodford, S. L. 

Woodhouse, T. 

Wren, Sir C. 

Wyngere, T. 

Yenns, C. 

Young, J. 

Yonow, C. ... 


Philo Musioae et Architecture Societas 

Plate, Old Masonic 

Plays, Chester 

,, Coventry ... ... . . 

„ Newcastle ... 
Wakefield ... 

„ York 
Pottery, Masonic ... 

St. Clair Charter ... 

Schaw Statutes 

Sloane Family of Old Charges 

Speth Memorial Fund, Subscribers to 

Summer Outing 

Swoid, interesting Masonic... 

Templar Crosses 
Testament of Solomon 
Tyler's Coat 

Wardens Qualification for W.M. 
Wheeler's Lodge ... 





4 2 











2, 168 



191, 219 



218, 220 



85, 191 









8, 10 



7, 10 



44, 45 












140, 205 




Apron, White Satin, hand painted 
Breast Plate, Masters, Lodge Sanquhar 

Certificate of a Military Lodge 

,, Curious 

Egyptian Figures (woodcut) 
Jewel, Silver (Thomas White) 

,, ,, belonging to W. H. S. 

Past Master's Jewels 
Portraits — Besant, Sir Walter 
,, Conder, E., jun. ... 

,, Sayer, Anthony .. 

Speth, G. W. 
Seals — • Absalon Lodge, Hamburg 
,, Ayr Early Encampment 
,, Early Grand Ark 
,, Early Grand Red Cross Council 







34, 35 













Seals — Ferdinand Caroline Lodge, Hamburg 86 

,, Frankfort Eagle Lodge ... 217 

,, Gunther Zum Stehenden Lowen (?) 93 

„ Knight of the Strict Observance 164 

„ Knight Templar ... ... 96 

,, Lodge No. 293, Jersey ... 195 

,, Minerva Degree of the Illuminati 58 

,, Opening Dawn Lodge, Frankfoit 104 
,, S-C. de la Sincere Amitie a la 

V. de Lyon ... ... 210 

,, St. George Lodge, Hamburg ... 53 
,, Shakespeare Lodge, Spilsby ... 91 
,, Socrates Lodge of Steadfast- 
ness, Frankfort ... ... 135 

,, Three, Thistles Lodge, Mayence 

and Frankfort ... ... 171 

,, Unidentified ... ... 82 

Sword with Masonic Emblems (Turin) 49 

Templar Crosses ... ... ... 55 


Adams, A. W. 
Barlow, Dr. W. 
Barron, E. J. 
Begemann, Dr. W. ... 

Calvert, Albert F. ... 

Castle, C. J., K.C. ... 

Clarke, C. Purdon ... 

Conder, E.,jim. ... ... 14,60,97, 

Crawley, Dr. W. J. Chetwode 14, 104, 
Crowe, F. J. W. ... 

De Malczovich, Ladislas 
Forbes, Dr. S. Russell 
Goldney, F. H. 

Gould, R. F. 
Greene, Dr. Thomas 
Greiner, Gotthelf ... 
Holme, R. H. 
Horsley, Rev. J. W... 
Hughan, W. J. 
James, Hugh 

42, 101, 131, 

16, 80, 87, 133, 134, 




56, 140 




20, 80 

126, 165 

114, 205 

51, 58 


54, 56 


194, 215 


197, 211 


20, 177 

190, 218 


Klein, Sydney T. 
Lamonby, W. F. 
le Strange, Hamon 
Macbean, Edward . 
Price, F. Compton . 
Eiley, J. Ramsden 
Robertson, J. Ross. 
Rylands, W. H. 

Scott-Hall, Rev. W. 
Smith, James 
Songhurst, W. J. . 
Speth, G. W. 17, 

Thomas, J. Edwin . 
Thorp, J. T. 
Weber, Louis R. 
Windle, Rev. W. E. 
Wright, W. H. S. 
Yarker, John 





... 102,201 


180, 184 


4, 20, 32, 33, 49, 80, 98, 105, 

178, 184, 213 
E. ... ... 80 

30, 33, 54, 82, 83, 87, 89, 90, 

91, 108 
56, 136, 138, 139, 217 

&v& (Qnatnov (&ovonotovxmt> 


Quahwr Coronati Lodge of A.F. & A.M., London. 

No. 2076. 

FRIDAY, 4th JANUARY, 1901. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present: — Bros. W. M. Bywater, 
P.G.S.B., as W.M. ; W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C, as l.P.M. ; Gotthelf Greiner, 
S.W.; Sydney T. Klein, P.M., as J.W. ; G. W. Speth, P.A.G.D.C, Secretary; 
Rev. J. W. Horsley, J.D. ; G. L. Shackles, I.G. ; E. Armitage and F. H. Goldnev, 
P.G.D., Stewards; Past Masters, Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, Col. S. C. Pratt, 
C. Purdon Clarke ; and Hamon le Strange, Prov.G.M., Norfolk. 

Also the following 59 Members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. 
G. J. Smith, P.G.O. ; Hugh James, T. Cohu, Dr. B. T. Hutchinson, D. Hills, 
J. A. Carpenter, Rev. A. G. L. Robertson, G. P. Gordon Hills, W. Chambers, 
Rev. H. T. Cart, W. Metcalfe, G. Macfarlane, F. A. Powell, F. W. Levander, W. H. Brown, H. M. 
Kruszinski, H. E. Overbeck, C. C. Paine, C. Letch Mason, E. A. T. Breed, C J. R. Tijou, P.G.Pt.; 
H. Eaborn, W. H. Colman, A. F. Robbins, R. J. Campbell, W. J. Songhurst, E. Gauntlett, Rev. W. E. 
Scott-Hall, W. A. Tharp, G. Wormald- White, A. Fisher, J. C. Pocock, J. T. Sweet, A. L. Vibert, 
Dr. R. Lake, W. J. Moulder, W. C. Hobbs, R. S. Ellis, C. L. M. Eales, L. Danielsson, C. H. Perryman, 
S. W. Furze Morrish, J. R. Brough, A. Carpenter, R. A. Gowan, F. Samuelson, E. C. Stimson, E. S. 
Glaeser, J. F. Henley, W. Reeve, Dr. S. Walsh Owen, W. Hammond, H. W. L. Holman, F. W. Mitchell, 
P. J. Edwards, A. F. Hardyment, E. Leveson, and A. C. S. Leveson. 

Also the following 10 Visitors: — Bros. A. V. Jones, Minneapolis Lodge, No. 19; F. J. Phillips, 
Sir Walter St. John Lodge, No. 2513 ; T. Charlesworth, of the same ; H. Day, Alfred Newton Lodge, 
No. 268G; H. Machin, P.M., St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 231; S. W. Lambert, P.M., Addiscombe Lodge, 
No. 1856 ; A. Downes, Eastern Star Lodge, No. 95 ; H. G. Williams, Royal Naval College Lodge, No. 1593 ; 
E. N. Hatch, St. Martins le Grand Lodge, No. 1538; and C. J. Thornton, Cherrybles Lodge, No. 2466. 

The following Members of the Lodge wrote in apology for unavoidable absence : — Bros, the 
W.M., E. Conder, jun, detained in Gloucestershire on Magisterial duty; T. B- Whytehead, P.G.S.B., 
unable to leave York; E. Macbean, P.M., Glasgow; Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, P.G-D., Ireland, 
Dublin; W. J. Hughan, Torquay; R. F.Gould, P.G.D. ; E. J. Castle, J.W. j and Admiral Markham, 
P.Dis.G.M., Malta. 

Two Lodges and forty-four Brethren were admitted to the Membership of the Correspondence 

The Secretary announced that it had been intimated to him that H.R.H. Prince Frederick 
Leopold of Prussia, the Protector of German Freemasonry, Ordens-Meister of the National Grand 
Lodge at Berlin, and Past Grand Master in the Grand Lodge of England, would be pleased to be 
admitted to the Correspondence Circle, and his name had therefore been placed upon the list of candidates 
for that evening. But the Committee had thought it better to remove the name of this distinguished 
Brother from the list, and, in view of his high Masonic rank, and his eminent services to German 
Freemasonry, to recommend him to the Brethren for acceptance as an Houorary Member of the Lodge, 
foaling sure that the Prince would feel the compliment intended. Prince Frederick Leopold of Prussia 
was therefore proposed and seconded as an Honorary Member of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge and 
unanimously elected. 

The Secretary reported that Bro. Greiner and he had visited Bro. C. Kupferschmidt, who had 
recently had his right arm taken off at the shoulder, and that they found him making a good recovery 
from the operation and in excellent spirits. The Secretary was directed to convey to Bro. Kupfer- 
schmidt the assurance of the sympathy and love of the Brethren. 

The following resolutions were unanimously carried — 

That Bro. Charles Frederick Silberbauer having for a series of years been exceptionally active in South 
Africa as Local Secretary of the Quatuor Coronati Correspondence Circle, the Lodge cannot accept his 

* The large initials throughout this volume are taken from the edition of Ptolemy's 
Geography, printed at Strassburg, in 1525. 

2 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

resignation of that office without patting on record its sense of the valuable service which he has 
rendered and its sincere regret that he has felt it incumbent upon him to retire : and that this resolution 
be suitably engrossed and presented to him. 

That Bro. Samuel Jones having for seven years been exceptionally active in Cheshire and Liverpool as 
the Local Secretary of the Quatuor Coronati Correspondence Circle, the Lodge cannot accept his 
resignation of that office without putting on record itn sense of the valuable service which he has 
rendered and its sincere regret that he has felt it incumbent upon him to retire : and that this resolution 
be suitably engrossed and presented to him. 

The following articles were exhibited : — 

By Bro. J. A. Carpenter: a set of three small hand-painted Tracing Boards framed in rose- 
wood, probably dating from the early years of the 19th century. 

By Bro. Joseph Gray, Singapore, a photograph of a curious hand-painted Masonic plate, found 
by Bro. R. T. Olsen among some very old china in Copenhagen. 

By Dr. Richard Lake, a hand-painted Masonic jug, Leeds (?) ware, which he presented to the 
Lodge Museum. 

The Report of the Audit Committee, as follows, was received, adopted, and ordered to be 
placed on the Minutes. 


The Committee met at Frascati's Restaurant, on Friday, 14th December, 1900. 

Present :— Bros. T. B. Whvtehead, I.P.M., W. M. Bywater, S. T. Klein, C. Purdon Clarke, Col. 
S. C. Pratt, Rev. J. W. Horsley and G. W. Speth. 

The Committee agreed upon the following 



A few days after our last Annual Report was in your hands, we had occasion to lament the 
sudden death of our distinguished Brother, John Lane, of Torquay, P.A.G.D.C., the foremost 
statistician of the Craft. His memory was worthily honoured in our Transactions by his intimate 
friend, Bro. W. J. Hughan. We mourn his loss not only as a kindly true-hearted brother, but also as a 
master in his department of research whose place it will be extremely difficult to fill. 

We have admitted to our Inner Circle Bro. John Thomas Thorp, of Leicester, who, especially 
in his own district, has done much to further Masonic Archaeology. Our number thus remains, 
as before, thirty-two. 

Our distinguished Brother, and first Master, Sir Charles Warren, has returned safely from 
the dangers of the South African campaign, and has been much gratified by the interest shown in his 
welfare by the Lodge brethren, as evinced by our telegram and his reception by our Local Secretary 
and brethren in Cape Town and elsewhere. 

The Outer or Correspondence Circle has not advanced at the same rate as in former years ; 
the number of new members has considerably fallen off. This is probably to be attributed, in some 
measure, to the minds of Englishmen being pre-occupied, during recent times, by matters which have 
drawn away their attention from Masonic study. But we feel that, in a lesser degree, it may be also 
due to a slackness on the part of our members, who have not taken every available opportunity of 
bringing our society before their Masonic friends. Possibly they have felt that, with our large member- 
ship, there was no need for exertion. But this is a wrong view. The larger the Society, the greater 
is the leakage due to resignation, death, and erasure ; and the more necessary to provide against 
it. The result is that, although our new members number 284, they barely suffice to fill up vacant 
places on our roll. Our number is now 2850 as against 2836 this time last year. This is the smallest 
annual net increase we have ever reported, and we hope our members will enable us to show a very 
much better result next year. 

During the 14 years that we have been at work, our income has steadily increased, year by 
year. Even during the last twelve months, in spite of the fact that we have been unable to communicate 
with at least one hundred of our members in South Africa, whose dues therefore remain unpaid, this 
increase of income has been maintained, although not in the same degree as formerly. Timorous 
prudence might have dictated a curtailment of expenses, but we were reluctant to allow our current 
volume of Transactions to fall below the level of its predecessors, and the merits of certain contributions 
have induced us to spend even more than usual on illustrations, so that our expenditure has grown fn 
somewhat larger measure than our income. Nevertheless, we are able to present a thoroughly satis- 
factory balance sheet, as will be seen below, which proves the Lodge to be not only solvent, but well 
ahead of its liabilities. 

The dues outstanding are enormous in their total of nearly JE700. The unfortunate state of 
affairs in South Africa, to which we have already alluded, is responsible for a large proportion of this 
deficiency. But we cannot refrain from once more pointing out that, after making all allowance 
necessary for this, as also for the fact that some £70 is due for Reprints Vol. IX, which has hardly yet 
reached many of our subscribers, the list appended to our statement of accounts is far from creditable 
to us as a fraternity, or to the individuals whose carelessness or indifference has contributed to such a 
huge aggregate of indebtedness. There are over seven hundred brethren who have not paid their 
■subscription for 1900, and over four hundred who have not yet paid for 1899 ! 

For the Committee^ 


Audit Report. 


To Cash Balance 1st Dec, 1890 

£ s. d. 
425 7 5 

To Subscriptions 
,, Joining Fee . 


£ s. d. 

36 10 6 

5 5 

41 15 6 


To Subscriptions 

1092 12 6 

To Sales and Arrears 242 18 4 

To Advance Payments received 
„ Medals 

„ Bindings and Cases 

,, Reprints, Vol ix 

,, Work on British Medals 
,, Sundry Extra Publications 
„ Life Members Fees 
,, Dividend on Investments 

97 16 6 

50 5 

45 9 

11 11 

33 16 3 

122 10 

44 2 

16 15 11 

£2224 11 2 



By Quarterages ... 
„ Rent of Lodge Room 
„ Tyler's Fees, &c. 
„ P.M. Jewel .. 
Signature Book 

£ s. d. 

6 2 

9 9 

4 16 6 

1 10 

1 15 

Wreath for the late J.Lane 15 



Vol. 13, part I. 
,, part II. 
„ part III. (on 

Author's Copies 
Summonses, &c. 
Catalogue Slips 
Clerical Assistance ... 
Expenses of Local 

Secretaries ... 
Transvaal Relief Fund 
Telegram to Sir C. 

Sundry Petty Expenses 

108 2 
139 17 

14 2 
6 12 

15 1 
9 15 

17 12 




13 13 11 

10 10 

2 18 
19 15 


By St. John's Card, 1899 
„ Part III., 1899 
,, Summonses 
„ Clerical Assistance ... 
,, Repurchases... 







By Advance Payments transferred ... 
„ Medals 

„ Bindings and Cases 

,, Reprints, Vol. ix. ... 

„ Work on British Medals ... 

„ Sundry Extra Publications 

„ Investments, £250 Consols 

,, Library, Purchases and Binding... 


By Stationery 42 15 6 

„ Postage * 213 14 11 

,, Secretary's Salary, 
including £50 allow- 
ance for a Clerk ... 300 

„ Rent 40 

„ Gas and Fuel ... 5 

,, Fire Insurance ... 2 7 6 

„ Furniture 9 6 


With L. & C. Bank ... 247 15 8 
In hand 208 18 5 

£ s. d. 

24 7 6 

358 9 




29 6 
32 3 6 
1 10 
80 2 6 
245 13 6 
47 8 11 

612 18 5 

456 14 1 

£2224 11 2 

I have examined the above Accounts with the Books, Banker's Pass Book, and Voucher* produced, and 
certify the same to be correct in accordance therewith. 

7th December, 1900. 

Alfred S. Gedge, 

Chartered Accountant, 

3, Great James' Street, 

Bedford Row, W.C. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


30th November, 1900. 

Liabilities. Assets- 

Capital Account 

Life Fund (83 members) 

£593 9 6 
Whymper Fund ... 105 15 1 

Payments in advance 

Subscriptions ... 109 18 11 
Sundry publications 22 8 11 

£ s. d. 

699 4 7 

132 7 10 

Estimated balance of printing for 1900 200 
Balance of Assets over Liabilities ... Ill 1 8 

£1142 14 1 

Cash Balance 
In Bank 
In hand 

Consols £700 at 98 

£ s. d. 

247 15 8 
208 18 5 

£ s. d. 

456 14 1 

£1142 14 1 

The assets, as given above, do not include, because not immediately available, 

Stock, consisting of 16 Complete Sets of the Transactions, Vols. I. -XIII. ; remnants of Vols. II., IV.-XIII. ; 
Antiquarian Keprints, Vols. V.-IX.; Facsimiles of the Regius Poem and of 5 Rolls of the Constitutions, 
etc., etc. : — nor the 

Library and Museum, on which over £400 has been actually expended by the Lodge, without taking into 
account the many valuable books, prints and Masonic curiosities presented by the members : — nor even 
any portion of the 

Amounts Outstanding, as given below; a large part of which will undoubtedly be received during the 
next few months, as all members who are hopelessly in arrear have been struck off the 


1900 Subscriptions .. 

Back ,, 

Reprints IX. 



Sundry publications 

£ s. d. 

368 19 

237 10 

69 6 

10 5 

1 10 6 

3 15 6 

£691 6 

The following paper was read : — 



il M^: 


ROTHER HUGHAN appears to have first noticed this Manuscript in 
the Freemason of the 21st of January, 1871 : it was next commented 
upon by the same writer in the Freemasons' Magazine, vol. i., 1874, 
when he placed a very considerable portion of the contents in the 
hands of Masonic students. 

Bro. Gould, in his History of Freemasonry, (vol. ii., pp. 260, 
337, etc.,) working on another copy of the text, published a number of extracts, and 
called attention to many points of interest. 

It was not, however, until the year 1895 that the whole of the Ms. was edited 
and published. This was undertaken by the Province of Northumberland and 
Durham, of the " Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia," as a volume of their publications. 
It contains a facsimile of the text of the Old Charges contained in the volume, the 
Operative Rules, as well as a number of signatures and records of freedoms immediately 
following the Rules. 

The Alnwick Manuscript. 5 

A great portion of the volume, that containing the Minutes is not given in 
facsimile, hut only transcribed and printed in type. I cannot help thinking that a 
good opportunity of placing students in possession of a carefully made facsimile or 
photograph has been lost : and it is much to be regretted that this very interesting 
series of records was not placed at the disposal of our Lodge in order that they might 
be properly issued, in complete facsimile, a work which I feel sure the Lodge would 
have undertaken. It Would then have been possible to have studied the contents 
from the next best thing to the Ms. itself. 

A very small amount of trouble would have enabled the editors to arrive 
at the proper position of some of the entries. As but little respect can be attached 
to them, it would have been better to have first removed the labours of the careful 
house-wife, in the form of the brown paper covers, and then make the endeavour to 
arrange the leaves in their proper order. No disarrangement of the leaves could 
have occurred, if the pages had been numbered in pencil ; and the separation of the 
sheets would to some extent have shown where the blanks really occur. In the 
printed copy the arrangement of the Minutes is confused, and unless the Ms. was 
nothing more than a note book, it is impossible to believe that the entries were 
originally made in any order but that of the dates of the meetings. A calculation of 
the number of leaves in the undisturbed sheets would have assisted materially in the 
arrangement of the earlier leaves in the volume. As published the confusion in the 
arrangement of the entries causes trouble. 

No transcription, unless most carefully made, can possibly supply the place 
of the original : and our confidence is shaken when we find, to note only a few 
instances in the printed transcript, the name Browster, printed as Crouster : 
Davidson as Davids: and what is probably Brown as Crolen : Palliser varied with 
Pattison, Pallisen and Pallison : it is impossible to know whether we are to accept 
the unusual name Fram, or understand it as an error of transcription for Hiam. Also 
when Cuthbert Chrisp becomes Cuthbert Young, it is uncertain whether it is to be 
associated with a name transcribed as Cuthbert Younns, with other variations. The 
possible faulty transcription of this name it will be seen affects the regular arrange- 
ment of the names of those present at the Lodge on the 27th of December, 1748. 

I have no doubt that it was the same in many cases, as it was in my own, that 
the Ms. was simply accepted but not subjected to a careful study. A few years ago, 
when the entire text was printed, occasion caused me to study it for quite a different 
purpose than the examination of the Ms. itself: and from this examination I was led 
to think that it contains some points of peculiar interest. This must be my excuse 
for again opening the question of the real meaning of the records contained in the Minutes. 

The copy of the "Constitutions" or "Old Charges" with which the volume 
appears to begin is of no special interest, its few peculiarities are clearly pointed out 
in Bro. Hughan's admirable edition of the " Old Charges " (1895). 

A good portion of the Minutes after 1748 were written by Nicholas Brown the 
clerk : and it is worth noting that notwithstanding the fact that a copy was probably 
already contained in the Operative Minute Book, on the 24th of June, 1749, Nicholas 
Brown was paid from the funds " for writing the Constitutions." 

The Rules which immediately follow the copy of the Old Charges are different 
from those usually found in other Mss., but some of them are modelled upon the 
original ones. They were as stated in the text the " Orders to be observed by the 
company and Fellowship of Free Masous at A Lodge held att Alnwick Sept r 29, 1701, 
being the Gen [era] 11 head meeting day." These Rules are of a purely operative 

6 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

character, and the fines to be imposed in case of their being broken are added. A 
number of signatures follow and it is worth noting that the last of these as far as 
the fragments now remaining show is dated in 1722. To some of the signatures the 
date is given at which the members who signed the Rules became "free": there is, 
however, no record of the quality of the persons thus entered, and the natural 
conclusion is that they were operative masons and that as far as page 32 of the printed 
copy the minutes belong entirely to an operative Lodge. "This Lodge, so far as is 
known, had no charter of incorporation, but simply formed itself. 

If the Lodge had been at all speculative it would have probably gradually 
merged into an entirely speculative Lodge, but it did not. The Minutes from the year 
1701 to 1709, may be considered to be ordinary operative minutes : and the " Inroll- 
ment of Apprentices " which occurs at a later date as follows, is clearly an 
operative entry : (p. 31 of printed copy). 

" Inrollment of Apprentices. 
" James Swan bound Apprentice to Patrick Mills November 1751 
" Edward Robinson bound Apprentice to Michael Robinson April 1752." 

The Minutes with the notes of the year 1735 (page 31) are difficult to under- 
stand. They apparently occur on a page by themselves, and seem to now occupy a 
portion of the thirtieth page of the original Ms. 
July (?) Ano 15 1735 


John , Afnlderson, Patrick Milles 

mark L J 

(John) Ward 

John Anderson ye 15, 1735 

Robert Turnbull July ye 15. 1735 

John Best [? Bell] 

Thomas Hutson [Hudson] July ye 15. 1735 

Thomas 1 Hoiye 

mark J 

July ye 15, 1735 
Robert Coward Juley ye 15 d 1735. 

No information is supplied by the editors : and this is one of those instances 
when a facsimile would be very welcome, as much might turn on the question whether 
the names are signatures or not. It is well to note that, 

John Anderson, was made free on the 17th of July, 1713. 

Patrick Milles, „ „ „ 27th of December, 1706 (?) 

John Anderson, [Junior] is only mentioned in this instance. 

Robert Turnbull, was made free on the 30th of December, 1717. 

John Best [? Bell], „ „ „ 22nd of May, 1716. 

Thomas Hudson ("like John Anderson, Junior only occur in this 

Thomas Hoiye J entry, before the Minute of the 27th of Decem- 

Robert Coward (ber, 1748 : shortly to be referred to. 

The first three names may be those of the Master and Wardens; and it will 
be observed that the date is not attached to them; although, July 15th, 1735, appears 
after all the names following except that of John Best [? Bell]. They cannot record 
"freedoms," unless it is to be understood that a new set of men having the same 
names as those who became free at an earlier date, had joined the operative Lodge. 
This certainly took place in some instances, for example, there were two members 
bearing the name of John Anderson, one of whom I have called Junior. Again 

The Alnwick Meeting, 27 th December, 1748. 7 

William Archer in the list of those signing the rules uses for his mark a badly formed 
right angle with a dot in it, whereas a William Archer in signing the minute of the 
27th of December, 1708, uses for his mark, not as stated in the explanatory Note by 
the Editors, No. 100 of the Newcastle reprint, "a W crossed out;" but really no 
doubt a monogram formed of his two initials WA. combined. 

One word may be said about the various marks used. As in the case of the 
marks discovered by our W.M., Bro. Conder, in the books of the Masons' Company of 
London, when a letter is used it is generally the initial letter of the Christian name of 
the owner. John Gammon uses the letter I; Robert Anderson the letter R; Thomas 
Garrett the letter T ; John Nicholson, on the contrary, uses a right angle ; John 
Wanne a W reversed ; and William Balmborough like William Archer combines the 
initial letters of his name, WB. ; Edward Castles uses three vertical lines, on the top 
of which is placed an horizontal line ; this can have no connection with his name 
unless it represents the letter E placed on its side. 

On the 20th of January, 1708 (i.e. 1709) when that very interesting regulation 
was made, that the members of the Lodge should wear on St. John's Day at Christmas 
an apron and " a Common Square fixt in the belt thereof," the Operative Lodge "was 
kept at Alnwick at the house of Mr. Thomas Davidson then one of the Ward[ens]." 

Under the date the 27th of December, 1748, occurs a minute, the true meaning 
of which, I think, has never been appreciated. This and almost all the remaining 
entries were written by the Clerk Nicholas Brown : (page 33 of the printed copy). 

The following is the entry in full : 

Alnwick 27 th December 1748 
This is to Certify that we whose Names are hereunder 
subscribed are made ffree Broth 1-8 at this s d Lodge holden at the 
house of M r Tho s Harrison In Alnwick 

The Lodge erected as follows 
Roger Robson in Thropton — chosen Master 

George Snowdon and ) 

t,. ,j .,,• > Wardens 

Rich d Atkinson j 

Cuthb' Yenns (Young ?) Rob* Snowdon | Bro 1 ' 3 to the assistance 

and W m Anderson ) of the said Lodge. 

John Anderson Matthew Mills 

Rob 1 Hudson Thomas Anderson 

Thos hlS , Hoy Patrick Mills 

mark J 

Andrew Vardy Robert Carenton 

Tho s Harrison 

Jonathan James 


Robert , Harrison 


Nich. Brown 

It will be noticed that this meeting was held at the house of Thomas Harrison 
and not at the house of Thomas Davison, where the Operative Lodge met (p. 32.) 
On looking over the list of names it appears that John Anderson signed the Operative 
Rules in 1701, and was Master of the Operative Lodge according to the undated 
minute on page 29 of the printed copy. Robert Hudson signed the Rules about 1701, 
and was one of the Wardens in 1748. Thomas Hoy was a Warden in the same year. 
Andrew Verdy "was made a Freemason," i.e., Free of the Trade of Masonry, on the 
27th of September, 1708, and signed the Operative Rules. Patrick Mills was made free 
on December the 27th, 1708, and signed the same Rules. 

8 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Thomas Harrison was probably the landlord of the house at which the Lodge met. 

Of the remaining five names there'is no record in the minutes of the operative 
Lod^e ; these minutes are however very irregular and imperfect, and the distance of time 
between 1708 and 1748 is sufficient to allow of the admission of some new members. 

I have taken out all the records belonging to the names mentioned in the 
minutes, and it will be seen from the table that Robert Robson Master, George Snowdon 
and Richard Atkinson, Wardens, as well as Cuthbert " Yenns," Robert Snowdon and 
William Anderson who were " Bro vs [called in] to the assistance of the Lodge" never 
attended after the 27th of December, 1748 ; the meeting of which I have just quoted 
the minute. 

It will be noticed also that the meetings were held on or near the St. John's 
Days in Summer and Winter, from the 27th of December, 1748, to the 24th of June, 
1756, and that at almost every meeting new members were admitted ; some of these 
being strangers and some apprentices to the trade of Masonry. 

I have said, on or near the St. John's Days, there is, however, some confusion in 
the minutes of the year 1755. A meeting is entered as being held on the 29th of 
December (p. 55), and the balance of cash is carried over to another meeting held four 
days earlier, on the 25th of December (p. 56). In the table I have classed these entries 
as belonging to one meeting. It seems not unlikely that both the dates should be read 
27th of December, 1755. 

At the meeting following that recorded above a new Master aud Wardens, 
all members of the Lodge were chosen ; a rule being also made that the officers 
should be elected annually. Other rules were agreed upon, two of which must be noticed 
(page 34) " It is ordered that all apprentices that shall offer to be admitted into ye s d 
Lodge after serving due apprenticeship shall pay for such admittance — 10 — [shillings]. 

Also that all other persons and strangers (not serving a Due apprenticeship) 
that shall apply to be admitted into [the] said Lodge shall pay for such admittance the 
sum of 17 [shillings and] 6 [pence]." 

From these rules it is clear that apprentices who had served their time in the 
trade of masonry were to be admitted for a less fee than strangers. 

The next meeting is to be held at the house of Mr. Thomas Woodhouse, who 
was present probably as a visitor on the 27th of December, 1749, there being no 
mention of his having been admitted a member. It was also arranged that two 
shillings and sixpence should be paid as a subscription each St. John's Day ; and that 
a payment should also be made by every member present for his "dinner and liquor" 
on those days. 

The minutes from this time assume the form of the old Lodge records, being 
the accounts of receipts and expenditure. They differ entirely from those of the 
Operative Lodge ; each admission is regularly entered, whereas the custom of the 
Operative Lodge appears to have been for the members to sign the rules, the date of 
freedom being in some cases added. 

It may also be pointed out that the 5th operative rule orders " Thatt noe Mason 
shall take an apprentice [but his master must] Enter him and give him his Charge 
within one whole Year after ;" and that in Rule 9, the words " Admitted or Accepted " 
are used with regard to apprenticeship. Also Rule 13 which reads, " Thatt noe Rough 
Layers or any other thatt has not served their time, or been Admitted Masons shall 
work within the Lodge any work of Masonry whatsoever (Except under a Mast r 
[Mason])." It will be noted that " Admitted " not "Accepted " is also the word used in 
the minutes of the Speculative Lodge at Alnwick; evidently they followed the 

The New Lodge. 

operative modes of expression to which they were accustomed. No argument can, I 
think, be based on the entry (page 23) that Proctor, Chapman and Verdy were " made 
free Masons Dec r 27 Ul , 1708," when the entries before and after state that certain 
Masons were " made free :" it is the record of Proctor, Chapman and Verdy having 
taken up their freedom in the Operative Lodge, after having served a seven years' 
apprenticeship, according to the rules. 

On December, the 27th, an entry appears "Allowed for a p[ai]r of Gloves and 
Apron Is. 4d." Daniel Cuthbertson the "Musicioner," received several payments ; and 
one shilling is given for a pair of compasses (page 57). 

To return to the heading of the minute of the 27th of December, 1748. It is, 
1 think, impossible to accept the suggestion of the editors of the Newcastle reprint 
that " erected " is an error for " elected," or their note No. 115, on the minute ordering 
a half-yearly subscription, that " This seems to be the establishment of the Benefit 
Society hereinafter referred to." 

In the first place, if this were so, Roger Robson would hardly have been, 
immediately afterwards, entered as being " chosen " the Master : " chosen " is the old 
word used in such cases, and never the word " elected." The only conclusion that 
can be arrived at is, that the members of the operative Lodge at Alnwick determined 
to have a Lodge of Accepted or Speculative Masons, and that with the assistance of 
certain brethren who are named, and never attended the Lodge again, a Lodge of 
Freemasons was " erected" at the house of Mr. Thomas Harrison. 

Roger Robson was invited from Thropton which is more than twelve miles 
from Alnwick, and was chosen to temporarily occupy the position of Master. Of the 
place of residence of George Snowdon and Richard Atkinson who acted as Wardens 
there is no information; but it is stated that Cuthbert Yenns ?. Robert Snowdon 
(possibly the brother of George) and William Anderson (it may be the brother of the 
other warden) were " Bro 1 ' 3 [invited] to the assistance of the said Lodge." That is to 
say, a Lodge of six Freemasons was formed in order to " erect " a new Lodge and 
admit into Speculative Freemasonry a number of the members of the operative Lodge 
at Alnwick. It would now be very difficult to trace to what particular Lodge of 
Freemasonry the six belonged, but the position of Alnwick with regard to the Border 
must not be overlooked : also that on page 56 of the printed copy the following note 
occurs, " George Henderson of A lnwick, Visiting Bro 1 ' from Canongate Kilwinning Lodge." 

Thus it is proved that an acknowledged right existed among Freemasons of 
the power being vested in a certain number of them when gathered together to "erect " 
a new Lodge ; and it must be noted that as far as we know, in the present instance 
the entire Lodge was composed of newly-made masons, to whom the power of making 
masons was given, as it is impossible to believe that all those admitted after the 
foundation of the Lodge were already Freemasons. 

It is a long distance from Alnwick to London, nevertheless it eannot be over- 
looked that the " erection " of this Lodge took place when the Grand Lodge of England 
had been in existence for over thirty years ; and that the first " Regular " Lodge at 
Alnwick was that founded in 1779 at the Bee Hive in the Market Place. 

Another point of interest may be called attention to ; as recorded in the minutes, 
— Nicholas Brown was chosen Clerk soon after the Lodere was "erected" in 
1748, and "all perquisites for admittance [are] to be paid to (the) clerk" [p. 37]. 
As already mentioned he was paid for making a copy of the " Constitutions," 
probably taken from that entered at the commencement of the minutes of the operative 
Lodge. This copy it may fairly be concluded was required for use in the Lodge of 
speculative Masons. 


1748. 1749. 1750. 

27th Dec. 31st Dec. 24th June. 27th Dec. 25th June. 27th Dec. 

Robson, Roger, in Thropton... 


^ These 

never atten 

ded again. 

Snowdon, George 

Wardn. 1 

Atkinson, Richd. 

Wardn. 2 

\ They no 

doubt "er 

ected" the 

Lodge of 

" Free 

Yenns [?]Cuthbert| Bros, to the 
Snowdon, Robert J- assistance of 
Anderson, William j said Lod ? e - 


| Brot 

hers," or F 


and four 




rwards neiv 

officers wer 

e elected. 




Anderson, John 

P. \ m 

Mas., Pro. 1 

Master, P. 

Mastr., P. 




Hudson, Robert 






Ward. 1 

Warden 1 ? 


Hoy, Thomas ... 



W. 1, Pro. 1 




Master Prest. 


Vardy, Andrew 



. . * 




Mills, Matthew 


-a bo 





Ward. 2 Prest. 


Anderson, Thomas ... 









Mills, Patrick 








Carrington, Robert ... 









Harrison, Thomas [publican] 







James, Jonathan 








Harrison, Robert 

P.). 9 

P./ ' 







Brown, Nicholas 

P., Cleric. 

P., Clerk. 

P., Clerk. 

Clerk P. 

Clerk. Prest; 


Stokoe, Edward 

. • • 



27th Dec, 



Lindsey, George 

■ • • 






Thew, George [" stranger "] 

. . . 

• • * 

Admit. P. 





Cuthbertson, Daniel [_?Mason] 

. . . 

. . • 

Admit. P. 





Shepherd, Robert [apprentice] 

. . • 

Admit. P. 





Hiam, John [? Fram] 

o . . 

. . . 






Elliott, Henry 



P. Did not 

pay his sub 

scription ? 

marked' ( unpd." 


Robinson, Michael [apprentice] 


. . . 

Admit. P. 




ffordy, Cuthbert [do.]?Hardy 

. .* 

• . . 

. . » 

Admit. P. 




Henderson, John [stranger] 

. . . 

. . . 

Admit. P. 

? Prest. 



Allen, William [do.] ... 

. , 

Admit. P. 

, . 



Moor, John [do.] ... 
Woodhouse, Thomas ? visitor 



Admit. P. 




Vardy, James [apprentice] ... 


. . * 

Admit. Prest. 


Athey, Thos. [do.] or Attey 

. . . 

Admit. Prest. 


Balmborough, Wm. [? Mason] 


. . . 

. . . 

Admit. Prest. 


Stephenson, Thos. [? do.] ... 

. . . 

. . . 

. .. 

Admit. Prest. 


Walker, Robt. [?do.]... 

. . . 

Admit. Prest. 


Willoughby, Wm. [apprentice] 

. . . 

Admit. Prest. 


Hunter, Andrew [do.]... 

. . . 

. . . 

. . * 

Admit. Prest. 


Walker, Geo. [stranger] 

.. . 

. . * 

. . . 

Admit. Prest. 


Davidson, Thos., of Alnwick, 
Mason [? apprentice] 


Young, James, do. [stranger] 



Nealson,John,of Felton, Mason 
[? apprentice] 


Roberts, Thomas, of Alnwick 


Yonow, Cuthbert, of Wandylaw 
[? Mason] ? Young 


Muckell, Thomas [PMason] ... 


. . . 



Hudson, Thomas, of Alnwick, 


Hudson, John, of Alnwick 


Renwick, Paul, of Bilton, 


Gardiner,Robert,of Old Felton 


Shepherd, Thomas [appren- 


Burne, James [apprentice] ... 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 



Neal, John, junr. [stranger] 

. . . 



Carmichael, George [stranger] 




Thompson, John [apprentice] 


. . . 



Thew, George, juo. [appren- 

• •• 

The following abbre- 
viations are used :— 


Anderson, John, of Swarland 
[Mason] ... 

t •• 

P., Prest. = Present. 
Ad. = Admitted. 


Swanston, Matthew, of Aln- 
wick [stranger] ... 

M. = Master. 
W. = Warden. 

Henderson, George. Visitor. 

.. * 

. . . 

. . . 



Mills, Thomas [apprentice]... 

■ «.« 


• •• 





Harrison, Thomas [appren- 


Armstrong, John [Mason] ... 






Wm. Brown (? Nicholas Brown) waa the proxy. William Brown does not occur again. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 
1751. 1752. 

1th Juno. 27th Dec. 24th June. 27th Dec. 


25th June. 27th Dec. 





































Robson, Roger, in Tliropton ... 
Snowdon, George 
Atkinson, Richd. 
Venus [?]Cuthbert| Bros-tothe 
Snowdon, Robert [■ assistance of 
Anderson, William j 8aid Lodge. 
Anderson, John 
Hudson, Robert 

Hoy, Thomas ... 

Vardy, Andrew 

Mills, Matthew 

Anderson, Thomas 

Mills, Patrick 

Carringtou, Robert ... 

Harrison, Thomas [publican] 

James, Jonathan 

Harrison, Robert 

Brown, Nicholas 

Stokoe, Edward 

Lindsey, George 

Thew, George [" stranger "] 

Cuthbertson, Daniel [? Mason] 

Shepherd, Robert [apprentice] 

Hiain, John [F Fram] 

Elliott, Henry 

Robinson, Michael[apprentice] 

ffordy, Cuthbert [do.J PHardy 

Henderson, John [stranger] 

Allen, William [do ] 

Moor, John [do-] 

Woodhouse, Thomas 

Vardy, James [apprentice] ... 

Athey, Thos. [do.] or Attey ... 

Balmborough, Wm. [? Mason] 

Stephenson, Thos. [?do.]... 

Walker, Robt. [? do.] ... 

Willoughby, Wm. [apprentice] 

Hunter, Andrew [do.] ... 

Walker, Geo. [stranger] 

Davidson, Thos. of Alnwick, 
Mason [? apprentice] 

Young, James, do. [stranger] 

Nealson, John, of Pelton, Mason 
[? apprentice] 

Roberts, Thomas, of Alnwick 

Yonow 1 , Cuthbert, of Wandylaw 
[? Mason] ? Young 

Muckell, Thomas [? Mason] ... 

Hudson, Thomas, of Alnwick, 

Hudson, John, of Alnwick 

Ren wick, Paul, of Bil ton, Mason 

Gardiner,Robert,of Old Felton 

Shepherd, Thomas [appren- 

Burne, James [apprentice] ... 

Neal, John, junr, [stranger]... 

Carmichael, George [stranger] 

Thompson, John [apprentice] 

Thew, George, jun. [appren- 

Anderson, John, of Swarland 
[Mason] ... 

Swanston, Matthew, of Aln- 
wick [stranger] ... 
Henderson, George. Visitor. 

Mills, Thomas [apprentice] .. 

Harrison, Thomas [appren- 

Armstrong, John [Mason] ... 

? dead. 


Master, P. 
Ward. 2,?. 




Clerk, P. 




Admit. P. 
Admit. P. 

Ad. P. ? 

Admit. P. 

Admit. P. 

Rule made 


Master, P. 




Clerk, P. 








27th Dec, 
of dead 

Master, P. 



Clerk, P. 

? dead. 



fined non-att. 


fined non-att- 



? Prest 
1750, about 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 
Mast.,? P. 
W. 1, ? P. 
W. 2, ? P. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 
Clerk. ? P. 

? Prest. 

? dead 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

Notice " 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 

Notice 2 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 
Mast., ? P. 
W. 2, ? P. 
Notice 2 

? Prest. 
Ward. ? P. 
CI. Notice 

? dead. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
Notice 2 

? Prest. 
? Prest, 
P Prest. 


Notice '- 

? Prest. 

Ad. ? P. 

funeral, etc., 



Master. Prest. 
Ward.2, Prest. 


? Absent 

Ward.l, Prest. 

Clerk. Prest. 

? dead. 








Admit. Prest. 

Admit. Prest. 
Admit. Prest. 

Admit. Prest. 

1 Otherwise Yonns. 

* Notice to attend and pay arrears. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 
1754. 1755. 


24th June. 27th Dec. 24th June. 29th Dec. 24th June. 






















Robson, Roger, in Thropton . . . 

Snowdon, George 

Atkinson, Richd. 

Yenns [?]Cuthbert} Bros, to the 

Snowdon, Robert V assistance of 

Anderson, William) said Lod S e - 

Anderson, John 

Hudson, Robert 

Hoy, Thomas ... 

Vardy, Andrew 

Mills, Matthew 

Anderson, Thomas 

Mills, Patrick 

Carrington, Robert ... 
Harrison, Thomas [publican] 
James, Jonathan 

Harrison, Robert 
Brown, Nicholas 

Stokoe, Edward 

Lindsey, George 

Thew, George ["stranger"] 

Cuthbertson, Daniel [? Mason] 

Shepherd, Robert [apprentice] 

Hiam, John [? Fram] 

Elliott, HeDry 

Robinson, Michael [apprentice] 

ffordy, Cuthbert [do.] ? Hardy 

Henderson, John [stranger] 

Allen, William [do.] ... 

Moor, John [do,] ... 

Woodhouse, Thomas... 

Vardy, James [appi-entice] ... 

Athey, Thos. [do.] or Attey 

Balmborough, Wm. [? Mason] 

Stephenson, Thos. [? do.] ... 

Walker, Robt. [? do.] ... 

Willoughby, Wm. [apprentice] 

Hunter, Andrew [do.] ... 

Walker, Geo. [stranger] 

Davidson, Thos. of Alnwick 
Mason [? apprentice] 

Young, James, do. [stranger] 

Nealson, John of Felton, Mason 
[? apprentice] 

Roberts, Thomas of Alnwick 
[stranger] ... 

Yonow, Cuthbert, of Wandylaw 
[? Mason] ? Young 

Muckell, Thomas [? Mason] ... 

Hudson, Thomas, of Alnwick 

Hudson, John, of Alnwick 

Renwick, Paul, of Bilton, 

Gardiner, Robert, of Old Felton 
[stranger] ... 

Shepherd, Thomas [appren- 

Burne, James [apprentice] ... 

Neal, John, junr. [stranger] 

Uarmichael, George [stranger] 

Thompson, John [apprentice] 

Thew, George, jun. [appren- 

Anderson, John, of Swarland 

Swanston, Matthew of Aln- 
wick [stranger] ... 

Mills, Thomas [apprentice] ... 

Harrison, Thomas [appren- 

Armstrong, John [Mason] ... 






Master, P. 



? dead. 


Notice Ab 




Prest. CI., 





Admit. P. 
Admit. P. 





Master, P. 

Clerk, P. 







Prest. CI., 





Admit. P. 
Admit. P. 




Master, P. 
Ch. 27 Dec. 

Ward. 1 ,P. 







Act. as CI.. 




Admit. P. 

Admit. P. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 


? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
P Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

F Prest. 

? Prest. 


? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 



? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
P Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 

Mast. ? P. Writes as Clerk 
in 1757. 

Ward. 1,?P 


? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 
? Prest. 
grtly indispsd 

? Prest. 

Proxy P. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

Proxy P. 

? Prest. 
Proxy P. 

P Prest. 

? Prest. 

P Prest. 
? Prest. 
P Prest. 
Proxy P. 
? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 

? Prest. 
Ad. ? P. 

Ad. ? P. 
Ad. ? P. 


pd. 1/6 in 1757 

pd. ana/c 1757 

111 June-Dec, 

pd. 1/6 in 1757 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 




John Anderson, Master 
Thomas H 

Robert H 

udson, ) 

1750. Thomas Hoy, Master. 

Robert Hudson, 
Matthew Mills, 



1751. Matthew Mills, Master. 

> Wardens. 

Patrick Mills, 
Thos. Anderson 

1752. Thos. Anderson, Master. 

Patrick Mills, } W d 

Robert Carrington, j 

1753. Patrick Mills, Master. 

Thomas Harrison, ) w l 
Robert Carrington, j 

1754. Robert Carington, Master. 

Jonathan James, "I w •. # 
George Thew, / Wardens - 

1755. Jonathan James, Master. 

Nicholas Brown, | Wardeng> 
George Thew, ) 

1756. Nicholas Brown, Master. 

George Thew, 
Daniel Cuthbertson 




27 Dec, 



25 June, 



27 Dec, 



24 June, 



27 Deer., 


27 Dec, 1753. 

24 June, 1754. 


27 Deer., 



?27 Dec, 


Nicholas Brown, Clerk. 1749-56. 

Thomas Muckel, assisted, 1754-55. 

John Moor, " Secretary." 27th Dec, 1749. 

* Robert Harrison and Nicholas Brown were chosen Wardens on the 27th 
Dec, 1753 ; they did not serve. James and Thew were chosen in their places. 

14 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The Secretary read the following comments received from Bro. E. Conder, jun., W.M. — 

The thanks of all students of Craft history during the first half of the- 
eighteenth century, are justly due to Bro. Rylands for the very important rendering 
of the entry dated 27th December, 1748, in the Alnwick MS. 

This entry which up to now has occasioned little or no interest, at once becomes 
the most important item in the whole MS. 

In his usual concise and clear method of argument Bro. Rylands has, I consider, 
made out his case. 

The antiquity of the speculative Lodge at Alnwick must in future date from 
1748, and not from "time immemorial," and the use of the power to "erect" a new 
Lodge by Freemasons independently of Grand Lodge at so late a date as 1748, must be 

The most convincing point is the fact, now proved by the list of members with 
their attendances, that the six brethren called in to " erect " the new Lodge never 
again attended. 

December the 27th. 1748, fell upon a Tuesday, and before the end of the week a 
number of Rules were made, and new officers were elected, shewing clearly that the 
visiting brethren (if I may so term them) acted as founders of a neio Speculative Lodge, 
and were complimented for their services by being made honorary members, described 
by the Clerk, Nicholas Brown, as " made ffree Brothers." 

Considering that nearly fifty years had elapsed since some brethren bearing the 
same christian and surnames as some of those taking part in the proceedings under 
notice had signed the rules of the Operative Lodge, I can only conclude thej were 
Masons of a previous generation, most likely fathers or perhaps uncles : it being a well- 
known fact that in the north of England the eldest son takes his father's name, the 
second that of the uncle. 

I cannot believe any members who signed the rules in 1701, or in 1708, could 
have assisted in 1748, although it is possible: consequently I am not surprised to find 
the meeting being held at the house of Thomas Harrison. 

Bro. Rylands is to be congratulated upon the light he has thrown on these 
interesting minutes. Although we may regret the disappearance of so cherished a 
landmark as the existence of a Speculative Lodge document, dating from 1701, yet, as 
students of history and seekers after truth, we can all join in the hearty vote of thanks 
to our brother, who has by his able contribution to our Transactions placed the Alnwick 
Lodge Minutes in a sounder position for future reference than has hitherto been the case. 

Edward Conder, Jun., W.M. 

From Bro. Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, P.G.D. Ireland. — 

There seems no difficulty in accepting Bro. W. H. Rylands' interpretation of the 
Alnwick Records. The difficulty seems rather to be in providing some comforting 
explanation w 7 hy nobody appreciated the evidence till now. For the printed version of 
the Alnwick MS. has been before us for five years. 

When Cuthbert of the Ineffable Name and his comrades came to the assistance 
of the Lodge, they did no more than comply with the terms of their obligation as inter- 
preted by the Grand Lodge of the Antients. We have grown so accustomed to restrict- 
ing the appellation " Lodge Summons" to the notice sent round before every communi- 
cation to each member of a Lodge, that we quite forget the difficulty, and in many cases 
the impossibility of serving such notices in the early days of Speculative Freemasonry. 
Nor was such a notice needed. The days of meeting were laid down in the Bylaws of 
each Lodge, and each member was bound to attend on the Lodge-night under penalty 

Discussion. 15 

of some small fine. What, then, was the summons to which the obligation bound the 
Freemason to attend? It was just such a summons as is implied in the present 
instance. The Brethren at Alnwick were unable to " work " for want of sufficient 
number and adequate knowledge. They required the assistance from Brethren at a 
distance, and under the terms of their obligation those Brethren were bound to come. 

After the reorganization of the Lodge in 1748, the clerk scrupulously adheres to 
the phraseology of the older minutes. Although we know the Lodge to have been at 
work from 1749 to 1756, the Clerk makes no mention of "Master Mason or Fellow 
Craft." Nevertheless, the Brethren succeed to the post of Warden, and are pro- 
moted, or " chosen," Master in due course. It is inconceivable that the reorganized 
Lodge should not have been influenced by the development of the methods of the sur- 
rounding Lodges : else why the reorganization ? This is confirmed by the presence of 
at least one visitor, who came from a Lodge known to have beeu working under the 
new system. It would follow, then, that the non-mention of Degrees must not be 
construed into their non-existence. 

It is disheartening to reflect that in the year of grace 1895, the phrase, " The 
Lodge erected as follows " proved so unintelligible as to seem to require emendation. 
To erect a Lodge is the authorised and time-honoured formula to denote the foundation of 
a New Lodge of Freemasons. It is so employed in the earliest Lodge Charters (or 
Warrants, as they are styled nowadays) ever issued by any Grand Lodge. The very 
first of them opens as follows : 

" Whereas our Trusty and Well-beloved Brothers have 

besought Us that We would be pleas'd to Erect a Lodge of Free Masons," 

etc., etc. 

Warrant of Lodge No. 1, G.L. Ireland, \st February, 1731-2. 

Thus sanctioned by authority, and approved by usage, the phrase held the field 
among English-speaking Freemasons at home and abroad during the half-century that 
preceded the Union of 1813, and still remains a constitutional formula among the 
Grand Lodges that derived from the Grand Lodge of Ireland, or from its step-daughter, 
the Grand Lodge of the Antients. In view of such un familiarity with the documents 
that embody the history of our organisation, it is well to bear in mind that in 1748 
there were no Lodge Charters in existence, save those issued under the seal of the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland. Several years had to elapse before the Irish practice, now 
universal, was followed by the Grand Lodge of England. 

The feat accomplished by Bro. Rylands in restoring the records and establishing 

the reorganization of the Lodge at Alnwick reminds us of the Classical recensions that 

marked the Renaissance of Learning. If he could do these things without even seeing 

the original, is it not worth our while to induce the custodians to let him have a sight 

of the MS. ? 

W. J. Chetwode Crawley. 

From Bro. J. T. Thorp.— 

All Masonic students should thank Bro. Rylands for calling attention to the 
minutes of the old Lodge at Alnwick, especially when he has such interesting infor- 
mation to bring forward. 1 quite agree with him, that a full facsimile of the MS. 
would have been far more useful than the letterpress reproduction published in 1895, 
but one has to be thankful for what one can get. 

The manner in which the minutes are jumbled together in the original makes it 
very difficult to obtain a clear idea of them, so that Bro. Rylands' paper will be of con- 
siderable assistance in properly understanding and estimating the MS. 

16 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

When the reproduction was published I spent some little time over its examina- 
tion, and was quite under the impression that the minutes from December 27th, 1748, 
onwards, recorded a revival or resuscitatien of the old Lodge. But after reading Bro. 
Ry lands' paper I certainly incline to the opinion that there were two separate and 
distinct Lodges, the earlier portion of the MS. referring to the old operative Lodge, and 
the later portion, from 1748, being the minutes of one newly formed. 

The word " erected," — "elected" is certainly an error of transcription — is still 
commonly used in Scotland and elsewhere to describe the foundation of a new Lodge, 
and a very appropriate word it is. Its use in this instance seems to prove that these 
later minutes do not record a revival of the old Lodge, but the establishment of an 
entirely fresh organization. 

The character of the 1748 Lodge, whether it was operative or speculative, is not 
so easy to determine. Bro. Rylands thinks it was speculative, and it is quite probable 
he is right. Several of the rules seem to confirm this view, viz. : — 

" The Meetings to be held on the St. John's Days." 

" No one to be admitted under the age of 21." 

"The admission to the Lodge as Members, of 'other persons and strangers not 
serving a Due apprenticeship.' " 

And also the reception as a visitor of a Brother who is known not to have been 
an operative. 

There seems to be nothing in the MS. to show whether the later speculative (?) 
Lodge was held in connection with the older operative Lodge, or whether it was 
entirely distinct and separate. That the operative Lodge still existed may reasonably 
be inferred, from the reference to " apprentices that shall offer to be admitted into ye s d 
Lodge after serving due apprenticeship." Is any information obtainable on this point ? 

Most of the minutes of the second Lodge, with the exception of the first two 
meetings, begin, " At a meeting of the Society of the said Lodge, etc., etc.," the use of 
both the words " Society " and " Lodge " in this opening sentence is peculiar, and I think 
very unusual. Is there in this case any particular significance in their use ? 

Jno. T. Thorp. 

From Bro. W. J. Hughan, P.G.D. — 

I am exceedingly pleased with the interesting paper on the " Alnwick Lodge 
Minutes," by Bro. W. H. Rylands ; and consider that his very suggestive remarks on 
these old Records will help us the better to rightly appreciate and value such important 
registers of early meetings of the Fraternity. It is vexatious to find that the typogra- 
phical reproductions of these meetings, published in 1895, are not so accurate as we had 
been led to believe ; but there is one thing to rejoice in, and that is the copy of the " Old 
Charges," with the " Orders " of 1701, and a number of signatures thereto, marks, ete., 
are all in facsimile. 

It may interest the members to know how I first became acquainted with this 
valuable Minute Book, dating from 1701, the earliest of the kind preserved in England. 

In 1870, several of us had a discussion in the Freemason as to the antiquity of the 
Craft, and in the number for November 12th appeared a short communication from 
" E.T.T., 1167," in support of my views, with an extract respecting the wearing of 
Aprons in 1708, from the "Minutes of the Warkworth and Alnwicke Lodge in his 
possession." Of course I wrote at once about this valuable find, and on November 26th, 
the owner (the late Bro. Edwin Thew Turnbull,) wrote from Alnwick thanking me for 
my interest in the matter, and saying " I prefer that Bro. Hughan should himself 

Discussion. 1 7 

examine the records, and give the Craft his valuable opinion thereon," which exactly 
suited me. 

To my horror, however, the volume was sent me by book post, with a piece of 
common brown paper wrapped round it ! I need not say that, after full particulars of 
its character were given by me in the Freemason for January 21st, 1871, the precious 
document was returned in a different manner. 

The suggestion of Bro. Rylands that the meeting of 27th December, 1748, was 
convened for the purpose of holding " a Lodge of Accepted or Speculative Masons " 
does not wholly commend itself to me. The records of other Lodges of a similar 
character prove that unless for the conferring of the degrees of Speculative Masonry, 
any ordinary assembly could be utilized for Craft purposes, as with the York Lodge and 
others. There is no mention of Degrees, and nothing in the minutes to indicate any 
work differing from the usual. 

I believe the word is " erected" as Bro. Rylands states, and to my mind the entry 
means that there was a special Lodge held at the date mentioned, to preside over which 
Bro. Roger Robson was "chosen Master," and Snowdon and Atkinson acted as Wardens, 
the eight names at the right hand being those made "ffree Broth rs " and the others 
being members previously. 

These Records never allude to degrees, as they would likely do, had the modern 
ceremonies or additions been known to the members. 

Following the lead of Bro. Rylands and remembering tbat on the 24th June, 
1749, Bro. Nich. Brown was paid a guinea for " writing the Constitutions and two attend- 
ances," it seems likely that some of the brethren admitted on the 27th December, 1748, 
or who attended, were founders of another Lodge not far from Alnwick. Bro. Rylands' 
paper requires and deserves very careful consideration, as his suggestion may yet be 
proved to be correct, though at present I am unable to fully accept it. 

W. J. Huqhan. 

Bro. G. W. Speth said : — Bro. Rylands has put an entirely new complexion on 
the meaning of the Alnwick Minutes. It is curious that what now appears so obvious 
should have escaped the attention of all of us for all these years, until brought to our 
notice in consequence of the more careful reading of the evidence by Bro. Rylands. 
But once pointed out to us, there can be no hesitation in asserting that a revolution of 
some sort did take place at Alnwick on the 27th December, 1748. 

On that date certain individuals who had never previously attended the Lodge, 
so far as we know, and who never attended again, were called in to the assistance of 
the Lodge, and even occupied the chairs : and certain brethren who were already mem- 
bers under the former regime, together with still others who were not so, were "made 
free brothers of this Lodge." This bare statement of the facts, divested of all detail, 
proves incontestably that the new organisation differed from the old one, the only doubt 
is as to wherein the difference lay. 

A few remarks in supplement of our Brother's paper may be permitted me. The 
case of John Anderson is puzzling. As Bro. Rylands points out, he subscribed the roll 
either in 1701, or very shortly after, his name being among the first. Of this roll we 
have a facsimile, and his signature is undoubtedly an autograph. This is certainly the 
John Anderson who was Master in 1710. Near the end of the same roll appears a 
John Anderson, and he is bracketed with Allexander Gradon, and the date 17th July, 
1713, is placed against their names. Now, if these last signatures are autographs, 
then the two Andersons are distinct, probably father and son, as Bro. Rylands assumes. 

18 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

But I doubt their being really signatures : both names appear to be written by the 
same clerkly hand. A possible reading is that this records the date of their once more 
serving as wardens. If it indicates, as Bro. Rylands thinks, the date of their admission, 
then we have father and son. In support of his reading there is the fact that in an 
enigmatical minute referring to the year 1735, the purport of which is impossible to 
explain, we meet for the first and only time two John Andersons in one eutry, one with- 
out a date affixed, the other followed by "ye 13 [July] 1735." But it is quite 
conceivable that both entries refer to one and the same John. We meet the name of 
John Anderson in every minute, I think almost without exception, from 1701 to 1755, 
not only as member and Master of the old Lodge, but as one of the special members 
admitted the night of the great transformation, and later on as Master of the new 
organisation. It is not impossible that he was the John Anderson of 1701, who might 
then have been just out of his articles and about 21 years old, bringing him to 76 when 
we last meet him : and even if it were his son, who was admitted in 1713, also at the age 
of 21, he would be 63 years old. But I am not convinced that there were two John 
Andersons, although I admit the possibility. The case of John Bell, who appears in 
the same list with the date "May 22 1716 " attached to his name, rather strengthens 
this view, because unless we have here again duplicate names, it cannot mean his 
admission, as he is given in a previous minute of 1703. I believe it means the date of 
serving the wardenship. 

Longevity, but not of a phenominal nature, appears to have been the rule in this 
Lodge. Another instance is that of Patrick Mills, made free on December 27th, 1706, 
present at almost every recorded meeting, a participant in the Reformation of 1748, and 
last named in 1755. 

In the roll, 1701-1722 appears a shockingly bad specimen of handwriting, which 
Bro. Rylands reads, correctly, as it seems to me, as Cuthbert Chrisp. If so, the final 
" p " is placed above the line, for want of room. But the editors of the transcript have 
suggested that the name is Young. The aforesaid " p " might easily be read as an 
initial " Y," it is true, but it would be important to know whether the editors had any 
other reason for their suggestion than the fact that the only other Cuthbert we meet is 
probably, but not certainly, named Young. They seem to think that the Chrisp is a 
distorted repetition of Cuthbert. Now Cuthbert Yenns (again the editors suggest 
Young, probably correctly this time) was one of the "Bros to the assistance of the said 
Lodge " in December 1748, and in June 1751 a Cuthbert Yonow is admitted a member 
on paying 5/- fee. In the same minute his name is transcribed Yonows, and in 
December Youns, and in December 1752, Cuthbert Yonns is "declared off." I cannot 
help thinking that Yenns, Yonow, Youns, are all the same individual, and that his 
name was Young. Only an inspection of the original minutes, as we have no facsimile 
given us, could decide the question. If there is any connection with the earliest 
Cuthbert Chrisp or Young, this would explain why he only paid 5/- on admission in 
1751, but it is my only reason for suspecting any such connection, as otherwise the 
reading Chrisp quite satisfies me. 

The new rules made in 1748 fix fees for admission as follows : an apprentice who 
had served his time, 10s. (altered next year to 6s. 8d.) ; " all other persons and 
strangers " (which I take to mean non-masons and masons from elsewhere) 1 17s. 6d., 
afterwards altered to 13s. 4d. Now from this time forth we find numerous admissions, 
always with the fee of 6s. 8d., or 13s. 4d., except in the following cases. S. Stokoe, Gf. 

1 The accounts show instances of new members, described as Masons, and charged the full 
13s. 4d. 

Discussion. 19 

Lindsay, D. Cuthbertson, W. Balmborough, Tbos. Stephenson, Robert Walker, Cuthbert 
Yonow (or Young), T. Muckell, Thos. Hudson and J. Armstrong, and these ten all paid 
5s. You will see there is no provision for a 5/- fee in the rules. Cuthbertson was a 
musician, and received a fee for each attendance, and we can understand his being let 
off cheaply. Balmborough was an old member of the Operative Lodge, he signed before 
1706. Thomas Hudson's name occurs in the memorandum of 1735, therefore another 
member. Rt. Walker does not previously occur, but a Walker was made free on the 
20th January, 1708/9, and although he is subsequently cited as Ph. Walker, I incline to 
think that Rt. is a misreading for Ph., or vice versa. If so, here we have another old 
member. There was no George Lindsey, possibly another misreading, in the old 
organisation, but there was a John Lindsey in 1710. Without the actual MS. before us, 
or a facsimile of it, it is impossible to estimate how far the editors have been correct in 
their reading of signatures. So that we have certainly some of the former members 
here, and possibly others, in all six ; add to this Cuthbertson, and it only leaves three at 5s. 
to account for; and I think we shall not risk much in assuming that they also were old 
members whose names do not happen to occur in the fragmentary minutes left to us. 

It is interesting to note that we do not find all the old members joining the new 
Lodge, and that some of those who did join did not do so until several years afterwards, 
such as Balmborough. The circumstances as a whole -remind me very much of the 
Masons' Company Lodge : there was a Speculative Lodge according to the newer 
methods, unconnected with trade, within an old Operative Lodge which was only 
slightly speculative, and existed principally for trade purposes. In the minutes after 
1748 we find not a single operative entry, except once in 1751 and 1752, the entering of 
apprentices, and I suspect this belongs really to the Operative Lodge : we have merely 
the fact recorded here and there, that such and such a new member was an apprentice 
out of his indentures. But the old operative organisation must existed side by 
side with the new, as its apprentices were being constantly admitted on completion of 
their time, and were more of the minutes preserved to us, we might have learnt much 

I am doubtful whether the Constitutions which the clerk was paid for writing 
out, are really a fresh copy of the Old Charges. I believe it to be rather the laws and 
regulations as agreed upon in 1748. His fee was to be 5s. each attendance, these 
minutes occupy two meetings, and he was paid 10s. for his trouble, which agrees. They 
still had the old copy, what did they want a new one for ? By-laws were often called 
Constitutions, those of Grand Lodge are so-called to this day. 

I have already occupied so much time that 1 am almost reluctant to call the 
attention of the brethren to the earlier or operative minutes. Yet there are some very 
curious points. We find that the apprentices must receive their charge from their 
Master within one year, and further that after they had served their seven years, they 
may be "admitted or accepted," but only on Michaelmas day. Surely this indicates 
two ceremonies of some sort, call them degrees or what you will. And the stipulation 
that their admission as fellows is only to be on the Feast of St. Michael, which from 
Rule No. 1 is evidently the head-meeting day of the Lodge, is in curious conformity with 
the earliest rules of the Grand Lodge of England. The apprentices at Alnwick were 
admitted at any time, the fellows only on the head-meeting day, or, as it was elsewhere 
called, the General Assembly. After 1717 in Grand Lodge, any Lodge could make an 
apprentice at any time, but according to Rule XIII., only Grand Lodge could mako 
fellows. Now Grand Lodge admittedly stood in place of the former General 

20 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Rule 12 is hard to construe, bat I am inclined to think it points to the difference 
between Free Masons and Guild or Company Masons to which I referred in a previous 
paper read before this Lodge. It reads : " Itni Thatt noe Fellow or Fellowes within 
this Lodge shall att any time or times call or hold Assemblys to make any Mason or 
Masons free: Nott Acquainting the Mast r or Wardens therewith." This cannot apply 
to their own apprentices out of their time, as there was a special rule for that, just 
quoted : it can therefore only apply to Guild or Company Masons wandering from 
some other city who were not Free Masons. The Alnwick Lodge was evidently not 
a guild but as it styles itself in the preamble to these laws, " a Fellowship of Free 

Rule 13 is also noteworthy. " Itm Thatt noe Rough Layers or any other thatt 
has not served their time, or admitted Masons, shall work within the Lodge any work of 
Masonry whatsoever (Except under a Mast r )." The italics are mine. It is evident 
that the Lodge was an actual building, where work could be carried on, but it was as 
evidently not the workshop of some particular building under construction, but from the 
very terms of the article, must have been a sort of joint workshop for any mason in 
Alnwick, where he could carry on his own special job, provided always that he was an 
admitted Freemason. 

In conclusion I desire only to point out that external influence seems to have 
been felt very soon after these rules were drawn up in 1701, because as early as 1706 we 
find the head-meeting day of St. Michael allowed to lapse, and its place taken by the 
more usual feasts of St. John, in June and December, on which occasions the officers 
were elected and the sermon preached, etc. 

If some Brother with time on his hands would do for Alnwick what Bro. 
Rylands accomplished for Chester and Warrington, i.e., find out by wills and other docu- 
ments the social position and standing of the names mentioned in these interesting 
records, our power of appreciating their importance might be considerably increased. 

Bro. J. W. Horsley thought we were arguing very much in the dark about 
matters whereon it would be easy to shed light. Why should we remain in doubt 
about the true reading of names or sequence of minutes when it might be possible to 
obtain the loan of the actual manuscript and thus clear the road for reasoning based 
upon sound premisses ? 

Bro. Hamon le Strange asked whether the enigmatical Yonows, Younns, etc., 
might not be a misreading for "younger" ? 

Bro. Purdon Clarke expressed his appreciation of the labour involved in writing 
this paper : nothing was more perplexing than to co-ordinate matter which had been 
erratically bound up, or than to make sure of personalities whose very names had to be 
guessed at. He had great pleasure in proposing a vote of thanks to Bro. Rylands. 

The vote was seconded in a few words by Bro. Goldney, and carried by acclama- 

In reply, Bro. W. H. Rylands said : — 

Firstly, may I be allowed to state that having neither the time nor the oppor- 
tunity, I made no attempt to edit this Ms., and only brought forward such notes as 
were required to call attention to various points connected with my suggestion as to the 
meaning of the minutes during and after the year 1748. I may mention also that my 

Reply to Discussion. 21 

notes were purposely kept very closely within certain limits, as I thought the subject 
was of sufficient importance to require full and free discussion. 

It is a pleasure to me to express my thanks to those brethren who have so kindly 
added remarks and joined in the discussion. And I am happy to think that my notes 
have called forth a number of separate points which assist materially in the proper 
understanding of the Ms. itself. 

It is impossible not to agree with Bro. Horsley, that we are arguing very much 
in the dark ; this has been my feeling from the beginning : with so much confusion and 
so much uncertainty many questions cannot be decided without the light that would be 
given by the original Ms. 

At the very entrance on the subject, we are met by the question, Is the Ms. the 
fragments of one book or two ? One belonging to the operative body, and the other the 
records of a speculative Lodge. The size of the page, the quality and marks of the 
paper would probably help to decide this at once. 

If it is the fragments of only one book, which I very much doubt, then one set 
of minutes was written at one end, and the other at the other end. This also could 
perhaps be decided by the paper. If it contains the fragments of two sets of minutes, 
at once several questions of importance arise : for example, the Constitutions are 
probably written by the same hand that penned the Operative Rules, and these rules 
are dated September, 1701. They are signed and agreed to by a number of those 
present : it is however impossible to fix the place where the names of those present end, 
and the later additions begin. The next date met with is a " freedom " on December, 
the 27th, 1706. 

It may, therefore, be fairly concluded that the copy of the Constitutions 
belonged to the operative portion of the book. 

If there were two books it is easy to understand that the Speculative Lodge 
would also require a copy of the Constitutions to be in their possession. 

It has been suggested by Bro. Hughan that the copy for which Nicholas Brown, 
the Clerk, was paid might be required for still another Lodge in the neighbourhood of 
Alnwick. Also Bro. Speth suggests that the payment to Browne was not for copying 
out the " Mason' Constitutions," but for writing out records and minutes of the 
constitution or " erection " of the Lodge. 

In the first place, it is more natural to suppose that the " Constitutions" were 
required by the newly-erected Lodge at Alnwick : Browne was paid one guinea, this 
included two attendances at five shillings each, and eleven shillings for writing the 
Constitutions. It must not be forgotten that the five shillings for attendance were paid 
no doubt for writing the minutes, and besides this he had " all perquisites for 
admittance," i.e., for the admittance of new members. These were my reasons for 
contending that the eleven shillings were given to the Clerk for writing out the Masons' 

One or two of the corrections in the copy that has survived are worth noting : 
the copyist did not at first read the words correctly from the Ms. he was transcribing. 
Page 7, "Beheast" (Land of Behest) has been wrongly corrected in the margin to 
" Bless " : page 5, " take " has been corrected into " give," and page 10, " Statutes " into 
" faultes." 

Bro. Speth opens up the very interesting question, what was the operative 
Lodge? In my opinion wherever minutes of meetings are found, they record the 
meetings of the general body of the Lodge who met together to transact business, and 

22 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

not for operative purposes. The use of the words " the Lodge" is not uncommon in the 
Ms. copies of the Constitutions, and must, I think, be understood rather generally than 

This naturally leads to the two operative rules which Bro. Speth has pointed 
out: and has printed in full, so I need not repeat them here. No. 12 is, I think, only 
an altered form of the rule in the Ms. Constitutions which orders, following the text 
of the Alnwick Constitutions, " that noe Master or ffellows take noe allowance to be 
made Master [Mason] without the Assent of his ffellows and thatt att the Least five or 
six." That is to say, that no authority or imagined permission was to be unlawfully 
used or seized upon to make a man a mason. This, the correct interpretation of the 
old phrase is substantiated by Harl. Ms. No. 1942, in which the 15th rule reads, "You 
shall not take upon you to make any one Mason without the privity and consent of five 
or six of your ffellowes." The Sloane Ms. No. 3848 reads : " 5. Also that noe M r nor 
fellowe take allowance to be made Mason w tb out y e asent of his fellowes y* [that] at 
the least five or sixe." This is repeated in the Antiquity Ms. (Hughan's Old Charges, 
1872, page 67.) In the ordinary copies of the Old Charges this Rule occurs among 
those headed, " Rehearse I will other Charges singular for Masters and Fellows." It 
is particularly to be noticed that " Robert Padgett, Clearke to the worshipfull Society of 
the ffree-Masons of the City of London," took the opportunity of slipping in at almost 
the only possible place a mention of the Accepted Masons, and altered the usual 
heading as follows, " Now will I Rehearse Other Charges Single ffor Masons Allowed 
or Accepted." In the twin copy called the Col. Clerke Ms. this interpolation does not 

Rule 5 (Alnwick) provides that all apprentices are to be properly "entered," 
and this Rule 12 provides that apprentices shall not be made and that they shall not 
receive their freedom unless formally done with the knowledge of the Master and 
Wardens. Perhaps the greatest difficulty the heads of such organisations had to 
contend against was, the clandestine employment of Apprentices, and the giving of 
their freedom. Whenever either was done, besides destroying the control over the 
trade, it was always a loss to the Company or Incorporation ; that of granting the 
freedom being the heavier of the two, Masons like others did it, of course, in order ta 
avoid paying the fees. 

I cannot help thinking that Rules 5 and 12 were intended to prevent this, and 
to apply to any Apprentice. 

Bro. Speth suggests that this cannot be so because the same Rule (12) is covered 
by No. 9, which provides for the freedom of an Apprentice being granted only on the 
Feast of St. Michael, but the Rule No. 9 only specifies the fee to be paid for properly 
giving the freedom, six shillings and eightpence ; whereas Rule No. 12 states the 
amount of fine to be paid for breaking the Rule No. 9, viz., £3 6s. 8d. 

I quite agree with Bro. Speth, there were two ceremonies, the first that of- 
entering the Apprentice, when the Old Charges were read over to him : and the other 
that of freedom of the guild when it is perhaps natural to suppose that the attention 
of the Apprentice out of his time, was called at least to " The Charges which belong 
only to Masters and Fellows." 

The other Rule to which Bro. Speth calls attention, is No. 13. I cannot quite 
agree that this Rule is intended to refer to a joint workshop, for any Mason to carry 
on work in. It seems to me that the Rule is an altered form of the Rule in the Old 
Charges (Alnwick Ms. page 14) " Alsoe that noe Mason sett any Layer within a Lodge 
or without to Hew or Mould stones, with no mould of his own makeing." The word 

Reply to Discussion. 23 

"the" being used in the Alnwick Rule in the place of "a," would not present any 
difficulty, as, to take one example, the Lansdowne Ms. Rule 13, reads, "nor* Sett no 
Lowen [to] worke within the Lodge nor without to no Mould Stone." 

One interesting point with regard to the minute (p. 32) entered under the date 
the 20th of January, 1708 [? 1709] : it states that the meeting was a true and perfect 
Lodge kept at Alnwick at the house of Mr. Thomas Davison, then one of the wardens 
of the same Lodge. Thomas Davidson signs the original Rules as Warden in 1701 : 
was chosen "Warden in 1707 : he attended in December, 1708: was Warden as above in 
1709, and was chosen the Master in 1710. This is the only reference beyond the 
place Alnwick, that occurs in the minutes. The Thomas Davidson, of Alnwick, who 
joined the Speculative Lodge in 1751, payed the fees (6s. 8d.) of an apprentice. This 
was forty-one years after Thomas Davidson (senior) was the master of the Operative 

I cannot but agree with Bro. Speth that the Rule of the Grand Lodge about the 
making of Masters or Fellows in the Grand Lodge, like some others, was distinctly a 
survival of the Operative Rules. It was a necessary rule among the Operative Masons, 
for the protection of both the Guild and the trade : it became useless however under 
the Speculative Government, and was, therefore, abandoned. 

Bro. Thorp as well as Bro. Speth call attention to the heading of the minutes of 
the Speculative Lodge, " At a Meeting of the Society of the said Lodge." It does 
present some little difficulty : and might perhaps be used as a proof that the Lodge 
erected in December, 1748, was held under the wing of the Operative Lodge : I think, 
however, that this is a very doubtful explanation. 

In December, 1748, it is a " Lodge " that was erected : Brothers are called in to 
the assistance "of the said Lodge:" and in the Rules made afterwards "for the better 
regulating the ffree Masonry," the words, "said Society," " this Society " occur several 
times. On page 35 of the printed text it is " Ordered that the subscriptions shall be 
paid into the said Lodge:" and again, " Ordered that none shall be admitted into the 
said Lodge under the age of 21 or above 40." On page 36, in the Rule referring to the 
widows of deceased members the words " Society " and " Lodge " appear to be used 
indiscriminately. It seems to me therefore that the word Society in the sentence, " the 
Society of the said Lodge " means the society or company, referring to the members 
themselves collectively, and not to the Institution. 

The weight of Bro. Hughan's opinion on matters connected with the minutes of 
Lodges compels me to consider his remarks very carefully. I fear however that he 
slightly misapprehends me : my contention is not that the meeting of December, 1748, 
was convened to hold a Lodge of Accepted Masons : but that it was held to erect or 
found one. And the use of the word " erected," the election of officers: the calling in 
of strangers, " to the assistance of the Lodge :" the fact that none of these appeared 
again : that as Bro. Conder points out, within the week, i.e., on the Saturday following, 
new Officers were chosen from the members of the newly-erected Lodge : new Rules 
"for the better regulating the ffree Masonry were made at the same meeting:" all 
these to my mind point directly to the fact that it was not a revival or re-organisation : 
nor was it a simply a " Special Lodge " as Bro. Hughan contends, called for the purpose 
of making Masons. 

The question of the meaning of the word " erected " has been so admirably and 
completely supported by Bro. Dr. Crawley, that it is quite unnecessary to write any 
more on the subject. 

24 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

I confess I do not quite understand the sentence in Bro. Hughan's remarks, 
beginning " The records of other Lodges," etc., and can only say in reply, that to my 
knowledge there is no entry at all similar to this one found at Alnwick, in any other 
Lodge minutes, taking its [place among the ordinary minutes of a Lodge, whether 
operative or speculative. 

The minutes of Alnwick after and including the meeting of December the 27th, 
1748, differ entirely, and in most essential particulars from those earlier minutes which 
I believe to be the minutes of the Operative Lodge. For example, except the one 
minute of the 20th of January, 1708, about going to church, the operative minutes do 
little more than record the election of the officers, and the fines for misdemeanors. 
There is no mention of any one having been apprenticed, no mention of freedoms, and 
no mention of any one having been admitted a member. Neither is there anything 
approaching to an account of money received and paid away. 

The Speculative minutes on the contrary are full of the accounts of money both 
received and paid ; they contain repeated mentions as I have already said of the 
admittance of members : in fact, they closely, nay almost exactly, resemble the minutes- 
of well-known Speculative Lodges. 

The various Rules or orders made in the Speculative Lodge, as well as the 
minutes, preclude the possibility of the "admission" of any one being interpreted as 
another mode of expressing the entering of an Apprentice, or of an Apprentice taking 
up his freedom, and becoming a fellow, The action of the 27th of December, 1748, 
could not, therefore, be either a revival or resusicitation of the Operative Lodge. 

All this in my opinion, proves clearly the character of the Lodge erected in 1748, 
and if it was not, as Bro. Hughan suggests, what I am satisfied it was, then I would 
put the question, what was it ? 

Bro. Hughan also lays some stress on the fact that " degrees " are not mentioned 
in the minutes : it cannot however be overlooked that in the first meeting of the Lodge 
the entry occurs that a certain number of persons " were made free Brothers of this 
said Lodge :" as also that at almost every meeting, members were " admitted." There 
were fifty-three members on the list during the year 1748 and the first portion of 1756, 
twelve became free brothers at the first meeting, and it is almost incredible that the 
remaining forty-one were all Speculative Masons before they were admitted members of 
the Lodge. 

I cannot help agreeing with Dr. Crawley that the absence of any more explicit 
mention of degrees proves nothing. 

Again Bro. Hughan urges that the Lodge was already formed, and that only the 
eight names at the right hand were made Free Brothers, 1 and that the other were 
previously members. I hardly think this can be the case, because the entry is headed, 
"we whose names are hereunder subscribed," and it is to be noticed that Thomas Hoy, 
whose name is in the left hand column, among those names Bro. Hughan suggests were 
already members of the Lodge, and he evidently signed, as he made "his mark." 

With regard to the duplication of certain names, I cannot help thinking that 
Bro. Speth raises an unnecessary difficulty in disputing the probable existence of two 

1 Bro. Gould, in his "History," takes another view (Yol. n., p. 267). " It must not escapo 
our recollection, that the Alnwick Lodge never surrendered its independence, and, moreover, from first 
to last, was an operative rather than a speculative fraternity. Indeed, that it was speculative at all, in 
the sense either of possessing members who were not operative masons, or of discarding its ancient 
formulary, for the ceremonial of Grand Lodge, is very problematical." And again (ib.) " December 27, 
1748. — Three persons subscribe their names as having been ' made free Brothers ' of the Lodge, and 
their signatures are carefully distinguished from those of the Master, Wardens, and the twelve other 
members present, by the memorandum : ' Bros, to the assistance of the said Lodge.' " 

Reply to Discussion. 25 

men with the same name. There are two records, the first being the one I consider to 
be mainly the list of freedoms, and the other that dated the 15th of July, 1735. Both 
of these give two names John Anderson, and it is much easier and more natural to 
suppose that in both cases the entry is correct, and that as time went on there were 
two members of the same name, following as Bro. Conder points out, the ordinary 
custom of the northern counties. It seems to me also very unlikely, that in one single 
instance the names of the Wardens should be inserted among the list of members who 
on becoming Fellows gave in their adhesion to the Rules ; and it must be noticed that 
even if the names of John Anderson and Alexander Gordon in the first record are not 
signatures, though I think they are, it is of little consequence who wrote them : they 
occur among the other names entered in exactly the same manner ; first the date and 
then the name, the only difference being that two names in this instance are bracketed 

Whatever difficulty exists in identifying each of the two members, it is clear 
that a full facsimile would most likely remove it at once. 

I foresaw this difficulty, and one great reason that made me conclude that there 
must have been in many cases, two sets of men bearing the same name was the Rule, 
" that none shall be admitted into the said Lodge under the age of 21 and above 40." 
This, of course, might not apply to those who were admitted before the Rule was made, 
i.e., the twelve who were made Free Brothers when the Lodge was " erected," but it 
would seriously affect many of the other individuals. Suppose a most unlikely thing, 
that a Mason became free at the age of twenty-one years in the year 1729, he would be 
forty in 1748, and it must be remarked that no freedom occurs in the Ms. after August 
the 31st, 1722. Unless the rule was broken, beyond perhaps the first twelve names, not 
one other member known to us from the Operative Minutes could have been admitted 
into the Speculative Lodge. 

One word about the various sums of money paid for admission. On the 24th of 
June, 1749, the door of the Lodge seems to have been opened to the Apprentices : 

"Also notwithstanding the Orders made 31st Dec, 1748, 

" It is now ordered that an apprentice shall now pay ... ... 6. 8 

" Every person not serving [their apprenticeship] or Stranger to pay . . 13.- 4" 

On the same day the following entries occur : — 

" Received this day 

" Edw. Stokoe [either subscription or fine] ... ... 5 

" Geo. Lindssey [do. do. do. ] ... ... 5 

" Admitted this day — ffees 

" Geo. Thew [Stranger] .. ... ... ... 13. 4 

" Danl. Cuthbertson [Mason and Musician] ... ... 5 

" Robert Shepherd an Apprentice ... ... ... 6. 8" 

It seemed to me that although the charge for the admittance of an Apprentice 
out of his articles, otherwise a Fellow, appears to have been fixed in the first instance at 
ten shillings, and no order made about the admittance of Apprentices, it was strange to 
find a charge for admittance of Fellows several times entered at five shillings. No 
Order was made fixing this amount. 

1 have said that the fee for a Fellow appears to have been fixed at ten shillings 
because the Order seems to me to be unnecessarily confused. It reads as follows : — 

26 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

" Its ordered that all apprentices that shall offer to be admitted into ye 
s d Lodge after serving due apprenticeship shall pay for such 
admittance ... ... ... ... ... 10 " 

The order just quoted, that " an apprentice shall now pay 6. 8," may perhaps be 
taken not as opening the door of the Lodge to Apprentices, but as clearing the confusion 
from the previous order. I think the order of the 27th of December, 1748, was not 
intended to refer to Fellows, but to Apprentices, who could be admitted into the Specu- 
lative Lodge, and were not to pay any fee until after they had served due apprentice- 
ship. This order being likely to lead to confusion and trouble another was made, that 
the Apprentices should now pay a smaller amount for their admission, and this is 
immediately followed by the admission of an Apprentice, who paid 6s. 8d. 

There still remains the admission fee of five shillings called attention to by Bro. 
Speth. I do not think with him that this was the fee charged to old members of the 
Operative Lodge who were not eligible, according to the rule as to the age of candidates. 
It seems to me that it is the fee paid by Masons who had already served their articles 
and were Fellows at the time they were admitted into the Speculative Lodge. 

The fact that no order was made for the admission fee of the Fellows seems to 
attach itself to another interesting point raised by Bro. Speth. How far the Speculative 
Lodge of Alnwick was carried on like the Masons' Company Lodge of London, under 
the wing of the Operative organization ? One thing is clear at Alnwick, the money was 
kept quite distinct, and the Speculative Lodge was not financed, as in London, by the 
operative body. The Lodge in London seems to me not to have been what Dr. Anderson 
calls a " stated Lodge," but an "occasional" one; the Lodge at Alnwick met twice a 
year with great regularity on the two St. John's Days. There is very little doubt in my 
mind that the first members of the Alnwick Lodge, who were made ffree Brothers, 
belonged to the Operative body, and the fact that they admitted Masons whether 
Apprentices or Fellows at a lower fee than the non-Masons or strangers, seems to point 
to a possible connection, more or less intimate, between the two Lodges. 

That the two Lodges were working at the same time is proved, besides the rule 
quoted by Bro. Thorp, by the admission of apprentices, and the second rule about their 
admission fees, as well as by the entry under the dates 1751 and 1752 of James Swan 
and Edward Robinson, being respectively bound apprentices to Patrick Mills and 
Michael Robinson. 

In reply to Bro. le Strange's question about " Cuthbert of the Ineffable name," as 
Bro. Dr. Crawley so aptly calls him, Yonows, or Younns, might certainly be a mis- 
reading for younger. In the present case however, from a consideration of the 
minutes, I do not think it is so, but rather a mis-reading for Chrispor Young, the latter 
being suggested by the editors of the Newcastle reprint. 

This reply has run to much greater length than I intended ; for an excuse I must 
plead the many interesting points raised in the discussion of my paper. I again thank 
those kind friends who have taken the trouble to consider the matter, and I can only 
regret that among them I do not find the name of Bro. Could, who, when writing his 
history, considered the Alnwick Ms. of sufficient importance to devote several pages to 
its consideration. 

In the absence of the writer, the Secretary read the following paper : — 

Transactions of the Qnatuor Coronati Lodge. 





Magenny, Kildare. 

HE Jewel of the Past Master in Scotland consists of the Square, 
the Compasses, and an Arc of a Circle : — In Ireland of the Square 
and Compasses with the capital '• G " in the centre: — In England 
for 85 years, at least, it has been the Square with the 47th Propo- 
sition of Euclid pendent within it. 
An Irish poet wrote : — 

" Truth is one, and so is light, 
Yet how many shades of it." 




Freemasonry itself might he looked on as exemplifying unity without monotony ; 
so let it not be supposed that because they are different there is anything exclusively 
English, or Irish, or Scotch, about the Past Master's Jewel in each case ; all are beauti- 
ful links in the chainwork of continuation from Operative to Speculative Masonry ; all 
remind us that the master of an Operative Lodge worked out his plans by that branch 
of science to which we give the general name of " Geometry," and which is represented 
in the Irish Jewel by the Capital " G," which along with the 47th Proposition were in use 
both in England and in Ireland probably before 1723 ; and if we make a comparison at 
all, to my mind it should be in favour of the " G " as, primarily at least, standing for 
" Geometry," the basis of all Operative Masonic Work, and including that 47th 
Proposition with which I am about to deal. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The Square is introduced to the Entered Apprentice as one of the three Great 
Lights of Freemasonry, to the Fellow-craftsman as one of the working tools of his 
Degree. It is also one of the Jewels of the Lodge, and the special Jewel of the Master 
of the Lodge. It is probably the most important tool of a Mason, whether an 
Operative or a Speculative one, for it connects and more or less includes the Level and 
the Plumb Rule, and it is the only tool by which the rough Ashlar can be prepared and 
tested ; and unless the ashlars are perfect the building cannot be built after any wise 
plan, or with strength, or with beauty. It is used to form the rude and to prove the 
perfect mass, and therefore it is of the utmost importance that an implement on which 
so much depends shall be itself perfectly correct. 

It is this last consideration especially which renders the 47th Proposition so 
appropriate an emblem of the P.M. 

The artificer employs the square to form the rude mass ; the Master to prove 
the work ; but whose duty is it to see that this most important tool is itself correct ? 
The most suitable person would seem to be the Past Master, he, having passed through 
the stages of using it and testing with it, would be most impressed with the necessity 
of its being correct. By what mode can he ensure the correctness of the Square ? How 
can he ensure that the angle between the two limbs of the Square shall be truly a right 
or square angle ? 

There are many ways known to modern science whereby this can be done, but 
the most ancient, and perhaps the simplest, is by means of the 47th Proposition of the 
first book of Euclid : and therefore the Past Master, one of whose chief duties it is to 
test the working tools, and who is supposed to have arrived at a complete skill in Free- 
masonry, wears it as part of his distinguishing Jewel : indeed the term Past Master 
is commonly used to describe anyone who is possessed of special knowledge in any 
particular department whatever. 

This Proposition is known certainly for twenty-four centuries, and probably 
much longer, and by it we can prove that in a triangle, one of the angles of which is a 
right angle, the square of the side opposite the right angle is equal to both the squares 
on the sides containing the right angle : it follows then that if we make any triangle in 
which the square of one side is equal to both the squares of the two other sides, then 
the angle opposite that side must be a true right angle, — the angle of a correct square. 

In the English Book of Constitutions of 1723 this Proposition appears on the 
Frontispiece, and it was spoken of then as, " That amazing Proposition which is the 
foundation of all Masonry." 

The diagram shown represents it 
as used by English Masons nearly 100 
years ago ; you will see that in order to 
get a correct square angle it is only neces- 
sary to make a triangle the sides of which 
shall be in the proportion 3-4-5. 

In connection with this it is of 
much interest to know that as the 
standard and symbol of perfection with 
Speculative Masons now is the Square, so 
this right angled triangle, which is 
almost identical, was with the Egyptians several thousand years ago the standard and 
symbol of perfection ; and they made it also the basis of all their measurements ; they 
looked on it as the symbol of Universal Nature, the side 4 being Osiris the male prin- 


Symbolism of the Square. 29 

oiple, 3 the female principle Isis, and 5 Horus the son, the product of these two 
principles ; — they said 3 was the first perfect odd number, that 4 was the square of 2 
the first even number, and 5 was the result of 3 and 2. 1 

In Freemasonry the Square is the Symbol of moral perfection : it is the Master's 
duty to apply the perfect square of right and truth to the work of the subordinates; 
but the far higher and greater responsibility rests on the Past Master of setting out, 
pointing out, and in himself exemplifying what Right in itself is, and what Truth is, — 
•of answering Pilate's question, " What is Truth ? " 

True Speculative Masonry teaches a man, by the industrious application of the 
principles of Eternal Truth and Right to the untaught material of humanity, to shape 
its thoughts and actions so as to erect from it a spiritual building, on sure foundations, 
with intelligent purpose, and admirable to contemplate. 

The Past Master represents one who has erected such a building ; but his having 
-done so places him under the responsibility of ensuring that those who are working 
for the same end shall not fail through want of his affording them, by precept and 
example, principles which have been put to the test and found to be those of absolute 
truth and correctness. 

It will be said, why then be a Past Master and incur all this responsibility ? but 
it is what one who lives through a Masonic life must come to, and is symbolic of what 
man is born to, whether he be a Freemason or not. 

There is no man but eats more or less of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, and 
incurs the responsibility attached thereto ; no man can escape being not only the keeper 
of his brother who is his equal, but also the far greater responsibility of being the keeper 
of those who are beginners and learners : and as they are influenced for good or evil, so 
will they be affected to the third and fourth generation. But it may be asked how it is 
that while in Masonry and in human life all the wear and tear and the responsibilities 
seem to attach to the workers of the different grades, and to the overseers of the work, 
yet that on the Past Master who has risen through all the grades, and who seems to 
have earned the calm of smooth waters, free from anxieties, lies the greatest responsi- 
bility of all ? The answer, which is a serious one, is this, that while he was a learner his 
work was carried on in sight and hearing, and he was accountable for it to those above 
him who were themselves liable to err ; but that now, as a Past Master, both for his 
own work and the correctness of the rules of Right which he supplies to the learners, 
he is accountable, not to Masons or to men, but to the Great Architect, the Grand 
•Geometrician, the God of the Universe. 

I may bring before you two instances of the Square being treated in a symbolic 
way, long before Speculative Masonry existed ; especially as the suggestions were 
singularly like to ours. 

Guillaume de Guileville, a Frenchman, who was born a.d. 1295 and died 1360, 
wrote a book called " Man's Pilgrimage " in which, in an imaginative " last will " of 
Jesus Christ, one clause contains a bequest to mankind of the " Pax Triplex," " Triple 
Tranquility," symbolized by P. AX. so disposed on the stem and one limb of a Latin 
cross, which forms a right angle, as to indicate the whole duty of man — his love to God 
and to his neighbour, in this way, — A. stands for Anima, the soul ; X. Kristos, Christ, 
firmly connected with the soul by love, but directly in the plumbline above it as superior ; 
P. Proximus, a neighbour, properly on the same level, and also firmly connected by love, 
but not so nearly as to X., Christ, as indicated by the longer stem of the cross. 2 

1 See the exhaustive paper on " The Great Symbol," by Bro. S. T. Klein, A.Q.C. x., p. 82 et seqq. 
j See W. H. Rylands, " Symbolism of the Square," A.Q.C. xiii., p. 28. 

30 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

The other instance came to light when, at the rebuilding of Baal's bridge, near 
Limerick, a brass square was found, inscribed with the date 1517, and with these words : 

" I will strive to live with love and care 
Upon the level, by the square." 

This was the sentiment of a purely Operative Mason, and is still a fit sentiment for a. 
Speculative one 400 years afterwards. 

Bro. G. W. Speth said: — I have often in former years asked some experienced 
Past Master to explain to me what the 47th Proposition was the symbol of. Invariably 
the answer has been, " It is the symbol of a Past Master." On my pointing out that 
it was nothing of the sort, that it was the badge of a Past Master, and asking what it 
symbolised, my elders have been puzzled. The fact is that the symbol has been with us 
from before 1723, it is figured on the frontispiece of Anderson's Constitutions of that 
date, that at some time or other it came to distinguish the P.M., and that nobody knows 
why. Bro. Greene has furnished a very plausible reason for the choice, but he has 
failed to show that it was the reason which actuated our predecessors. It may have 
been, it seems a very possible one, but nowhere shall we find any indication of it. 
But, whether it be the historical reason or not, we Past Masters can now at least 
furnish a plausible explanation of the use of the Proposition, and should be much 
obliged to our Brother for supplying it. 

Bro. Greene might have gone much farther back than he has done to find uses of 
the Square analogous to that of Speculative Freemasonry. In 1880 Bro. Herbert A. 
Giles, W.M. of Ionic Lodge, No. 1781, Amoy, delivered an address on " Freemasonry in 
China," which has been twice subsequently printed. As the book is somewhat scarce, 
I will extract several passages of interest to us. 

" From time immemorial we find the square and compasses used by Chinese 
writers to symbolise precisely the same phases of moral conduct as in our system of 
Freemasonry. The earliest passage known to me which bears upon the subject is to be 
found in the Book of History, embracing a period reaching from the 24th to the 7th 
century before Christ. There, in an account of a military expedition, we read, 

' Ye officers of government, apply the compasses !' 

and in another part of the same venerable record a magistrate is spoken of as ' the man 
of the level,' or ' the level man.' 

" The published Discourses of Confucius provide us with several masonic allusions 
of a more or less definite character. For instance, when recounting his own degrees 
of moral progress in life, the Master tells us that only at seventy-five years of age could 
he venture to follow the inclinations of his heart without fear of ' transgressing the 
limits of the square.' This would be 481 B.C. But it is in the works of his great follower, 
Mencius, who flourished nearly two hundred years later, that we meet with a fuller 
and more expressive Masonic phraseology. In one chapter we are taught that just as the 
most highly skilled artificers are unable, without the aid of the square and compasses, 
to produce perfect rectangles or perfect circles, so must all men apply these tools 
figuratively to their lives, and the level and the marking-line besides, if they would 
walk in the straight and even paths of wisdom, and keep themselves within the bounds 
of honour and virtue. 

The Square in Chinese Literature and Shakespeare. 31 

" In Book iv. we read, 

' The compasses and the square are the embodiment of the rectangular and of 
the round, just as the prophets of old were the embodiment of the due relationships 
beeween man and man.' 

" In Book vi. we find these words, 

' A master mason, in teaching his apprentices, makes use of the compasses and 
the square. Ye who are engaged in the pursuit of wisdom must also make use of the 
compasses and the square.' 

" In the Great Learning, admitted on all sides to date from between three and 
five hundred years before Christ, in chapter x., we read that a man should abstain from 
doing- unto others what he would not thev should do unto him ; ' and this,' adds the 
writer, 'is called the principle of acting on the square.' " 

Bro. Giles gives many more quotations from early and more recent writers, as 
also familiar expressions of everyday life in China, but the above will doubtless suffice 
to indicate the high antiquity of the ideas we Freemasons associate with the square and 

It is somewhat curious that in the Bible, where so many metaphors are borrowed 
from the operation of building, more especially by St. Paul, I have failed to find any 
symbolic allusion to the square, compasses, or level, but the line and plummet is thus 
employed. In that other standard of our English tongue, the works of William Shakes- 
peare, there is ample evidence that at the date he wrote, our working tools, or some of 
them, were habitually used metaphorically in the sense with which we now employ 
them. There is one allusion to a trowel, which it might be straining the evidence to 
include, and there is one to a line and level, in which the humour consists in the fact 
that a couple of disreputable rascals are about to commit a dishonest action according 
to implements which palpably inculcate strict rectitude. 

We steal by line and level. — Tempest, iv., 1. 

Such others as I have found all relate to the square, and all indicate that the 
square was looked upon as the very essence of rectitude, correctness and honesty. 

All have not offended, 
For those that were, it is not square to take 
On those that are, revenge : crimes, like lands, 
Are not inherited. — Timon of Athens, v., 5. 

She's a most triumphant lady, if report be square to her. 

— Ant. and Gleop., ii., 2. 
My Octavia, 
Read not my blemishes in the world's report ; 
I have not kept my square, but that to come 
Shall all be done by rule. — Ant. and Gleop., ii., 2. 

Fie, fie ! how franticly I square my talk. — Titus And., iii., 2. 

Dreams are toys ; 
Yet for this once, yea, superstitiously, 
I will be squar'd by this. — Winter's Tale, iii., 3. 

O ! that ever I 
Had squared me to thy counsel. — Ibid, v., 1. 

Thou art said to have a stubborn soul, 

That apprehends no further than this world, 

And squar'st thy life accordingly. — Meas. for Meas., v., 1. 

32 • Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Bro. W. H. Rylands said that in his opinion no reason whatever was in anyone's 
mind when the 47th Proposition gradually came to be recognised as the distinguishing 
mark of a Past Master. Its use for this purpose was very recent, prints of the 
beginning of this century shewed the Past Masters with a compass attached to their 
collars. The compass had always been esteemed the highest emblem, as the real instru- 
ment was undoubtedly the most important. If he wished to manufacture a square he 
would certainly employ the compass, and not the 47th Proposition. Bro. Rylands 
intimated that he would put his views into writing at greater length than he could 
express them on the spur of the moment. 

Bro. Hugh James wished once more to recall to the memory of the brethren that 
the Proposition in question was not the discovery of Euclid : it was known ages before 

Bro. Sydney T. Klein said I have already in my paper on " The Great Symbol," 
page 100, shown that the figure of the Pythagorean Theorem was looked upon during 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as the Symbol of Highest Knowledge and 
suggested that it was eventually, on that account, allocated to those who were Past 
Masters in learning, they having passed through the Chair of King Solomon. There is 
nothing in the Ritual to suggest that the duty of a Past Master involved proving 
anything in a Lodge, on the contrary, the Ritual clearly shows that the duty of proving 
necessarily rested entirely with the Junior Warden. I made that discovery the 
moment I received my Collar of Office and found myself placed in that Chair for the 
first time (vide A.Q.G. ix., p. 165.) The Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem does not rest 
on the ratio of the sides of a Triangle, but entirely on the fact that the Square on the 
Hypothenuse is divided into two parts respectively equal to the Squares on the two sides, 
by a plumb-line let fall from the right angle ; without that plumb-line the proving would 
be impossible and the badge of Office of the Junior Warden is therefore this plumb-line. 
The three pedestals form the right angled triangle and the duty of the Junior Warden, 
placed at the right angle with a plumb-line as his Badge of Office, is to make proof 
where necessary. 

I agree with Bro. Rylands that the Compass is the most important instrument 
for making or proving a square. I have already shown in my paper on " The Great 
Symbol " that any number of right-angled triangles may be drawn on a given straight 
line and that the right angle of each of these triangles will be on the circumference of 
a circle of which that line is the diameter. As shown in my " reply to discussion on 
The Great Symbol," page 109, the German Masons in the fifteenth century made their 
Squares on this principle, the only instrument they required was a piece of string or a 
lath of wood of any convenient length, which was a much simpler process than having 
to measure three lengths along one side, four lengths on another, and five lengths along 
the remaining side of a triangle to make or prove a right angle. 

The quotations given by Bro. Speth from Bro. Giles' Address on the Chinese are 
very interesting ; in China the two most famous Temple Areas are laid out in the forms 
of a Circle and a Square, the Temple of Heaven being circular and the Temple of Earth 
being square. 

There are some curious passages in the Old Testament which seem to refer 
symbolically to the plumb-line, namely : — Amos vii., verses 7 and 8; II. Kings xxi., 13; 
Isaiah xxviii., 17 ; Zech. iv., 10. 

Discussion. 33 

Bro. G. W. Speth said that in the absence of the writer of the paper he desired 
to say a few words of reply on his behalf. The object of the paper was to supply some 
sufficient reason why the Past Master was distinguished by a certain emblem. Such 
reason had been suggested by Bro. Klein. His paper on "The Great Symbol" was 
most exhaustive, dealt with it from every conceivable point of view, and was very 
insistent upon the importance to a Master Mason of a true knowledge of the square. 
But the reason assigned by him was not the one given by Bro. Greene, which was 
that the Past Master wore the emblem because his duty was to test the squares of the 
fellows and that this proposition, or at least the rule of 3, 4, 5, to be derived from it, 
would enable him to do so. That was the theory of Bro. Greene, and though it did not 
seem to be historically tenable, and herein Bro. Speth agreed with Bro. Kylands, and 
although it was not intrinsically better than Bro. Klein's, yet it was a plausible post 
hoc propter hoc reason. 

Bro. Speth could not agree with either Bro. Rylands or Bro. Klein that the 
compasses were a better instrument wherewith either to make or to test a square. True, 
if it were desired to draw a right angle on a sheet of paper or a board, then the compasses 
would be decidedly the more convenient. But that was not the problem, which was to 
make a builder's square, the implement itself, or to test one already made. No builder 
with such a task before him would do otherwise than mark off along one side of the 
square three units, inches or feet or yards, according to its size, along the other side 
four units, and across the two, five units. Every bricklayer at the present day follows 
this course, and no other. If thej agreed, the square, be it a tool, or a plot of land, or 
a corner of a building, was correct. The compasses would not help him in the least. 
Or if a workman desired to construct a square, he would take a lath of 3 feet, one of 
4, and one of 5, and joining them altogether at the points, he had his square 
infallibly correct. It was well to keep the different operations of an architect or 
draughtsman at his drawing board and those of a workman on the ground, distinct in 
one's mind. In the first case a straight edge and a pair of compasses answered 
admirably, in the other without the rule of 3, 4, 5, deducible from the 47th 
Proposition, the operative would be at a sad loss. 

Bro. Speth concluded by proposing a vote of thanks to Bro. Greene which was 
heartily accorded. 



I heard, and have now read with interest the paper by Brother Greene ; we 
must all welcome papers of this kind, as it is just one of that class of communications 
which does much towards the proper understanding of our symbols and badges, because 
it calls attention to many points which as yet have not been satisfactorily explained. 
At the same time it forces a discussion and brings out statements of various views, 
which must add something to our general knowledge. 

Personally I am glad to see the subject of the 47th Proposition in its connection 
with Freemasonry, again before the Lodge ; as I very humbly claim the merit of having 
revived an interest in the matter, by calling special attention to Anderson's statement, 
that " it is the foundation of all Masonry if properly observed," in my paper on " Some 
Masonic Symbols," read before the Lodge in May, 1895. {Trans, vol. viii., p. 94). 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

It would occupy too much space to enter into the subject of the " Dominant 
Numbers" of buildings, which were touched upon in my Notes and seem to me to bear so 
directly on the subject. I then threw out the hint of the importance of this problem in 
the construction of buildings : and I am still convinced that it formed an essential part 
of the geometry employed in the planning of great buildings, both in the ground-plan 
and in the elevation. 1 Those who may wish to pursue this most interesting 
subject may be referred to the excellent papers by my late and much lamented friend 
Mr. E. W. Cox, who very thoroughly explained and discussed the matter in his com- 
munications to the following Societies. He also most kindly added some remarks to the 
" Notes " already mentioned. 

Mr. Cox's papers are as follows : Journal of the Architectural Archaeological 
Society of Chester, vol. v., p. 239, Chester Castle : Trans. Historic Society of 
Lancashire and Cheshire: New Series, iv., 121, Some account of Garston: vi., 195, The 
Castle at Liverpool : vii. and viii., 305, Overchurch : and 326 : x., 123, Birkenhead 
Priory : xii., 95, Lancaster Castle : xiii., 47, Storeton in Wirrall : and 97, Bebbington 

Bro. Greene asks the question how the set square, i.e. a right angle is made: 
I should say, in geometry, certainly not from the 47th Proposition, but with the com- 
passes. If it was desired to make a right angle, the common method, as pointed out by 
our W.M. Bro. Conder (vol. x., p. 105) would be employed, or the earlier Propositions 
of the first book of Euclid. 

The first Proposition of the I. Book of Euclid is to describe an equilateral triangle 
on a given finite line. Prof. Cockerell (Arch. Inst. 1845) notices that the architectural 
writers throughout the sixteenth century recommend this figure, chiefly as that geo- 
metrical rule by which, "two lines may be drawn on the ground at right angles with 
each other in any scale, according to the conception of Euclid's mind." 

In order to commence the 47th Proposition, it is necessary to construct a right- 
angled triangle, without which the Proposition could not be made : the 47th does not 
teach us how to make a right-angle, but is worked on one, when made : and the way to 
lay this foundation for the Proposition, geometrically, is shown in the earlier problems : 
and it is with the compasses. It is clear that the right-angle or set-square is not 
constructed by the 47th Proposition, but the proving of the Proposition is by the right- 
angle. The Proposition then demands a previous knowledge of how to make a right- 

When Bro. Purdon Clarke read his most interesting and valuable paper on the 
Tracing Board, {Trans. 1893, vol. vi., p. 99), I produced some drawings many 

VSee Gwilt's Encyclopaedia of Architecture, by W. Papworth (page 963 seq.), where Mr. E. 
Cresy's principles of proportion in ancient buildings are explained. They were published so far back as 



thousands of years old, which bear on the present subject. The first is taken from the 
work by Prisse d'Avennes/'Histoire de 1'ArtEgyptien," of which the text was written by 
P. Marchandon de la Faye (1879) : On page 123, is the wood-cut and the following 
description, " On voit a Sakkara, dans le tombeau inacbeve de Manofre, qui vivaita, 
l'epoque de la V e dynastie, une suite de petites figures tracees a la sanguine sur 
lesquelles sont indiques les lignes etles points destines a servir de guides au dessinateur ; 
cependant ces di verses marques nous paraissent n'avoir aucun rapport direct avec les 
veritables echelles de proportion employees." 

It is quite possible that the lines and dots are not connected with a regular canon 
of proportion : they clearly show, however, the use of the right-angle. Another still 
earlier instance may be given from " The Pyramids of Gizeh," by Colonel Howard Vyse, 
published in 1840, (vol. i., p. 278), of which the author writes: "There were many 
quarry-marks similar to those in the other chambers, and also several red lines crossing 

each other at right-angles, with black equilateral triangles described near the inter- 
sections, in order probably to obtain a right-angle." 

These marks were found in a chamber in the Great Pyramid which was opened 
by Colonel Vyse. The Great Pyramid as is well known was built by Khufu or Cheops, 
a king of the Second Dynasty. 

I do not venture to touch upon the symbolism associated by the ancient Egyptians 
with the triangle : Greek and other influence brought in ideas, very foreign to the 
notions of the more ancient worship. 

Truth with the Egyptians, as I pointed out in my Notes on Symbols, was that 
which never altered, it was a fixed immoveable law, and might well have been symbolised 
by the right angle or set square. The triangle having three sides may naturally be 
associated with the triads : but was it not the equilateral triangle, which unless 
bisected, does not contain a right-angle ? 

It is clear to me now, in the discussion following Bro. Greene's paper, that Bro. 
Speth and myself were looking at the subject of the 47th Proposition from different 
points of view : he had I think in his mind the ready method of constructing or proving 
the correctness of a set square, or right-angle, by the rule of 3, 4 and 5, one of the many 
points connected in a kind of way with the Proposition : I, on the contrary, was con- 
sidering the 47th as only commencing as I have said, when the right-angle had been 
formed : and was thinking at the same time of the construction of a set-square by 
geometry, he by rule of thumb. 

To pass from the geometrical portion of the 47th Proposition, and turn to the use 
of it in Freemasonry as the badge or jewel of a Past Master. I said in my remarks as 
above, that I considered this badge was given to the Past Master without any 
special reason : and that the use of the Proposition in this connection seemed to me to 
date from a very modern period. I said this because the badge in early times is not 
speciallyassociated with that office in Freemasons' Lodges or, so far as is known, in those 
of the Operatives. 

36 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

To return to the square, it was certainly the working tool of the fellow of craft 
in Operative Masonry, and the apprentice learnt how to use it : but the fellow of craft 
was out of his time and had served his apprenticeship, and was really a Master Mason. 

The Master, or Past Master, of an Operative Lodge so far as I have been able to 
discover, had no badge or jewel : they had, however, certain working tools which their 
rank in the Craft allowed them to use. 

When the office of Past Master became a well acknowledged position in Specu- 
lative Masonry it became necessary to find a suitable badge ; and at a late period the 
47th Proposition was added to the Master's square, which the Past Master already had 
had the right to wear. There is, however, no evidence of anything of the kind in any 
of the earliest jewels known. 

As I attempted to show in my Notes on Masonic Symbols, the real old symbolism 
or secrets were all but lost at the break up of the guilds : only the ghost of them 
remained. Of course an apprentice had always to learn to square stones, even when 
only simple walls were to be built: but the Master Mason of old who ruled over the 
Operative Lodge had little to do with squaring stones : his was the Master Mind that 
planned and worked out the great construction of a building, according to the rules of 
Geometry, or as it was called, " Mason Craft." 

The Master Mason's tools were the square and compasses, and it is only when the 
position of Master was reached, that he had the combination of the two instruments. 

The Master of an Operative Lodge was a skilled Master Mason, who employed 
other Master Masons, Fellows, and under them Apprentices, to carry out the work he 
himself had planned. It was therefore a position, earned by some considerable study 
and skill : and in no sense was it anything approaching to a degree. 

In the Notes, so often referred to, I brought forward some of the reasons why 
the letter G- could only be considered as referring to Geometry : and I then figured 
a design from an edition of Ptolemy's Geography, printed in the year 1525. The com- 
bination of the square and compasses with the letter G in the centre, evidently referred 
to the art of Geometry, otherwise Masonry, and it may be pointed out these symbols 
are, in the original, appropriately placed in the panel of a column supporting the spring 
of an arch. It only requires the chain suspending the letter G, and the ring at the top 
of the compasses, to make it a perfect Irish Past Master's jewel. 

The badge of the Master in the Speculative Lodges was a square, which he wore 
round his neck : and it will be observed that upon the pottery of the second half of the 
eighteenth century, he is so represented : and that he holds in his hands the compasses, 
the great instrument of his skill ; and that the dial before him marks the hour of 

It must be noted that in the engraved frontispiece of the 1723 Book of Consti- 
tutions, the Peer in the robes of the Garter, is handing to the figure in the robes of a 
Duke, not only the " Constitutions," but also a pair of compasses. 

Again, in the frontispiece of Cole's engraved Constitutions of 1728-29, the centre 
figure, the Master, who wears the apron, is showing the compasses to his companions, 
one of whom, on his right hand, holds the set-square, and the figure on his left the 

In the frontispiece of the Pocket Companion of 1736, the Master is asking infor- 
mation from the Spirit of Geometry, who is working on the tracing board with the 
compasses ; the square, level and plumb lying at her feet. 

In the well-known picture by Bartolozzi, representing Ruspini leading the pro- 
cession of the girls' school down the Hall, it is interesting to notice that Ruspini, the 

Discussion. 37 

Prince of Wales and William Forssteen all three wear a pair of compasses banging by 
a riband about their necks. The print was engraved in 1801, Sir John Earner, whose 
name appears in the key, with the addition of " The Right Hon bIe . The Lord Mayor of 
London," having been Lord Major in that year. The compasses which agree very well 
with the other engravings mentioned above may be indicative of the office of Master. 
It cannot be specially of the Grand Master, as the same instrument is worn by both 
Forssteen and Ruspiui : the only difference in the three jewels being that the one worn 
by the Prince is of a slightly older form. 

As Mackey says in his Cyclopaedia, "In the earliest rituals of the last century, 
the compasses are described as a part of the furniture of the Lodge, and are said to 
belong to the Master." 

One at least of the compasses intended to be worn has survived, in it the legs, 
which measure about four inches iu length, are fixed at the usual turning place: the 
whole instrument is of silver, and the top is fitted with a silver ring for suspension. 
The date letter is 1806. 

Another example, also in my possession, is the same plain fixed compasses, in 
this instance with a set-square fastened across the legs, as usually arranged : this bears 
the inscription " Lodge 520." The legs are about three and a half inches in length, and 
it is not so well finished as the one just mentioned. Unfortunately there is no date 
mark, it must, however, have been made between 1780 and 1813, I think somewhere 
about the year 1800. 

The facts may be summed up as follows : the Apprentice learnt to use the square, 
level and plumb : the Fellow of Craft used the set-square : and to the Master specially 
belonged the instrument, which was the key to the secrets of Geometry, and by the use 
of which a right-angle, or the set-square, as well as much else was made. Thus the Old 
operative customs were continued in Speculative Lodges. 

Bro. Sadler expresses the opinion in his " Masonic Facts and Fictions " (page 12) 
that in the early period of Freemasonry, no jewels were worn, even by the Grand 
Master himself : and points to the portrait of Anthony Sayer, the Grand Master in 
1717, who is represented wearing a plain leather apron, but no jewel of any kind. The 
same may be said of Montgomery the Grand Guarder. 

Bro. Sadler also quotes a most important minute of the Grand Lodge, as 
follows : 24th June, 1727. " Resolved Nem. Con. that in all private Lodges and 
Quarterly Communications and General Meetings the Ma[ste]r and Wardens do wear 
the Jewells of Masonry hanging to a White Ribbon (vizt.) That the Ma[ste]r wear the 
Square, the Senr. Warden the Levell, and the Junr. Warden the Plumb rule." 

The italics are mine. This minute can only denote one of two things : either a 
diversity of jewels, i.e. that a different arrangement of the Jewels from that mentioned, 
was in use at the time : or it refers to the commencement of the use of collar jewels. I 
must confess that I agree with Bro. Sadler : and Avould add that the wording of the 
minute seems to me to point directly to his conclusion. 

In the Operative Lodges, and the transitional period about the year 1716, the 
officers had the "Jewels of the Lodge" specially belonging to each. Tlje minute of 
1727 seems to point to the idea of wearing the Jewels instead of using them. 

It seems to me also more than probable that the jewels worn by the Grand 
Officers were, in the first instance, of the same form as those worn in the ordinary 
Lodges : and so continued down to a fairly late period. 

Of course difficulties always arise in such cases : and the question may be asked, 
what becomes of the old bronze jewel found at Corfu, and published in the Transactions 

38 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

vol. iii., page 62 : and the more peculiar jewel, found in the Lavant Caves (Trans., vol. 
xi., page 171 : which in my note on it, I ought to have mentioned, bears traces of having 
been gilded ; both of these having been attributed to the seventeenth century. 

It mast not be overlooked that both of them are of small size, and would not be 
suitable for collar-jewels : and remembering the ornament in the edition of Ptolemy's 
Geography of 1525, and other examples of the square and compasses, the idea suggests 
itself, that there may have been badges of Freemasonry, although there were no collar- 

It is certain, from the above minute, that the set-square became the collar- 
jewel of the Master in the year 1727. It is however, a question whether the Past 
Master was possessed of any special jewel at all. The 47th Proposition, which now 
forms a part of the Past Master's jewel, plays always a very minor part, and is placed 
with the ashlar and other emblems (See Trans., vol. viii., 15, 28) : and although among 
the objects sometimes found both on the early jewels, the aprons, and the pottery of a 
later period, the badges of some of the Officers of a Lodge are included 1 , I do not feel 
satisfied that the 47th Proposition in these instances refers to the Past Master: indeed 
I think it cannot do so. 

I have said that the 47th Proposition occupies a minor place on the old jewels 
and other designs, it is however only as regards the main design, for as an emblem or 
symbol it occupies one of the most important places. It is found on the tracing board, 
and on a partly unrolled scroll, which when blank I do not think is intended for the 
Roll of the "Constitutions," but is evidently intended to convey the idea of "draught 
or plan " : the 47th Proposition though perhaps not fully understood, still had the 
credit of being " the foundation of all Masonry." It takes its place among other emblems 
on an engraving of 1797, of one of the " plates " said to have been worn by Freemasons, 
suspended by a riband round the neck. It is so represented as to be almost unrecog- 
nisable, and very like a letter Y: still the explanation must not be omitted. — "A 
machine used by Masons for forming triangles." 

The 47th Proposition is first met with in Speculative Masonry, on the frontis- 
piece of the 1723 edition of the Constitutions : and it is worthy of notice that it occurs 
on the pavement with the word Heureka in Greek characters immediately between the 
two figures in the centre of the picture, directly beneath the arch above. It cannot in 
this instance be connected with a badge of office, but, as I have said before, it is sym- 
bolical, and seems to refer to the idea contained in Anderson's statement that it is the 
foundation of all Masonry. 

The Master Masons' jewels of the eighteenth century often contain a multitude 
of symbols and objects : the main characteristics of them are however, the compasses 
and the segment of a circle, marked with ninety degrees, or the fourth part of a circle. 
Sometimes the set-square is placed between the two : and at times the letter G seems 
to enfold them in its curves (See Transactions, vol. xiii., p. 76). At other times the 
letter G hangs from an arch (see the Scotch jewel, dated 1779, Trans., vol. vii., p. 89), 
the arch being a triumph of geometrical building. The 47th Proposition, whenever it 
appears on these jewels, on the aprons, or on the pottery, never takes a rank, as I have 
said, equal t<t the compasses, segment, set-square, or the letter G. 

The jewel of the Past Master of the period is to be seen on the base of the well- 
known bust of William Preston : it is the compasses distended on the segment of a 
circle marked with ninety degrees 2 ; and between the two is the sun in its splendour. 

1 The Grand Secretary's jewel was the cross pens in a knot, in 1739 : The Grand Sword 
Bearer had a jewel before 1745, and the Grand Treasurer's jewel was the cross keys in a knot, in 1755. 

2 If the compasses are distended at forty-five degrees, it is simply half the right angle. 

Discussion. 39 

In an engraving of John Cole, the same jewel is worn round the neck, with 
the exception that the sun is placed immediately above the compasses, on the riband : 
the portrait is dated April the 7th, 1809. 

Another portrait of Cole, published in 1801, with the same jewel, bears the 
words " A Past Master," giving the numbers of four Lodges. 

These may be compared with several jewels of earlier date that have been 
published in the Transactions : for instance, vol. vii., page 86, fig. 2, dated 1790 : the 
same volume, page 144 : vol. viii., page 52, dated 5775, upon this jewel the 47th 
Proposition does not appear. Two jewels, both belonging to a Scotch Lodge, are called, 
the former Master's Jewel, vol. viii., page 109 : and the present Master's Jewel, some- 
thing the same in form as the other, is given on page 110 : Also the " W.M. Jewel," of 
the extinct Lodge of Kirkaldy (vol. viii., page 236). 

One with the compasses and segment without the square is figured in volume ix., 
page 54. There is also the interesting jewel of the " Antients," with the compasses 
and segment : the square and the letter G, both of small size, being placed in the 
centre : there is no 47th Proposition to be seen. (Transactions, vol. x., page 160). 

It is needless to multiply the examples : one thing however, appears quite clear, 
the 47th Proposition was not an essential characteristic of the jewel of a Past Master. 

In the portrait of H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales, as the Grand Master, 
published in 1802, and that of Dunckerley as a Provincial Grand Master, published 
in December, 1789, the collar jewel represented is a pair of compasses with the points 
upon a segment of a circle. 

It matters little, and probably the maker cared less if the segment of the circle 
was really ninety degrees, so long as the necessary numerals were engraved upon it : 
the points of the compasses were intended to mark the segment of a circle, by which, 
when the lines were drawn from the circumference to the centre, a right angle was made. 
This is certainly the basis of a set square, but the arrangement rather points out the 
power of the compasses. 

To follow for a moment the introduction of the 47th Proposition. Another 
arrangement of the badges or jewels of the Lodge is found, and it is to be noticed that 
the segment is here omitted. The jewel of the Immediate Past Master, now in the 
possession of the Royal Alpha Lodge, No. 16, formerly belonging to the old Royal 
Lodge, made between 1764 and 1822, and probably nearer the earlier date than the 
later. It is a combination made of the square, the compasses points upwards, the level 
upon which is the letter G in a circle, and the plumb ; the last of these divides the 
tilted 47th Proposition and the closed Bible. The Proposition is placed on a "plate," 1 
or it may be intended for the tracing board. " The foundation of all Masonry " is here 
brought into a prominent position, and associated with the Foundation of our Faith. 

Another example of the same arrangement is figured in the Transactions, vol. xii., 
page 65, and with slight differences, in other jewels figured in the Transactions : a 
Scotch Jewel dated 1 774 and given for service nine years as Master (vol. vii., page 89) ; 
another Scotch Jewel, vol. viii., page 32 ; another dated 5768, vol. vii., page 145 ; and 
an Irish Jewel dated 1763, figured in a very interesting communication from Bro. Dr. 
Chetwode Crawley, on Irish Jewels (vol. viii., page 111). 

It is to be noticed that in the example mentioned above (vol. vii., page 89), the 
open Bible is balanced by an open blank scroll, upon which is a pen, placed as if the 
work of drawing was to be commenced : in another example mentioned (vol. vii., page 

1 In some jewels the place of the 47th Proposition is occupied by the circle square and triangle. 
A very good example is in the Grand Lodge Museum. 

40 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

145) there is no Bible represented, but the scroll is completed by having the 47th 
Proposition drawn upon it : just as in the other examples referred to above, where the 
scroll thus charged appeal's instead of the tracing board as one of the symbols. 

In no instance that I can call to mind does the scroll appear on either jewel, 
apron or pottery, in such a manner that it can be taken as representing the Roll of the 
Constitutions ; indeed, such a thing would be quite out of place. The scroll bore the 
plan, as in the frontispiece of Pine's Engraved List of 1725, where the Master Mason 
with the set-square in one hand, unfolds with the other the ground-plan of the Temple 
before Solomon the King. If the plan or draught was not upon the scroll, then it 
contains the problem, by the use of which the Master was enabled to produce his 

Rightly perhaps the 47th Proposition should belong to the Master, and 
necessarily, therefore, to the Past Master. I cannot, however, think that the 
characteristic portion of the Jewel of a Past Master, was either the Bible or the 
Proposition. It would properly contain as the principal features, some or all of those 
working tools whose uses were so well known to the Master. 

I have seen no earlier example of the Jewel of a Past Master with the 47th 
Proposition hanging within the angle of the set-square than about the year 1800. At 
first it was what has been called the " gallows square," but later, the fashion changed, 
and sometime a little before the year 1840, no doubt with the idea of six on one side 
and half-a-dozen on the other, it was made to balance. Thus the proper position of the 
square, with one arm vertical and the other at a right angle to it was destroyed. 
In the plates at the end of the "Constitutions" of 1841, it is thus represented. The 
two forms may be contrasted in the drawings at the beginning of Bro. Greene's paper. 

The jewel of a Past Master under the Irish Constitution has preserved, as I have 
pointed out, one of the earliest combinations, to denote geometry or masonry : in the 
jewel of a Scotch Past Master is found, I believe, one of the early forms in use in 
England : and that of the English Past Master is a composition that can be dated, at the 
earliest, from the end of the eighteenth century. 

In the above remarks I have confined myself, as nearly as possible, to the jewels 
which have been figured in the Transactions. 

The subject of Masonic jewels, and the reasons why they were each adopted, as well 
as the gradual extension and development, has never yet been attempted. I fear many 
points can never be settled with any certainty until we have an illustrated catalogue of 
all the jewels known. This has often been the subject of conversation between Bro. 
Speth and myself ; a kind of vision that we hoped, and still hope to see realised. 

Thanks to the excellent draughtsmanship of Bro. Speth and his daughter, the 
Lodge has made a good start, by publishing as many jewels as have been submitted to 
its notice. This has naturally involved a considerable amount of labour, which must 
not be overlooked : but a great deal more has to be done. To add to this collection is in 
every way desirable, and I would therefore ask every Brother who has in his possession 
an old jewel to have an imprint taken from it, or take one himself : it is not a difficult 
thing to do after a little practice, or, better still, allow us to see the jewel itself. 

In sending an imprint, it would be well to send two copies and in every instance 
where they exist to note the silver mark stamped upon the jewel, as this fixes the date 
at which it was made. By this means it will be possible, as time goes on, to collect the 
blocks necessary for the publication of the catalogue. I cannot urge this plan too 
strongly, for as I have said, it is only by the systematic arrangement of the old jewels, 
which have survived the temptation of the melting pot, that any definite conclusion 
becomes possible. 

Reply to Discussion. 


A few words from me in conclusion may not be out of place. Bro. Speth's 
enlargement on ancient views of the Square and others of our symbols is most 
interesting, and reminds us that the Chinese are " not all the bad " as we say in Ireland ; 
but that we may hope yet to learn as much good of them as we now know of bad. 

His remarks on the making or testing of a Square convey what I intended. I 
purposely put aside the paper and compass or other methods as I wished to take the 
symbolism from the actual mode that is, and I believe always has been, adopted by 

operative masons. 

The remarks of Bros. S. T. Klein and W. H. By lands are especially acceptable, 
both from the amount of valuable matter they include and from their references to 
former works and papers, enabling those who will to read up the whole subject. 

Finally I tender my thanks to the Quatuor Coronati Lodge and to the brethren 
who have taken part in the discussion for the way in which they have received and 
dealt with a small Paper from a member of a Provincial Lodge in Ireland. 

It was taken as intended, not as dogmatic or controversial, but rather as 

Any success it has had I look on to have been that with so slight a stroke it has 
caused the waters of interesting information to flow so abundantly. 

Thomas Greene. 

42 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



LTHOUGH not desiring unduly to take up space by dwelling at any 
length on the very substantial merits of " French Prisoners' 
Lodges," which has been so favourably reviewed in the journals of 
our Society, I trust nevertheless to be allowed to mention in these 
columns the great pleasure it has afforded me to peruse the deeply 
interesting pages of the little work which has been so successfully 
launched by the much respected Secretary of the " Lodge of Research." 

Among the Lodges established by Prisoners of War, which are noticed by Bro. 
John T. Thorp (in the publication referred to above) was Les Amis en Captivite, in the 
Island of Malta, and a fragment of its early history, related in the autobiography of a 
French Sergeant, may perhaps not be unacceptable to the readers of our Transactions. 

This, however, will be introduced in its proper chronological sequence, as the 
entire personal Memoir of Robert Guillemard abounds "with Masonic interest, from the 
date of his first joining the French Army as a conscript, in 1805, in which year the 
most illustrious of all the British Admirals who have belonged to the Fraternity, 
received a fatal wound at his hands, down to 1815, when he assisted Joachim Murat — 
King of Naples, and Marshal of France — a conspicuous Freemason, in escaping from 
Toulon to Corsica, and accompanied him on his expedition to the coast of Calabria, 
where Murat lost his life. 

Guillemard's work, which purports to be a narrative of the Adventures of a 
French Sergeant, during his campaigns in Italy, Spain, Germany and Russia, from 1805 
to 1823, written by himself, was first published by Delaforest, at Paris, in 1825. An 
English edition issued by Henry Colburn, London, followed in 1826, and a year later a 
German translation appeared at Leipzic, bearing a discriminating but commendatory 
preface from the pen of Goethe. A reprint of the English edition was issued by 
Hutchinson and Co. in 1898. 

Robert Guillemard — born at Sixfour, near Toulon — was drawn as a conscript in 
1805, and soon after sent on board Admiral Villenueve's fleet. He was present at the 
battle of Trafalgar, and there can be little or any doubt that he was the man who shot 
Lord Nelson. According to his own narrative : — " On the poop of the English vessel 
was an officer covered with orders, and with only one arm. From what I had heard of 
Nelson, I had no doubt that it was he. As I had received no orders to go down, and 
saw myself forgotten in the tops, I thought it my duty to fire on the poop of the 
English vessel, which I saw quite exposed and close to me. All at once I saw great 
confusion on board the Victory, the men crowded round the officer whom I had taken 
for Nelson. He had just fallen, and was taken below, covered with a cloak. The 
agitation shewn at this moment left me no doubt that I had judged rightly, and that 
it really was the English Admiral .... At any rate, from the moment in which 
he received his wound, and from the position of the wound itself, I could not doubt for 
"a moment that I was the author ; and I have ever since been fully convinced of it." 

After the action, Guillemard became secretary to Villeneuve, accompanied him 
on his return to France, and saw him assassinated at Rennes. He then joined the 
Army in Germany, and was present with his regiment at the siege of Stralsund, in 

Initiation of Guillemard. 43 

1807, under the command of Marshal Brune (who was himself a member and Grand 
Officer of our Fraternity), and received his promotion to the rank of Corporal for 
conspicuous gallantry in the field, on the 6th of August in that year. 

Shortly afterwards, and during the continuance of the siege, Robert Guillemard 
was made a Freemason, and the story of his initiation he thus relates : — 

" Amidst all the confusion and noise, there still were moments occupied in pleasure 
and in sport, which Frenchmen seek and find in every situation. The fete of St. 
Napoleon was celebrated by races, games, dances, and extraordinary distributions. The 
same day I was the object of a ceremony tbat I cannot pass over without notice. In 
recompense of my conduct in the action of the 6th of August, I had been proposed to 
the Masonic Lodge of the regiment, and my reception was fixed for the day of St. 
Napoleon. It took place accordingly, with all the splendour circumstances admitted, 
in a hut about fifteen feet in length and six in breadth, where there was no room to 
stand up, but which served as the temple notwithstanding. After having made my 
journeys, which were not very long ones, undergone the trials by fire and water, and 
the usual tricks, received the signs, words, touches, and other forms, the adjutant, who 
was our orator, addressed me a very fine speech, in which he explained to me the sub- 
limity of the character I had just obtained, by creating me a child of the true light, 
and all the happiness I should thereby derive. I was afterwards present at the dinner, 
and it may easily be imagined how delighted I was on hearing myself called brother by 
our Colonel and the rest of the officers. I retired, quite enchanted with Masonry, 
became a zealous partisan of the institution, and long believed that it had some 

Two years later the young corporal, meeting with Sergeant Savournin, a former 
comrade, was induced by him to leave his old corps and join, with the rank of Quarter- 
master (Fourrier) , a supplementary regiment called the new ninth of the line, under the 
command of the famous Colonel Oudet, whose private secretary he became. 

A long and interesting account of Jacques Joseph Oudet will be found in the 
Histoire des Societes Secretes de I'Armee, published at Pai'is, in 1815. An English 
translation appeared in the same year, and has been relied upon by Mr. C. W. Hecke- 
thorn, for his account of the " Philadelphians," in the new edition of his Secret Societies 
of all Ages and Countries (1897). 

The Histoire des Societes Secretes de I'Armee is an anonymous work, but the name 
of the writer, Jean Emmanuel Charles Nodier is given by Michaud in his edition of the 
Biographie Universelle, and also by Pierre Larousse, in the Grand Bictionnaire Universe!-. 
Many of the same details, moreover, relating to Colonel Oudet and the Philadelphians 
which appear in " Secret Societies of the Army," were printed by Nodier in the 
Memoires d' Un Gontemporaire, and the Revue de Paris, where, to quote from Michaud, 
he was in the habit of printing his " fantastic lucubrations." 

According, indeed, to Michaud, Oudet was a " French Colonel, of whom Nodier 
has made a veritable hero of romance;" and a similar incredulity with respect to the 
Colonel and his alleged connection with any Secret Societies of the Army, is expressed 
by Larousse. 

The story, however, as related by Nodier, is confirmed in some of its main 
features by Robert Guillemard ; and the Comte le Couteulx le Canteleu in Les Sectes et 
Societes Secretes Politiques et Religieuses (1863), alludes to " Secret Societies which had 
been extinguished by the skilful manner in which Napoleon had treated Freemasonry, 
having awoke for an instant under Oudet." 

44 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Nodier himself was born at Besangon, the "Philadelphia" of the Society, of 
which he afterwards became the historian, about the year 1780, and a similar date has 
been assigned as that of the origin of the Philadelphians, whose birth place was also at 

In the opinion of Nodier, all secret societies had their origin in a sort of 
Compagnonnage, and that of the Philadelphians he pronounces to have been the crowning 
superstructure of Ancient Masonry. We learn from him, however, that Oudet, who 
had been initiated into the mysteries of almost all the Secret Societies of Europe, 
" was astonished at the poverty of the Masonic Sciences." 

Colonel Oudet is stated to have been the first Censor, or absolute chief of the 
Philadelphians, a position which he afterwards resigned in favour of General Moreau. 
But Oudet seems to have always remained the real head of the Society, until his death 
in 1809, when the office of Censor passed to General Mallet, whose two plots, together 
with the conspiracy of General Pichegru, and most of the efforts that finally led to the 
Restoration of the Bourbons, are ascribed by Nodier to the far-reaching plans of the 
first Censor of the Philadelphians. 

On the same authority we learn that Colonel Oudet was recalled from exile in 
1809, and appointed General of Brigade, but ordered as a temporary measure to organise 
and command the new ninth regiment of the line, which he did, and with great success, 
his corps being particularly distinguished by its gallantry at the battle of Wagram in 
the same year. In the selection of his officers Oudet had been given a free hand, and it 
is suggested that the appointment was merely a crafty move on the part of the 
Emperor, in order to mark out those officers on whom his favour might fall, for the 
future vengeance of the Government. 

On July 6th, 1809, the battle of Wagram was fought and won, and on the after- 
noon of that day Oudet (who had received three severe wounds) was ordered to leave his 
regiment under the command of a Major, and to repair with the rest of the officers to 
head-quarters. On the way thither he fell into an ambuscade, and though his brother 
officers made a rampart of their bodies to save him, all was in vain. At sunrise twenty- 
two bodies were heaped round the body of Oudet, which was the only one that gave 
signs of life. 

In the official bulletin he was stated to have died on the field of battle, which was 
false, for though he was severely wounded in the battle, it was not there that he 
received his mortal hurt. Moreover, he survived for three days after the meeting with 
his final injuries. 

" Oudet and the band of heroes who fell by his side (continues Nodier), were 
deeply and bitterly regretted by the whole army. Some wounded officers who had been 
sent to the same hospital, tore off the bandages from their wounds when his body was 
removed to be buried. A young sergeant-major of his regiment rushed upon the point 
of his sword a few steps from the grave, while a lieutenant who had served with Oudet 
in the 68th demi-brigade, blew out his brains." (chap, x.) 

The story is told in a slightly different manner by Robert Guillemard, but he 
informs us that Oudet was asked (in his hearing) by a deputation from the 
" Areopagus " of the Philadelphians, to resume the censor-ship of that Society. This, 
however, the Colonel refused to do. " Duties," he said, " change with times and 
circumstances, and resolutions with the progress of years, while an association of 
students does not bind a man for the whole of his life." 

Guillemard, who was also cut down in the ambuscade, afterwards found himself 
in the same camp hospital with his chief, and when the Colonel's body was removed for 

Col. Oudet's Burial. 45 

interment, he crawled to the window to see it carried by. " Whilst they were lowering 
him into the grave," he tells us, " the company crowded round ; my eyes were fixed on 
the motionless group, when all at once some unforeseen event seemed to throw it into 
confusion. They rushed towards one spot, and I saw someone carried away." A few 
minutes afterwards he was informed that his old comrade, Sergeant-Major Savournin, 
rendered desperate by his sorrow at the Colonel's loss, and perhaps disgusted with a 
life in which all his best founded hopes vanished one after another, had thrown himself 
upon the point of his sword beside the grave of Oudet. 

Nodier tells us that if Colonel Oudet had survived the battle of Wagram one 
year, the face of the world would have been changed, a statement with regard to which 
it would be difficult to offer any remark. But before passing from the subject I may 
observe, that the existence of what is sometimes described as the " Primitive Rite of 
Narbonne," and at others as the "Rite of the Philadelphians," was apparently 
unknown to the author of " Secret Societies of the Army." This Rite was formed at 
Narboune, in Prance, in 1780, by pretended " Superiors of the Order of Pree and 
Accepted Masons." The Narbonne Philadelphians survived the Revolution, and in 
1806, affiliated with the Grand Orient of France. 

A still earlier Society of Philadelphians was formed in London, about the year 
1680, but though the members of the Narbonne Rite professed to derive their tenets 
from England, it will be impossible to suppose, unless by the exercise of a very lively 
imagination, that there was any connection between the two associations. 

It appears to me, on the whole, highly probable that the Philadelphians of the 
French Army, were in some shape or form an offshoot of the Narbonne Rite. Oudet 
himself had been initiated into nearly every Secret Society in Europe. 

From the customs of these associations he borrowed very freely, and notably 
from the " Illuminati," all of whose leading members adopted pseudonyms. The same 
practice was observed by the Philadelphians, who went so far as to use several of the 
same names (including those of Spartacus, Cato and Marius), which had previously been 
assumed by the " Illuminati." 

If we may may believe Nodier, Lodges (or associations) of the Philadelphians 
were introduced by Oudet, almost simultaneously, into the 9th, 68th and 69th regiments 
of the line, the 15th Light Infantry, and the 20th Dragoons, and from thence they 
spread throughout the entire French Army. 

After the battle of Wagram, Gruillemard served in Spain, was taken prisoner and 
sent to the island of Cabrera, whence he escaped to the coast, joined the French Army 
before Tortosa, distinguished himself during the Siege, was promoted to the rank of 
sergeant, and received the cross of the legion of honour, at the hands of Marshal Suchet. 

In 1811, after an absence of four years, the Sergeant revisited his native village, 
Sixfour, where, "one evening, while at supper," he tells us, "we saw a sailor looking 
man come in, deeply sunburnt, and all in rags. It was my uncle Eyguier, whom I had 
not found at my arrival, and who, they told me, was a prisoner of war at Malta, whilst 
I was a prisoner at Cabrera. 

About forty officers, of whom my uncle was one, almost all natives of Provence, 
and belonging to the navy, were prisoners of war at Citta Vecchia, a small town in the 
centre of Malta. They were destitute of any kind of amusement, yet they nevertheless 
succeeded in finding several means of killing time. The principal of these was the 
institution of a Masonic Lodge, which they entitled Les Amis en Captivite. They had 
.received a great many members, and had given frequent dinners ; and were preparing 

46 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

to give a brilliant fete to some English Freemasons they had become acquainted with at 
La Valetta, the capital of the island ; but they were ignorant of the fete that was pre- 
paring for themselves. Long before this time the priests and monks, who form at least 
a fourth part of the population of Malta, thundered forth their anathemas against these 
Masonic meetings, to which they ascribed a long drought which afflicted the country, 
and an epidemic disease that had just appeared. The day of the fete had been 
designated as the proper period to put an end to these calamities, by setting fire to the 
hall of the meeting while the members were at dinner, and by murdering those who 
should attempt to escape. Poignards and faggots, and other instruments of intolerance, 
were prepared ; and the peasants of the neighbouring villages were duly convoked, and 
were to assemble at the spot on the day and at the hour appointed. Our unfortunate 
countrymen saw no company, and were not very attentive to their religious duties, so that 
they suspected nothing, and went on as usual. There are good people everywhere, say 
the Normans ; some charitable soul informed the English Governor of what was going 
on, who gave immediate information of the fact to the Freemasons, and forbade them to 
hold their meeting, which they obeyed accordingly. But the peasants did not like to 
be called upon for no purpose, they drove in the doors of the Lodge, carried all the 
furniture and ornaments to the principal square, and there burned them with great 
ceremony, whilst the clergy were making a procession, and purifying, by their ablutions, 
the house that had been the theatre of the Masonic abominations. The French were 
hooted at and insulted by the populace, but they had the prudence to keep themselves 
out of sight for some days." 

"My uncle Eyguier" (continues the Sergeant) "was known to be the Grand 
Master of the Lodge, and had been especially marked out for the brutality of the mob, 
as being the head of the infernal band. From that moment he could never apptar with- 
out being exposed to the most imminent danger. After enduring this treatment 
patiently for a long time, he determired on making an attempt to leave this abominable 
country, and he fortunately succeeded." 

The Sergeant afterwards fought in the Russian campaign, and was made an 
Ensign by Napoleon on the field of Borodino, but the same evening he was taken 
prisoner and sent to Siberia. Returning to France in 1814, he fell back into his old 
position as a non-commissioned officer, and in 1815 he assisted a Royal Freemason, 
Joachim Murat (King of Naples) in escaping from Toulon to Corsica, and accompanied 
him on his expedition to the coast of Calabria. By the grateful Murat he was made a 
Captain, and at the moment he had received the rank which, without doubt, he was 
qualified to adorn, he saw that Prince (and Marshal) perish miserably, and he again 
became the Sergeant of 1810. 

I began this article with an allusion to the excellent work of Bro. J. T. Thorp, 
and shall now proceed with the remark, that "Military Masonry " is also engaging at 
the present moment, the attention of advanced students in other jurisdictions. 

The subject has been referred to on several occasions, and, it is wholly 
unnecessary to say, with singular profit to the reader, by Bro. Chetwode Crawley in his 
Caementaria Hibernica and other writings. 

Still more recently, the Historian of the Grand Lodge of New York — Bro. Peter 
Ross — in his Annual Report for 1899, communicated to that Grand Body, a first instal- 
ment of what promises to be of great value to all students of Masonry in the Sea and 
Land Services. The information he had thus gained was being classified (in 1899) 
under various heads, one being, " Brethren in the Revolutionary War ; " another^ 
" Brethren in the War of 1812 ; " and a third, " Brethren in the Civil War." 

Military Masonry in America. 47 

Incomplete as the data then at hand was, we learn, however, from returns fur- 
nished by " Dundee Lodge." No. 123, that Bro. Isaac Andrews, Private Secretary to 
General Washington, was, like his immortal chief, a member of our Fraternity, while 
in those supplied by *' Union Lodge," No. 95, we find an instance of patriotic sentiment 
running through three generations. Isaac Baldwin served in the War of the Revolution, 
his son, Lathi^op Baldwin, was in the War of 1812, and his grandson, Lathrop Baldwin, 
fought throughout the Civil War. 

The Special Report of the Historian of the Grand Lodge of New York (1899), 
concludes with an interesting list of names alphabetically arranged, under the heading of 

Civil War Roster. 

The particulars afforded extend from p. 101 to p. 140 of the printed Proceedings of 
the Grand Lodge, and about 2,400 names are given, including among them those of the 
following brethren, who are all more or less known outside the jurisdiction of the 
Empire State : — Chauncey M. Depew (Senator and Orator), Adjutant 18th State 
Militia; Edward M. L. Ehlers (Grand Secretary), Colonel 52nd Volunteers; Admiral 
A. K. Hughes ; Commodores John E. Hart and Francis Roe ; Generals Eli S. Parker 
(Do-ne-ho-ga-wa, Chief of the Six Nations) ; Charles Roome (Past Grand Master) ; 
Stewart L. Woodford (afterwards American Minister in Madrid), and many others of 
the same military rank. 

In the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York (pp. 294-316) for the past 
year, there appears a further report from the historian, who tells us that " the story of 
the introduction of the Craft into the United States — or what is now the United States 
— is involved in doubt ; which seems probably certain that it was mainly brought across 
the sea by people who were connected in some capacity or other with the military 
forces. Such outbreaks in Great Britain as the Rebellions of 1715 and 1745 had many 
officers on both sides who belonged to the Fraternity, and it is safe to say that many a 
'Brother' carried a trooper's sword, or trailed a musket in the ranks. Hundreds of 
those who were on the losing side in these outbreaks were transported to this side of 
the Atlantic, or came here voluntarily, to escape persecution, and to establish a new 
home for the one they had lost fighting for the King they believed it their duty to 
support. That Masonry existed among some of these there need be no question." 

Bro. Peter Ross then proceeds with a summary of the progress of Masonry in the 
State of New York, up to and inclusive of the period commencing with the outbreak 
of hostilities between the Mother Country and certain of her North American Colonies, 
in 1775. 

A list is next presented of the Lodges in New York State from 1775 to 1783, 
and the names and numbers are given of all the Military Lodges — on either side — 
which there is reason to suppose were in existence in the said State during the above 

Then follows what must be pronounced the main feature, and also the most 
interesting portion of the report. It has the following heading: — 


Names of Brethren belonging to Lodges in New York State who fought on the side of 
Liberty and Independence in the War of the Revolution. 

No less than one hundred and eighty-three names figure in this list, and in 
connection with them many anecdotes are related. For example, Bro. Joseph Burnham, 
a prisoner of war, who had made his escape, in order to pass the night, laid himself down 
to rest on some planks that formed the ceiling of a closet, that opened directly to the centre 

48 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

of St. John's Lodge room (New York). The boards not being nailed, naturally slipped from 
their places, and the whole gave way, the Lodge thus receiving an unexpected visitor, for 
the poor prisoner stood aghast in the middle of the room. It speaks well for the humanis- 
ing influence of the " mystic tie," that the brethren who were chiefly British Officers, 
made a generous contribution for Bro. Burnham, who was afterwards transported with 
secrecy and expedition to the Jersey shore. 

It is recorded for the first time in this " Roster," at least so far as I am aware, 
that Alexander Hamilton, " The Statesman of the Revolution," and who figures in the 
history of the War of Independence as second only to Washington, was a Freemason. 
Before he was nineteen he entered the army as Captain of Artillery, and within a year 
had become aide-de-camp to Washington, whose inseparable companion he continued 
until the end of the war. On the death of Washington in 1799, Hamilton became 
Commander-in-chief, holding that position till the army was disbanded. 

Among the other names on the " Roster" are those of Colonel John McKinstry, 
who was saved from a cruel death by the communication of a Masonic sign ; General 
Rufus Putman, the first Grand Master of Ohio ; General Anthony Wayne — '" Mad 
Anthony " ; and Colonel Seth Warner, one of the popular heroes of the Revolution. 

Passing to another American Masonic Jurisdiction, reference will lastly be made 
in the present article to the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, for the past 
year, where in "Appendix A" will be found some interesting memoranda relating to- 
the Masonic Convention at Morristown, N.J., during the Revolutionary War, at which 
General Washington was present. These are a transcript of some rough notes which 
were discovered among the literary remains of the late Edmund D. Halsey, of Morris- 
town. Mr. Halsey did not live to complete his account of the Convention, but the note* 
on the subject which were found among the papers left by him on his decease, have 
been rightly deemed worthy of preservation in the archives of New Jersey Masonry. 

No records of the American Field Lodges have been preserved, except a portion 
of the minutes of American Union, and some returns of the Washington Lodge. 
The former, which are of a highly interesting character, were first printed at any 
length, by E. G. Storer in his Freemasonry in Connecticut, 1859. They were subse- 
quently re-printed by the late Charles T. McClenachan, in his History of Freemasonry 
in New York (vol. i., 1888). 

An Entered Apprentices' Lodge was held at Morristown, on December 27th, 1779, 
for the celebration of the Festival of St. John. 

At this meeting there were present thirty-six members of the Lodge, and sixty- 
eight visitors, one of whom was General Washington. The other visitors, owing to the 
absence of either Christian names or initials, have not yet been all satisfactorily 
identified, but the presence of Alexander Hamilton on the occasion is placed beyond doubt 
by the second Report of the Historian of New York — Bio. Peter Ross — and a surmise 
of my own (recently advanced in the columns of the American Tyler) that "Brother 
Schuyler" — another visitor — may have been the General of that name, is shown to be 
a visionary one, in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey (1900), where, on 
the authority of the Halsey paper, the Freemason referred to, is pronounced to be Dr. 
Nicholas Schuyler, Surgeon of Hazen's Canadian (N.Y.) Regiment, the son of 
Harmanus Schuyler, and a cousin of Philip Schuyler, the American General. The 
particulars given in Appendix A. (Proc. G.L. New Jersey, 1900), with respect to the 
Morristown Convention extend over many pages (pp. 187-206), and constitute a most 
valuable addition to our knowledge on the subject of Army Masonry in North America. 

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Sword with Masonic Emblems, in the Royal Armoury, Turin. 

Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 




HE Armeria or Royal Collection of Arms now preserved at Turin, was 
made by Charles Albert King of Sardinia, who was born on the 2nd 
October, 1798, and died on the 28th of July, 1849 ; having previously 
abdicated in favour of his son the late Victor Emmanuel, King of 
Italy. The collection, which is a large one, contains many valuable 
and rare specimens of both ancient and modern arms, and among 
them is this sword bearing Masonic ornaments. 

The sheath is also decorated, and it is to be regretted that it has lost the tip or 
heel. The ornaments on one side of the hilt include the compasses, trowel, ladder, 
plumb, level and rule ; and the square finds a place on the upper metal ornament of tho 
sheath. On the other side much the same symbols occur on the handle, with others on 
the boss between the quillons ; on the sheath, on this side is a group composed of the 
compasses, square, ladder, rule, mallet and plumb, with what is apparently intended for 
a very large weight attached. There are one or two of the figures on the handle which 
I cannot easily determine. 

The catalogue 1 states that the sword blade is 0,540 long and 0,066 broad, with 
black mountings, partly wood, partly iron, and also Masonic emblems inlaid of lead and 
silver both on the hilt, and the ornaments of the black velvet sheath. 

A.n explanation is then added : "Storta" means a weapon with a curved blade, 
with the edge and rib carried up to the base, whence it starts gradually widening towards 
the point, which is sometimes cut slantwise, obliquely, something like a scimetar, but 
not so large. Bando, Jan., 1552. 

It is told of Cantissi, a Tuscan Legislator (II., 2t)6) that he was seen one day in 
the public square with a " storta " under his cloak, which bore some likeness to the 
Turkish swords, his adversaries to insult him, nicknamed him " The Knight of the 

This note describing the " storta " has no doubt given rise to the belief that this 
sword belonged to a terrible chieftain ; and that it itself was of an age corresponding 
with, or earlier than the edict of 1552. 

It seems tq me that it is an error to call the sword a " storta," as that weapon 
evidently resembled a scimetar, and this one has few of the scimetar's peculiarities. 
The shortness of the blade, as well as the hunting-horn which is several times repeated 
in the ornaments on both the hilt and the sheath, lead me to think that it is really a 
hunting-sword or dagger. 

1 Storta massonica con lama lunga 0.540, larga 0.066 con fornimento nero, parte di legno, parte 
di ferro con gli emblemi massonici di piombo e di argento intarsiati tanto su questa che sul guernimento 
del fodere che e di velluto nero. (1) 

(1) [note] Storta significa aruia con lama curva a filo e costola stretta al tallone onde procede 
slargandosi a mano a mano sino alia punta che talvolta e tagliata a schiancio, un po somigliante alia 
scimitarra ma di minor largezza. Bando, 2 Gennajo 1552. 

Si narradi Cantissi, legislatore Toscano, II. 296, che fa una volta vednto in piazza con una storta 
sotto il mantello, laquale ha qualche somiglianza colle spade Tnrchesche, gli avversarii per ingiuriarlo 
gli posero sopranome, chiamandolo " Ser Scimitarra." 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Masonic swords, that is swords of the eighteenth century bearing Masonic 
emblems, are far from common. There are daggers of a later date, but these are more 
for ornament than use; indeed, some have the blades of silver laid over a core of iron. 

An interesting example of a masonic sword, 181 1-18 L4, in the possession of the 
Shakespeare Lodge, Spilsby, co. Lincoln, will be found figured in the Transactions, 
1897, vol. x., p. 44. 

The Turin sword is not a Masonic sword, but a real weapon made for use by a 
Mason, and ornamented with Masonic emblems. It is therefore an interesting specimen 
and so far, I have not met with another example of the kind. 

It seems to me from the ornaments, shape, and other peculiarities, to date from 
about 1750, two hundred years later than the description of the " storta." 

1 must not omit to thank those friends to whose kindly interest I owe not only 
the knowledge, but the means of publishing this interesting Masonic relic. My atten- 
tion was called to it some years ago by the Baron de Cosson, F.S.A. ; Miss Gonino, 
when at Turin, with some trouble obtained permission for her nephew to take the 
photographs, and very kindly gave me the negatives, these in the skilled hands of 
Bro. Walter L. Nash, F.S.A., produced the pictures from which the blocks were made. 


A curious :ate. 

»— « 



left band. 









■'- . 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 




N connection with Bro. Sir Charles Cameron's recent paper on Chivalric 
Masonry, the description of a very rare and curious certificate I have 
just received from my friend, Bro. D. Murray Lyon, the Emeritus 
Grand Secretary of Scotland, will prove of considerable interest, as it 
enumerates most of the degrees worked under K. T. Encampments 
during the first half of the nineteenth century. The size of the docu- 
ment is 18 1 ! inches by 22 inches, and it is lit. rally covered with a 
most elaborate series of decorations in colour. Commencing at the top left-hand corner, 
a piece of blue ribbon is inserted. Beneath this is a crimson Passion Cross, charged 
with what look like fourteen poiuted windows. On the left arm of this stands a 
gentleman in a crimson cloak and white knee breeches, holding a rope in his left hand. 
From the right arm of the cross, a smaller square red cross is suspended, beneath which 
is another gentleman similarly attired, but with his cloak lined with blue. Next below 
are crossed pens between three golden crowns. Then a decorative star of seven points. 
Then an oval, bearing the legend " We stop at Philipi," with the saint standing in the 
centre. Next a brother dressed as a W.M., with jewel suspended from a green collar, 
and an apron edged with red and green ; whilst beside him is what I take to be one of 
the three murderers, as his hands are gory. Then comes a man grasping a green snake. 
Next is a man lying against a rock with a suggestive black bottle in one hand, and a 
loaf (?) in the other, whilst in front of him is a thin cross stuck in the ground. At the 
bottom is a bald-headed saint in a black robe, probably meant for Moses, with a rod 
turning into a serpent. On the other side, at the top, are small crossed ribbons of red 
and black. Then a ship in full sail flying the English Merchant flag, with a man in the 
bow blowing a trumpet. I do not know whether this refers to the Ark Mariner degree, 
but if so it is certainly modernised. Next comes one of the best drawn of the series, on 
a balcony stands a man in crimson, yellow-lined cloak, with seven stars surrounding his 
right hand, and in front of him a seven-branched candlestick. Then comes a picture of 
Moses and the Burning Bush. Next, a man in a blue tunic pouring some red liquid, 
presumably wine, on the ground. Then Moses striking the rock ; the stoning of Stephen ; 
and, finally, another black robed saint, with a large book. The colouring of all these is 
bold, but effective, and the designs refer to the various degrees enumerated. In the 
centre of the top is a pair of scales in which rest two crossed swords ; and on either 
side are a blazing sun, and seven stars respectively. Beneath the sun is a golden flagon, 
and beneath the stars a red triangle from which a golden cross is suspended by a green 
ribbon. The two great pillars at the sides are "marbled" very effectively, and the 
Corinthian capitals are gilded. On the summits are figures of Aaron with his budding 
rod, and a youth, in crimson and black, blowing a trumpet, whilst on the base of each 
column is represented a Tyler with drawn sword. Beneath the left pillar is a skull 
with a saw removing the top, and beneath the right a head with a sword resting on its 
tongue. The left pillar is inscribed " D. McLennon Pinx* 1819," which is strange, as 
the certificate itself is dated 1843. Probably Bro. McLennon occupied his leisure in 
designing some of these forms for future use. Inside these two columns are inserted 
red and black ribbons respectively, and within them again two spiral colums wreathed 

52 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

•with flowers, and surmounted by an arch, the keystone of which bears the letters 
" I H F." One would naturally expect the upper letter to be " C," but the " I " may 
refer to the K.T. degree. 

The arch is filled by a very effective design of a vaulted chamber, with an opening 
in the roof from which light streams down on a kneeling black gloved figure with a book 
under his arm. Beneath is the inscription "I ■ AM " WHAT ■ I ■ AM." These smaller 
pillars rest on five steps, in which are inserted six bunches of ribbon relating to the 
various grades, being blue and white, green, crimson and white, crimson and purple, 
white, and black and white respectively. The wording runs thus : — 

In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity, Amen 
Glor y to God in the highest. 
Peace on Earth — Good will to Men — 
— Be it known — 
Unto all Sir Knights "We the most Noble. 

the Commander and most worshipful Captains of our 
Grand Assembly of Knight Templars Encampment 
held in the city of Glasgow, do hereby certify and declare that 
after due examination our trustworthy, and well-beloved Knight 
Companion Morris Leon ; a regular, Royal Arch 
Mason ; was upon the 17th day of February 1843 initiated 
into the body of our Encampment, duly and regularly instructed 
in the mysteries of our excellent religious Orders, of the 
Jourdan Pass Roman Eagle Brazen Serpent 

Jacobs Wrestle Ark Mason and have 

dubbed him K l of the Blue Sir K 4 Templar 

K* of Malta K* of the Red Cross ■ J£_ 

of S l . Paul K* of St. Stephen K* 

of the Elysian Fields and K* of J O J 111 D 

he having through the whole ceremony given us the strongest proof 
of his steadiness skill and valour, during the many amazing 

trials attending his admission. We also give and grant 

unto him all those privileges, which from time immemorial 
have belonged, and now of right appertain to those of our 
Orders, not doubting but he will be permitted to reap and enjoy 
the same, with all our dear and excellent Companions, where- 
soever dispersed. We therefor greet well 

all our worthy Bretheren and Knights Companions 
of the above illustrious Order, throughout the Universe 

A Curious Certificate. 


to accept of him as such and 
to take him under their Brotherly 
care and protection — as 
given under our hands and 
the Seals of our Orders here- 
unto appended this 
14th day of April MDCC43 
of Royal Arch Masonry MMMCC 
since the institution of K t3 . Templars 

Morris Leon 

Robert Smith 


Jn°. Buchanan 

1 st G.M r . 

Tho s . Muir 

2 nd G.M r 

R. A. Murdoch 

1 st S.B. 

Dav d . Miller 

2 nd S.B. 

Walter Gow 


Jno. Ferguson 


7 feb r 1843 

The last date is apparently an error as the certificate is dated above " 14th April." 

The whole document is extremely interesting and curious, and the list of degrees 
is very much the same as those included in the set of Irish certificates I noticed on page 
173 of vol. xiii., of the Transactions. It is the most completely illustrated diploma I 
have seen, and the good brother who designed and executed it must have possessed more 
than the normal stock of patience in its delineation. 


QCt ST Cf 0/? 



54 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 


ASTER'S BREASTPLATE.— Very few Masonic Lodges have made such 
progress as the reponed Sanquhar Kilwinning, No. 194, Dumfriesshire. 
For some little time, it is true, it hung fire a bit, hut during the past 
two years there has been plenty of enthusiasm and lots of new members. 
Last Friday evening was one of the most enjoyable ever spent by the 
brethren, and an unexpected treat was afforded when Mr. Wilson, the 
secretary and treasurer, presented to the Lodge the Master's Breast- 
plate, the Senior Warden's Jewel, and the mallet which belonged to the original 
Sanquhar Lodge founded in 1738. The Breastplate is a curious hammered copper affair, 
engraved with all the signs, but the Warden's Jewel is of the same pattern as those 
still in use. The Mallet is simply a wooden sphere, with a stick stuck into it for a 
handle, and does not appear to be in order. It is rumoured that some more of the old 
Jewels are in existence, and an effort is to be made to get hold of them. Dumfries and 
Galloway Herald and Courier, 5th January, 1901. 

What is this Breastplate ? Can any Brother oblige us with a drawing and 
description of it ? 

G. W. Sfeth. 

Knights of Malta. — In his highly interesting essay Bro. Sir Charles A. Cameron 
says (A.Q.C. xiii., p. 157, line 13,) of the Knights of Malta. "In 1798, the French 
captured Malta, and soon after the order became extiuct." This is not so, the Order 
has never ceased to exist, it still flourishes in Rome, and Knights of Malta may yet be 
seen at the grand Papal ceremonies. 

Their Encampment is a large palace, 68, Via Condotti, close by my house ; and 
their Priory exists on the Aventine, at S. Maria del Priorato e S. Giovanni, since the 
16th century. 

S. Maria in Aventino is mentioned as prior et prseceptor in an old parchment of 
1237 ; at the end of 1320 it belonged to the Knights of Jerusalem, passing in the 16th 
century to the Knights of Malta, who still own it. It was restored in 1765 by Piranesi. 
The chapters are held in a fine hall of the Priory which contains many portraits of the 
Grand Masters, several of whom are buried in the church, and a very fine large model of 
a Maltese galley. The Knights are bachelors, Sir George Henry Bowyer (if still living) 
is one of the brotherhood. (I have some sort of an idea that he was a widower w r hen 
knighted, (exalted) but I am not sure of this, or if he was a benedict). 

I remember Prince Barberini, suca di Castle Vecchio, dying in the days of Pius 

IX., and the Knights attending his funeral ; he was Grand or Deputy Grand Master. At 

the election of Leo. XIII. there was no Grand Master, and so H.H. appointed S.A. Em. 

Gio. Battista Ceschi a Sauta Croce Grand Master ; and he still rules the order. I think 

he is an Austrian. They have a red cross branch for war purposes, not confined to the 


S. Russell Foebes. 

Templar Crosses. — On the 28th June, 1897, Mr. W. H. Broadhead conducted 
the members of the Thoresby Society round Leeds in order to point out to them the 
numerous Templar Crosses and Marks still existing upon houses belonging to the 
Manor of Whitkirk. Templenewsam, which is in the parish of Whitkirk, was a pre- 
ceptory of the Knights-Templars. Altogether 84 marks were shown, without counting 
some doubtful ones, and Mr. Broadhead states that he knows of 126. In the Transactions 

Notes and Queries. 


of the Society for 1898 is given a sketch plan of Leeds showing the positions of these 
houses and a selection of the marks themselves with indication of the exact spot where 
they are to be found. These latter are here reproduced. 


Wheat Sheaf- Yaro 

LaVos Lam's 

WHEAT* 5nCAf Yako 

a St %fa«A/s S$ 
& 6 ihf 7er«7/=>tA» S-r. Ale 

L.KDT &f?tO<*£ 

"^"'mx S-r 7i^»/o tfl/ jj St 

R V^CeV 

k^^ ^te\ 


* O**"^ 

1 1 - 

l -W .' ■ 

> i ^ 

-I - 



51 ■ 



R S 





V/CA«? LaHS 

tf* S»»i^>/c/?s Arm* & 
©#ri- S-r 

(t-fonrH 5 IDE.) 

QuAmnr ri iuu 



Lovf£FrME.AO Roy/ 



Co«twcr o/»- Hor*(~ Sir (Sw/ae/iTE) 



" <rt©*fte S>T 
UX> H IG.H £> T 




P, 12,15 b. tr QmoaeST 

7*/» <5» f A i.AOY £**/< 

56 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

" The MeaSOn-Word."— I extract the following from a rare Scotch tract in 
case it has not been noticed before. The Tract itself is entitled : — A True Relation of 
an Apparition, Expressions, and Actings, of a Spirit, which infested the House of 
Andrew Mackie, in Ring-Croft of Stocking, in the Paroch of Rerrick, in the Stewarty 
of Kirkcudbright, in Scotland, 1695. By Mr. Alexander Telfair, Minister of that 
Paroch ; and attested by many other Persons, who were also Eye and Ear Witnesses. 
[Scriptural Quotation], Edinburgh: Printed by George Mosman, and are to be sold at 
his shop in the Parliament Close, 1696. 

The paragraph is as follows : — " The said Andrew Mackie being a meason to his 
employment, 'tis given out, that when he took the Meason-word, he devouted his first 
child to the Devil ; but I am certainly informed he never took the same, and knows not 
what that word is." 

E. J. Barron. 

Sackville and Martin FolkeS— Some years since a member of the Florence 
Lodge told me that it was Lionell Cranfield SackviDe who founded the Lodge, and that 
it was recognised by a bull of Clement XII, dated April 1738. He was Lorenzo Corsini 
of Florence. A branch of this Lodge was founded in Rome by Martin Folkes, in 1742 
and named after Fabius Maximus, the Lodge here of that name claims, I have been told 
to represent it. Folkes had a medal struck at the Papal mint, engraved by Hamerain. 
On the obverse is his bust, and on the reverse a Sphinx in the fore-ground, on the side 
of which is the crescent moon. Behind is the Pyramid tomb of Caius Cestius, thus a 
rectangle is introduced twice, as two sides of the tomb are shown. At the north-east 
and north-west corners of the pyramid are two columns, so the tomb and columns 
might suggest the temple. In the south the sun shines in full splendour, above all is 
the motto Sua sidera norunt. At the base is Roma?, A.L., 5742. Both medals seem to 
be founder's medals. There is an analogy between the Harpocrates of Sackville's and 
the Sphinx of Folkes'. 

I do not know how true it is, but I am informed that this Lodge was recogized 
by a bull of Benedict XIV., in 1751. He was of the Lambertini family of Bologna. 

S. Russell Forbes. 

The ChivalriC Orders.— There is an item which I desire to point out, which 
confirms the suggestion of Bro. Cameron's interesting paper as regards the Irish origin 
of the " Early Grands " in England ; some of these Early Grand bodies existed in 
Lancashire until about 1840, or later. An Early Grand Encampment existed at Caris- 
brooke, in the Isle of Wight, during the latter part of the 18th century, and another 
practising various side degrees, met at St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell. 

A body calling itself the Early Grand Encampment of England possessed a 
minute book, which is said to have passed into the hands of the Duke of Sussex, and 
which contained a copy of a document derived from Ireland, and alleged to be written 
in the ancient characters of 1312, and discovered in 1540 in an oak box under the 1 
altar of the Temple Church, London. It passed into the possession of Jacob Ulric St. 
Clair, of Roslyn, whose descendant, Wm. St. Clair, the 1736 G.M. of Scotland, gave it to 
his nephew, John St. Clair, M.D., of Old Castle, co. Meath, by whose assistance, and 
translation, this copy was recorded in 1784. Full particulars of the original will be 
found in the Freemasons' Quarterly for 1846 ; and I suppose we may accept as fact the 
1784 existence of such a document with its ostensible marks of extreme antiquity. 

I have often thought that the social state of Ireland should give early evidence of 
Templary, and that the degree was likely to have a much earlier origin than that 

Notes and Queries. 57 

usually attributed to it. There seems even a reference to it in the clothing of a brother 
who was present at the Installation of Earl Rosse, as described by Dr. Chetwode Crawley, 
and this maybe compared with Swift's allnsion, mentioned by Bro. Cameron. There are 
points in the paper which may admit of criticism, though we ought first to make sure that 
Irish Masonry, say 1686 or 1688, was in all respects that of the English. I think it is 
now pretty well accepted that, 1717-22, its English degrees were the Freedom of the 
Apprentice and the Passed Fellow, whilst the Master Mason was the Master in the 
Chair, or, as the late Bro. "Woodford held, that is in the old operative times, the Master 
of the work, with the Arch (or what afterwards became the Arch) secrets as his proofs. 
This also tends to aid oar judgment as to Ramsay, and one confirms the other. We must 
also remember that the Master had a seat in the Incorporation or Masters Fraternity. 

Much nonsense has been written about Ramsay's speech of 1737 and Bro. R. F. 
Gould sometime since cleared the ground for us. What he was advocating was the 
Craft and Hax^odim then, and before 1737, practised in the co. of Durham. In 
London it was termed H.R.D.M., R.S.Y.C.S. of Kilwinning, and apparently had 
adopted the three degrees of Grand Lodge. To anyone acquainted with old Rituals 
there can be no question as to what Ramsay is speaking about, he alludes to the 
Apprentice and Passed Fellow, and then comments upon the Harodim, or Harodim Rosy 
Cross then in practice in co. Durham, and adds his comments on the sword and 
trowel, as did Joseph Laycock, in 1735, at Gateshead. 

The Durham Court of Hai'odim had no relation to the Templars ; in 1794 it is 
spoken of as an " ancient and mysterious degree in Masonry, the Passage of the 
Bridge"; it is also termed the "Mysterious Red Cross of Babylon." In the Rite 
Ancien, two of its three points are Knight of the Sword and Prince of Jerusalem. The 
London Lectures of Harodim-Rosy Cross, imported to Edinburgh in 1767, have the 
following references to points in the Red Cross : (1) Passing the Bridge, (2) the 
dungeon, (3) the relative force of wine, women and the ring, (4) sword and trowel. It 
is a curious fact that for 150 years, or nearly so, the Scotch have been in doubt how to 
work these lectures. One cannot write freely upon these points, and if one could do so 
it would not be generally comprehended. The old Stirling plates prove, at the time 
they were engraved, that there was an understood relation between the Red Cross and 
the Arch. There can be no question that the basis of the High-grades was of Jacobite 
introduction into France, but the later developments were French. The Mizraim 
Lecture of the Rose Croix, 46°, is the unchanged Lecture of Harodim-Rosycross. 

The existence of non -Masonic bodies attached to the E. G. of Ireland is an 

important point. Some forty years ago, the Masonic Templars of Stockport informed 

me that a body of non-Masonic Templars had existed in that town, but I should feel 

inclined to believe that the early connection of Templars and Freemasons was long 

before the date to which Bro. Cameron credits it. I believe I have a photograph of the 

old York Charter of 1786, whieh is at your service if you choose to reproduce it, and I 

have also photos of their four old banners. About 1869 I made a collection of various 

old Certificates, such as you have given us, together with Minutes of Meetings, etc., and 

deposited them in the muniment room of Freemasons' Hall ; but it is alleged that they 

were taken away, and cannot now be traced, by a brother who made an inglorious end. 

Some of the documents of the Priestly Order gave era " Year of Revival " worked out 

to 1686, and I found a scrap of Bro. Jesse Lee, who wrote a history of the Stanleys, 

etc., saying, " enquire what important event occurred in 1686." There was evidence 

that in 1813 the work of the old York Conclave had been influenced by a regiment of 

Irish Dragoons stationed in Manchester. T ^. 

° John Yaeker, 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Ignatius VOn Bom.— I see by the A.Q.C. xiii., p. 72, that Mr. Bennett Brough 
has dilated on my old acquaintance Ignace von Born. The article is rich upon the 
contemporaries of von Born, but omits some interesting features of the main figure ; for 
instance : — Von Born as a satirist. His attacks on the genus " Monk " are very strong 
and diverting (Monachologia 1783), wherein he represents the Monk as not only a wolf 
in sheep's clothing but as being invariably attended by the goat. And a satire on 
"Father Hell, the Astronomer" — a long Latin advertisement, full of irony, announcing 
a book written against the Freemasons in the name of this learned Jesuit. Probably 
von Born was set to work, or at any rate did work, with the approval of the Emperor 
Joseph II., or so severe a satire would hardly have been permitted ? Von B.'s collection 
of minerals now forms part of the Greville Collection at South Kensington Museum. 

F. Compton Price. 

French Prisoners' Lodges. — It is not correct that all remembrance of French 
Prisoners at Ashburton has died out, for, having lived there myself, I have often heard 
of them, and seen small ornaments, models of guillotines in bone, etc., made by them. 
No one has any recollection of a Masonic Lodge, and researches I have made in neigh- 
bouring towns have failed to throw light on the matter masonically. Officers were 
allowed to reside on parole at Ashburton, Tavistock, Moretonhampstead, Oakhampton, 
Tiverton, and Launceston, between the years 1803 and 1815, and in the churchyard 
and church at Moretonhampstead are many tombstones of the exiles, descendents of 
whom still survive in the town. Before 1803 prisoners were generally kept at seaport 
towns, from which they frequently escaped. Colonel Amery informs me that Capt. 
Renaudin of the ship Le Vengeur, with the survivors of his crew, were at Tavistock in 
1794; also that the Plymouth Magazine, No. 1, October 23rd, 1758, speaks of a meeting 
of prisoners at Bideford. There are records of French, American and Danish prisoners 
having been at Ashburton. 

Fred. J. W. Crowe. 



FRIDAY, 1st MARCH, 1901. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present : — Bros. E. Conder, jun., 
W.M. ; G. Greiner, S.W.; E. J. Castle, K.C., J.W. ; G. W. Speth, P.A.G.D.C., 
Secretary; E. Armitage and F. H. Goldney, P.G-D., Stewards; Col. S- C. Pratt, 
E. Macbean, W- M- Bywater, P.G.S.B.; C. Purdon Clarke, C.I.E.; Sydney T. 
Klein, C. Kupferschmidt, A.G.S.G.C, Past Masters, and J. T. Thorp. 

Also the following 50 members of the Correspondence Circle: — Bros. 
C. J. R. Tijou, P.G.Pt. ; T. Cohu, A. Howell, W. G. Aspland, F. A. Powell, 
W. Chambers, A. L. Vibert, E. Conder, F. W". Mitchell, Rev. H. Cart, W. W. 
Mangles, F. W. Levander, H. Eaborn, W. A. Bowser, A. Oliver. W. J. Songhurst, H. Griffiths, J. 
Barker, H. F. Hall, Dr. T. Charters White, Thomas Taylor, Dr. C. Wells, R. B. Lewis, L. Danielsson, 
C. W. Cooke, H. White, Dr. G. Michael, W. J. Moulder, R. Hovenden, W. Hancock, Rev. W. E. Scott- 
Hall, G. E. P. Hertslet, T. G. L. Miller, E. Gauntlett, W. Busbridge, C. Isler, Dr. B. T. Hutchinson, 
W. H. Brown, D. J. Hewitt, C. H. Bestow, F. Samuelson, S. W. Furze-Morrish, H. James, J. N. Noakes, 
R. Orttewell, Dr. S. Walsh Owen, Dr. S. Mugford, E. C. Stimson, V. J. Moulder, and C. H. Mead. 

Also the following Visitors: — Bros. H. V. Elder, Humphrey Chetham Lodge No. 645 ; C. E. 
Collins, Past Grand Steward; F. R. Ridley, Surrey Masonic Hall Lodge No. 1539 ; J. S. Kingston, P.M., 
Earl Spencer Lodge No. 1420; F. W. Golby, P.M., Neptune Lodge No. 22; H. H. White, St. Stephen's 
Lodge No. 2424; Keeble Smith, Burrell Lodge No. 1829; P. Callingham, Skelsmerdale Lodge No. 1599 ; 
and C. A. Thompson, Thistle Lodge No. 833 (S.C.) 

Two Lodges and sixty-nine brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence 


The Secretary read a letter from Bro. the Rev. C. H. Maiden, of Ootacamund, Madras, resign- 
ing his membership with regret, owing to circumstances over which he had no control. The Secretary 
was directed to convey to Bro. Maiden the regret of the brethren, together with their fervent wishes 
for his continued health and prosperity. 

Letters of thanks were received from Bros. S. Jones and C. F. Silberbauer for the resolutions 
passed in their favour in January and the engrossed parchments sent to them. 

A letter was received from H. R. H. Prince Frederick Leopold of Prussia, Ordens-Meister of 
the National Grand Lodge at Berlin and P.G.M. of England, thanking the brethren for the honour done 
him in electing him an honorary member of their Lodge, a distinction which he highly appreciated. 

Letters and telegrams of apology for unavoidable absence were received from Bros. R. F. 
Gould, P.G.D.; Admiral Markham, P.D.G.M., Malta; Hamon le Strange, Prov.G.M., Norfolk; G. L. 
Shackles, Rev. J. W. Horsley, W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C ; T. B. Whytehead, P.G.S.B., and Dr. Chetwode 
Crawley, P.G.D., Ireland. 

The Secretary called attention to a set of seven coloured and framed prints displayed by Bro. - 
Pavitt in the ante-room, professing to illustrate Masonic ceremonies, which were published by T. Palser 
in 1812, and taken from French originals of about 1745. Also to an album of photographs taken by the . 
brethren at Gloucester last July, which he intended to send to Bro. Vassar-Smith as some slight token 
of their appreciation of his kindness to them on that occasion. 

The Worshipful Master read the following paper i— 

60 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



A.D. L532. 

The Proclamation 1 for Wkitsone Playes made by W m New all, Clarke of the Pendice 

24. Hen 8. [1532-3] W m Snead 2 nd yere Maior 

For as much as ould tyme, not only for the augmentation and increese of the holy and 
Catholick faith of our Saviour Jesu Christ, and to exort the mindes of comon people 
to good devotion and holsome doctrine therof, but also for the comenwelth and 
prosperity of this Citty, a play and declaration of divers storyes of the Bible, beginning 
with the Creation and fall of Lucifer, and ending with the generall Judgment of the 
world, to be declared and played in the Whitsonne weeke, was devised and made by 
one S r Henry Frances, somtyme moonck of this monastrey disolved, who obtayning 
and gat of Clemant, then bushop of Rome, a 100 dayes of pardon, and of the bushop 
of Chester at that tyme 40 dayes of pardon graunted from thensforth to every person 
resorting, in peaceble maner with good devotion, to heare and see the sayd playes from 
tyme to tyme, as oft as the shall be played within the sayd Citty (and that every 
person or persons disturbing the sayd playes in any maner wise to be accused by the 
authority of the sayd pope Clemants bulls, untill such tyme as he or they be absolved 
therof), which playes were devised to the honor of god by John Arnway- then maior 
of this Citty of Chester, his bretheren and whole cominalty therof, to be brought forth, 
declared, and played, at the cost and charges of the craftsmen and occupations of the 
sayd citty, which hitherunto have from tyme to tyme used and performed the same 

Wherefore M r maior, in the kings name, stratly chai'geth and comandeth that every 
person and persons, of what estate, degree or condition soever he or they be resorting 
to the sayd playes, do use themselves peaciblie, without making any asault, affray, or 
other disturbance, whereby the same playes shall be disturbed, and that no maner of 
person or persons, whiche so ever he or they be, do use or weare any unlawfull weapons 
within the precinct of the sayd citty during the tyme of the sayd playes (not only upon 
payn of cursing by authority of the sayd pope Clemants bulls, but also) upon payne of 
enprisonment of their bodyes, and making fine to the king at M 1 ' maiors pleasure 

N the discussion which followed Bro. Prof. S. P. Johnston's valuable 
paper on " The Seventeenth Century Description of Solomon's 
Temple," 3 some remarks of Bro. Rylands brought the subject of the 
Miracle Plays once again to the notice of the members of our Lodge. 
Bro. Count Goblet d'Alviella followed later on with a paper on 
the "Quatuor Coronati in Belgium," 4 still keeping before him the 
faint glimmer of light which many of us have anxiously noted when the Miracle Plays 
have been alluded to. 

Interest having evidently been awakened, I venture to think the first opportunity 
may be taken without apology for the purpose of investigating the claims of the Miracle 
Play as being a possible source for some of the essential portions in the ritual of the 
craft at the present day. 

In other words, are we indebted to the Medieval Miracle Play for any part of our 
ritual, and can we trace in any part of the Mystery Plays, Moralities, or Interludes any 

1 The Proclamation given as a Preface is the earliest of its kind existing. The MS. is in the 
British Museum, Harl. MS. 2013. 

2 John Arnway, Mayor of Chester, 1327-1328. 
2 Transactions, A.Q.C., vol. xii., p. 135. 

4 Transactions, A.Q.G., vol. xiii. , p. 78. 

Introduction of the Miracle Play. 61 

scrap of tradition or reference to any occurrence upon which the Hiramic Legend may 
have been built up, or superimposed, without greatly altering the general import of 

the original. 

Before we can discuss the question we must carefully examine the history and 
nature of these early sacred dramas which were known on the Continent respectively as 
Mysteries, or Plays dealing with Biblical events; Miracle Plays, those devoted to 
illustrating the legends of Saints and Martyrs ; Interludes, or short plays introduced 
into the service of the Church, being in fact short "Mysteries" or "Miracles"; and 
Moralities, which last were of a more secular nature inculcating a higher tone of daily 
life. In England these representations were all included under the generic title of 

Miracle Plays. 

This is not the time or occasion for tracing the rise and progress of dramatic 
literature from the ancient Greek profane drama to the period of the Christian sacred 
play, the early history of which may be studied with advantage in the works of 
Collier and Ward. Rather let us accept their deductions and start upon our investiga- 
tions at the introduction of the Miracle Play into England. 

As we acknowledge the well established fact that religion has been the first 
cause of exciting dramatic representation in all countries, so do we acknowledge the 
fact that it was due to the religious activity of the Christian Church, which at first 
so severely condemned the Roman drama and brought about its suppression, that the 
art of representing human emotions by the means of the stage was re-introduced at a 
period when dramatic poetry had fallen into decay. 

From the 4th to the 10th century profane art was not encouraged, and the 
religious world and the saintly life reigned supreme as the only cult worthy the 
attention of the non-military portion of the population of Western Europe. It has 
been pointed out, by students of the above period, that as trade increased by means of 
the fairs which were greatly augmented. during the eighth and ninth centuries, the 
professions of the Minstrels, Jugglers, and Buffoons became very lucrative and acquired 
considerable importance in the eyes of the multitude. 

The Church, ever mindful of the difficulty of teaching doctrinal truths to the 
ignorant and unlettered people, gladly seized upon this growing demand for recreation, 
and representations of saintly legend and Biblical Truth, known as Miracle and 
Mystery Plays, became common in the Churches of France and Germany. 

_ The Conquest of England, in 1066, saw the introduction of numbers 

Introduction of M . 

the Miracle Play f alien clergy to English lands and manors, in consequence of gifts to 
into England toy &J ?> 1 b 

Norman Monks. Norman Abbeys by the followers of the Conqueror. 

To this immigration we are able to trace the germ of the English Miracle Play. 
At first in the form of an " Interlude," given during the service in the Priory or Parish 
Church (in the Latin tongue), representations of the chief incidents in the life of Jesus 
Christ, or the Patron Saint, paved the way for public exhibition on the Village Green 
or Market Place. 

The first recorded Miracle Play was, according to Matthew Paris, produced at 
Dunstable, in the year 1110. It was the life of Saint Catherine, written by Geoffrey, a 
monk and schoolmaster there, for his scholars use. Geoffrey afterwards became Abbot 
of S. Albans, in 1119. 

The next reference to the plays in chronological order is that recorded by William 
Fitz-Stephan who, about 1182, wrote the Vita Sancti Thomce Archiepiscopi et Martyris. 
At the end of this work Fitz-Stephan gives an account of London and says : — 

62 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Londonia pro spectaculis theatralibus, pro ludis scenicis, ludos habet sanctiores, 
reprxsentationes Miraculorum quce sancti Gonfessores operati sunt, seu repraesentationes 
Passionum quibus claruit constantia martyrum. 

In Stem's " Survey of London," 1633 Ed., is the following passage in translation 
of the above : — 

"But London, for the shewes upon Theaters and Comicall Pastimes, hath holy 
playes, representations of Miracles, which holy Confessors have wrought, or representa- 
tions of Torments, wherein the constancie of Martyrs appeared." 

In the thirteenth century the plays produced by the clergy on Holy days, which 
were as we know also the dates fixed for the fairs, were somewhat neglected for 
unwarranted representations of the Bible story produced by the wandering minstrels 
and professional story tellers of the day, who doubtless provided a more boisterous and 
lively entertainment. 

To meet this opposition from these " strolling players " and other irresponsible 
" rag-a-muffins," the Church promptly excommunicated these gentry and also those 
good folks who assisted by looking on ; also putting a stop to the open air performances 
by restricting all future representation once again to the interior of the Parish or 
Monastic Church. 

In 1378, the scholars or choristers of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, presented 
a petition to Richard II., praying him " to prohibit some inexpert people from present- 
ing the History of the Old Testament, to the great prejudice of the said clergy, who 
have been at great expense to represent it publicly at Christmas." This petition did not 
apply to the Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks or Fraternity of S 1 Nicholas, who 
were incorporated in 1233, and had the liberty of performing religious plays at 
Skinners' Well Fields, Smithfield. Stow states that in 1391 their play was graced by 
the attendance of the King and Queen and many Nobles of the realm. In 1409 the 
Parish Clerks' play lasted eight days, and was known as the Creation Miracle. 

The popularity of these plays induced the clergy to greatly increase the number 
of texts, until at length plays representing the Biblical narratives from the creation to 
the apostolic writings were of frequent occurrence. These complete plays, with the 
minor ones dealing with the saints ai-e all included in the term Miracle Play. 

With the return of the play to the Church, great difficulty was soon experienced 
in providing adequate accommodation for the crowd of spectators, and before long it 
was found necessary to again revert to the Market Place and Village Green. The 
increased length of the Creation-Doomsday or Biblical play and the number required 
to represent the characters in the huge drama necessitated the clergy calling to their 
assistance members of the laity. This was accomplished by means of the Gilds. 

The Craft Gilds The majority of the trading companies and the incorporated crafts 
Miracle Play. j n a ]^ ^g principal towns of England had developed from religious 
Gilds or had attached to them such attributes. Nothing was easier for the Church 
than to call in the aid of these Gilds seeing that according to the returns made 
to the Parliament of Richard II. in 1385, there was hardly a town in the country 
without one or more of the religious or secular associations, and we may accept it as 
certain that before the Reformation there was no Gild without its Patron Saint. By 
handing over to them what was practically a monopoly the Church was relieved of the 
expense of " mounting the play," yet it retained some control over the text which para* 
phrased the sacred writings. 

The York Plays. 63 

By the end of the thirteenth century many of the chief towns were in possession 
of a complete cycle of plays illustrating the chief scenes in the Bible, but more 
particularly the New Testament. 

Norman French having taken the place of Latin in the twelfth century the 
early Gild plays were in that tongue. This was found to be a serious drawback for 
the general public, and Ralph Higden, the Chester Monk, author of the Polychronicon, 
is said to have made a special journey to Rome in order to obtain leave from the Pope 
to enact the Plays in English at Chester. Permission was granted to him in 1338. 
With the Plays now acted in the vulgar tongue, their popularity was greatly increased, 
and by the end of the fourteenth century we find representations of the sacred drama 
given over the whole of England, from Newcastle to Penairth, in Corwall, wherever 
the Craft Gilds had their centres. 

TheMSS. Fortunately for an enquiry we have the plays themselves in MS., 

Ex ant. written at vai'ious times and arranged in their proper sequence for 


The earliest MS. play extant is found in the British Museum, Harleian MSS. 
2253, and dates from the early part of the reign of Edward III., circa 1340. It is 
founded upon the 16th chapter of the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, and relates to 
the deicent of Christ into Hell to liberate Adam, Eve, John the Baptist and the Prophets. 

Another early MS. is the sole relic of a cycle of plays that is lost, it is known 
as the Skryveners play, and doubtless formed part of the Corpus Christi Play at York, 
as it was discovered in the Archives of the Guild Hall, York. It dates from the reign 
of Edward III., if not earlier. 

Besides one or two other single specimen plays we have four complete sets of the 
popular Creation-Doomsday Play. In two cases they aro arranged for the Craft 
Gilds of York and Chester. These MSS. are known as The York Plays ; The Chester 
Whitsone Plays ; The Townley or Wakefield Collection ; and The Ludus Coventrise or 
Coventry Mysteries. We also have the Cornish Guary Miracle, a fragment, and a 
small collection of plays known as The Digby Miracles. 

The Tort Plays. The unique and valuable MS. containing the York Plays from the 

Ashburnham Library has been made accessible by the labours of Miss Lucy Toulmin 
Smith, who published a transcript in 1885. The MS. consists of 270 leaves of parch- 
ment, of which 48 are blank. 

It is bound in the original wooden boards once covered with leather ; and on the 
first blank leaf is written Corpus Cristi Playe. 

The handwriting is good, and dates from about 1430-40. The plays themselves 
are much earlier, their composition being probably the work of some unknown 
author living about 1350. This collection contains the texts of forty-eight complete 
plays each with the name of the particular craft or company responsible for the 

They are as follows : 


The Barkers 1 


The Playsterers 


The Cardmakers 


The Fullers 

V. The Cowpers 2 


The Creation and the fall of Lucifer. 
The Creation. To the fifth day. 
God creates Adam and Eve. 
Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. 
Man's disobedience and fall. 

Tanners. * Coopers. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


The Armourers 


The Gloueres 1 


The Shipwrites 


The Fysshers and 



The Parchemyners and 



The Hoseers 2 


The Spicers 


The Pewterers and 



The Tylers 


The Chaundelers 


The Masonns 

(Mynstrells is wri 


The Golde Smythis 


The Marchallis 3 


The Gyrdillers and 



The Sporiers and 



The Barbours 


The Smythis 


The Conours 5 


The Cappe Makers 

and Hatters 


The Skynners 


The Cuttelers 


The Baxters 6 


The Cordewaners 


The Bowers and 



The Tapiters and 

Couchers 7 


The Lytsteres 8 


The Cokis 9 and 



The Mylners 10 


The Sherman 11 


The Pvnners and 




The Bocheres 


The Sadilleres 


The Carpenters 


The Wynedrawers 


The Sledmen 12 

Adam and Eve driven out of Eden. 

Cain and Able. 

The Building of the Ark. 

Noah and the Flood. 


Abraham and Isaac. 

The Departure of the Israelites from Egypt. 

The Annunciation. 

Joseph's trouble about Mary. 

The Journey to Bethlehem. 
The Angels and the Shepherds. 
The Coming of the three Kings to Herod, 
n after Masonns in a 16th cent, hand.) 
The Adoration of the three Kings. 
The Flight into Egypt. 

The Massacre of the Innocents. 

Christ with the Doctors in the Temple. 

The Baptism of Jesus. 

The Temptation of Jesus. 

The Transfiguration. 

The Woman taken in Adultry and the Raising of 

The Entiy into Jerusalem. 
The Conspiracy to take Jesus. 
The Last Supper. 
The Agony and the Betrayal. 

Peter denies Jesus and Jesus before Caiaphas. 

The Dream of Pilate's Wife and Jesus before Pilate. 

The Trial before Herod. 

Second Accusation before Pilate. Remorse of 

The Judgment of Pilate. 
Christ led up to Calvary. 

The Crucifixion. 

The Burial of Jesus. 

The Harrowing of Hell. 

The Resurrection. 

Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene. 

The Travellers to Emmaus meet Jesus. 

1 Glovers. 2 Stocking Makers. s Men who shod and cured horses. 

* Spur Makers and Bitmakers. 5 Curriers of Leather. 6 Bakers. 

7 Makers of Hangings and Coverlid Makers. 8 Dyers. ' Cooks. 

ie Millers. ll Those who shore the nap of cloth. "Porters. 


The Escrueneres 


The Tailoures 


The Potteres 


The Draperes 


The Wefferes 1 


The Osteleres 2 


The Merceres 

The York Plays. 65 

XLI. The Hatmakers, Maysons, 

and Laborers ... The Purification of Mary. 

(This play is written in a lGth century hand, it should have been placed before the flight 
into Egypt.) 

The Incredulity of Thomas. 
The Ascension. 

The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 
... The Death of Mary. 

The Appearance of our Lady to Thomas. 

The Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin 

The Judgment Day. 

In one of the oldest books in the possession of the City of York earlier informa- 
tion still is obtained of the Craft Gilds and the Miracle Play. The volume is entitled, 
" Liber Diversorum Memorandum Civitatem Ebor," and dates from the year 1376. 
[51 Edw. III.] 

In this book are enrolled the ordinances of the York Craft and trade Gilds. In 
1415 Roger Burton, the Town Clerk, entered a detailed list of the Plays to which each 
Craft had been assigned. A later list also appears in this same book. 

From these two memoranda it is evident that as new Crafts became incorpor- 
ated, and others fell into poverty or disappeared, the city authorities were obliged 
from time to time to alter and re-arrange the number and disposition of the plays, but 
keeping them as much as possible to one sequence. 

In the Ashburnham MS. the play No. XVI., " The Coming of the Three Kings 
to Herod," is called " The Masonns Play," but at a later period an alteration was made 
giving this play to the Mynstrells, and joining the " Maysons and Laborers " to the 
Hatmakers, giving them the play No. XLI., " The Purification of Mary." No reason 
for this is noted in the MS., but as the change is made in a 16th century hand-writing 
it may be traced to the fact that in 1561 a new Gild of Musicians, commonly called 
the Mynstrells, was formed at York. The Masonns play was evidently handed over to 
them and their name written over it; the Masons being classed with the Laborers and 

It was probably due to the fact that the Craft Gild of the Masons in York 
having fallen into low water in consequence of the Reformation and the stoppage of all 
Church building, that there only remained in York a few journeymen masons for doing 
odd jobs. The following extract from the City's Corporation Book practically proves 
the case. 

York Records. 
[Book marked ^ folio 231.] " Fynally it is further ordeyned and by consent of all the 

good men of the said mystery or craft fully aggreed that the said fellawship of 
Mynstrelles of their proper chardges shall yerely from hensfurth bryng forth and cause 
to be played the pageant of Corpus Christi viz the herold his sone twoo counselars and 
the messynger inquyryng the three kyngs of the Childe Jesu, sometyme accustomed to 
be brought forth at chardges of the late Masons of this Cittie on Corpus Christi day, in 
suche like semely wise and order as other occupacions of this Cittie doo their pageante." 
In Burton's second list in the old corporation ordinance Book already referred to. 
The Masons were given the apocryphal legend connected with the death of Mary, 
known as the "Fergus legend." The entry in the book runs "Masons Portacio 

1 Weavers. 2 Innbolders. 

66 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Corporis Marie." At a later date the play was handed over to the Lynweuers, i.e. 
Linenweavers who played the same until 1485, when it was decided that " thy padgeant 
called Fergus late brought furth by the Lynwevers be laid apart." We do not hear of 
it again until 1518 when there is an arbitration between the Linenweavers and the 
Woollen-weavers on the subject should it be required to be represented again. 

In Burton's first list of 1415 the Masons are put down with the Goldsmiths to 
represent the play of the " Three Kings coming to Herod," which play they have 
assigned to them in the Ashburnham MSS. Burton's list also shews that the play of the 
" Purification of Mary " formally played by the Masons (i.e., before 1415) had been 
handed to the Monks of St. Leonard's Hospital. 1 This is interesting as we find in the 
16th century, when the few Masons remaining in the City of York had been classed 
with the Laborers and Hatmakers, it was the " Purification," their old play, which was 
given them once more. Miss L. Toulmin Smith is of opinion that the Masons were 
not to be relied upon, hence the Goldsmiths were united to them at an early date in 
order that the play should not be allowed to fall through, should at any time the 
Masons Gild or Company have fallen below its average number. 

Besides this cycle of Biblical plays given on Corpus Christi day at York, we 
read of the play of St. George and The Dragon 2 annually given on Midsummer day. No 
particulars however exist of this composition. There was also a special Gild of both sexes 
founded for the purpose of performing a special play setting forth the goodness of the 
Lord's Prayer. This was a very early play, and records exist shewing that in 1399 
the Gild had over one hundred members. 

Wickliff, who died in 1384, refers to this Gild and Play in the following words : 
" Ye Paternoster in Englisch tunge as men seng in ye play at York." 

Another Gild at York, known as the Gild of Corpus Christi, was founded in 1408, 

for the special purpose of regulating the procession, and other matters connected with 

the plays given by the Crafts on that day. 

No less than five MS. transcripts of the Chester plays are known 
The Chester . *- •/ 

MS. Plays, to exist. One is in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire dated 1591 ; 
three are in the British Museum, Add. MSS. 10305, dated 1592, 3 Harl. MSS. 2013, 
dated 1600, and Harl. MSS. 2124, written in 1607; the fifth is in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, Bod. MSS. 175. All these are late transcripts each made by someone not well 
acquainted with the language or the writing he was copying, they are therefore full of 
errors. The original is lost. 

The Chester Plays claim our attention from the fact that here the Miracle Play 
was first given in English, and also from the curious proclamation given by me as a 
preface to this paper, it being the earliest of its kind preserved in any civic record. 

The late date of the transcripts of the Chester Plays and their number has for a 
long while remained a puzzle to the antiquary. 

The date of the original MS. has been placed at the end of the fourteenth century, 
1380-90; in any case, they are not the plays of Sir Henry Frances, monck, 4 or of the 
time of the Mayoralty of Sir John Arnway, mentioned in the Proclamation, as his year 
of office was 1327-28, and it has been stated that the Pope had not been applied to for 
leave to give the play in English until 1338. Of course the original of these transcripts 

1 A very unusual proceeding. 

2 I have not overlooked the Mummers Play of King, sometimes St., George, which has been 
printed in different versions. An imperfect account of it will be found in our Transactions, 1890, 
vol. iii., p. 81. The play is still presented to us in Gloucestershire at Christmas by the village lads. It 
may be the survival of the old play of St. George. 

3 Ed. by Thos. Wright, F.S.A., for the Shakespeare Society, 1843. 

4 §ed Proclamation at the commencement of paper. 

The Chester Plays. 


may itself have been a copy of an earlier MS., with the older words altered to suit the 
date of the copy, the original being Higden's version. 

The Chester Plays number 25, and were presented on the Monday, Tuesday and 
"Wednesday in Whitsun Week by the twenty-five Craft Gilds of the city from the year 
1268 to 1577. The following is their order :— 






















The readinge of the Banes. 

The fall of Lucifer. 

The Creation and fall ; death of Abel. 

Noah's Flood. 

Histories of Lot and Abraham. 

Balaam and the Ass. 

Proemium ... 

The Tanners... 

The Drapers... 

The Watter Leaders of Dee 

The Barbers and Wax 

Cappers and Lynman 


The Wryghtes and Sklaters The Salutation and Nativity. 
The Paynters and Glasiors The Shepherds. 

The Vintners 

The Mercers... 

The Gouldsmythes and 

The Blackesmythes 
The Bowchers 1 
The Glovers ... 
The Corvysors 3 
The Bakers ... 
The Flechars, Bowyers, 

Coopers and Stringers 
The Iremongeres 
The Cookes ... 
The Skynners 
The Saddlers 
The Taylors .. 
The Fishemongers 
The Clothe Workers 
The Dyers ... 
The Websters 3 

The Three Kings. 

The Offering and return of the Three Kings. 

The Slaughter of the Innocents. 

The Purification. 

The Temptation and the Woman taken in Adultery. 


Christ's entry into Jerusalem. 

Christ Betrayed, Last Supper. 

The Passion. 

The Crucifixion. 

The Harrowing of Hell. 

The Resurrection. 

The Pilgrims of Emaus. 

The Ascension. 

The Emission of the Holy Ghost. 




It will be noticed that a preface or proemium termed " Banes " appears at the 
head of the list. These Banes were short verses addressed to each craft giving also a 
short introduction to the outline of the plays. The 10th play is thus heralded : 

" You Gouldsymths and Masons make comely shew 
Howe Herode did rage at the returne of those Kings 
And how he slewe the small tender male babes 
Being under two yeares of age." 

It is interesting to notice that the Masons are again placed with the Goldsmiths 
at Chester ; perhaps for the same reason that they were at York ? 


3 Shoemakers. 

3 Weavers. 

68 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

From a very early date the Craft and trading companies of Coventry 

Mysteries. acted the Miracle Plays, and continued to do so until 1584 when 

they were suppressed. Once or twice afterwards they re-appeared only to finally 

cease in 1591. The text of these plays, with one exception, as represented by the Trade 

Gilds has unfortunately been lost. 

In the Cottonian Library in the British Museum is a quarto volume of Plays 
[Vespas D. viii.] This MS. is known as the Ludus Coventrio?-, and according to the 
Librarian to Sir Robert Cotton, the plays are considered to have belonged to the 
Monastery of The Grey Friars at Coventry. There is however little foundation for this 
surmise. The MS. 1 dates from the year 1468. It is a poor transcript, and evidently 
the work of a scribe unequal to the task, many passages shewing that he was not well 
acquainted with his copy. 

From internal evidence the late Mr. Collier was of opinion that the plays had 
erroneously been ascribed to the Grey Friars, rather would he accept the conclusion 
that the collection was one suited to a company of strolling players, or perhaps a series 
of plays for the use of Craft Gilds generally, when they had no original text. At the 
end of the prologue is the following : 

" A Sunday next if that we may, 
At VI. of the bell we gynne our play 

In N Town, wherfor we pray 

That God now be your spede. Amen." 

The letter N is placed for the nomen of the town, which was to be filled up as 
occasion required by the person who made the proclamation. 

The plays number 42, some of which wei-e acted one year the others the next. 
At the commencement of the 29th play, the prologue speaker says : 

" We intendyn to procede the matere 
That we lefte the last zere." 

This proves that the remaining plays were not to be acted the same year as the 
preceding twenty-eight. 

The following comprise the set : 


I. The Creation. 
II. The fall of Man. 

III. Cain and Abel. 

IV. Noah's Flood. 

V. Abraham's Sacrifice. 

VI. Moses and the two tables. 

VII. The Prophets. 

VIII. The Barrenness of Anna. 

IX. Mary in the Temple. 

X. Mary's Betrothment. 

XL The Salutation and Conception. 

XII. Joseph's return. 

XIII. The Visit of Elizabeth. 

XIV. Trial of Joseph and Mary. 

1 Ed. by J. 0. Halliwell for the Shakespeare Society, 1841 , 

The Coventry Flays. 69 

XV. The Birth of Christ. 

XVI. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

XVII. The Adoration of the Magi. 

XVIII. The Purification. 

XIX. The Slaughter of the Innocents. 

XX. Christ in the Temple. 

XXI. Baptism of Christ. 

XXII. The Temptation. 

XXII [. The Woman taken in Adultry. 

XXIV. The Raising of Lazarus. 

XXV. The Council of the Jews. 

XXVI. The Entry into Jerusalem. 

XXVII. The Last Supper. 

XXVIII. The Betraying of Christ. 

XXIX. King Herod. 

XXX. The Trial of Christ. 

XXXI. Dream of Pilate's Wife. 

XXXII. The Crucifixion. 

XXXIII. The Descent into Hell. 

XXXIV. The Burial of Christ. 
XXXV. The Resurrection. 

XXXVI. The Three Maries. 

XXXVII. Christ appears to Mary. 

XXXVIII. Pilgrims of Emaus. 

XXXIX. Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

XLI. The Assumption of the B.V.M. 

XLII. Doomsday. 

The Townley The plays, known as the Townley, Wakefield, or Widkirk Miracles, 

MS. Plays. l J ' ■" ' 

derive the first title from the fact that the MS. volume containing the 
text was for a long time in the Library at Townley Hall, Lancashire. The second and 
third titles are due to a tradition that they were written by a monk of Woodkirk, or 
Widkirk Abbey, for the use of the town or district of Wakefield. The men of Wakefield 
are known to have had some reputation as actors so early as 1446, in which year some 
of them are found at York assisting the Craft Gilds in their Corpus Christi play. The 
date of the MS. is about 1425, and may be looked upon rather as a collection of plays 
than an acting edition, as no particulars of any Gild or Craft is appended to them. 
They number 30, and are in the following order : 


1. The Creation of the World, Adam, Eve and the Fall. 

II. Cain and Abel. 

III. The Building of the Ark and the Flood. 

IV. The Sacrifice of Isaac. 
V. Jacob and Esau. 

VI. Processus Prophetarum. 

VII. Israel in Egypt. 

VIII. Caesar Augustus orders the World to be taxed. 

IX. The Annunciation. 

X. The Salutation. 

70 transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

XI. The first and second Shepherds Plays. 

XII. The Visit of the Wise Men of the East. 

XIII. The Flight into Egypt. 

XIV. The Massacre of the Innocents. 
XV. The Purification. 

XVI. Jesus in the Temple. 

XVII. John the Baptist. 

XVIII. The Last Sapper and the Betrayal. 

XIX. The Trial before Caiaphas. 

XX. The Trial before Pilate. 

XXI. The Crucifixion. 

XXII. Processus Talentorum. 

XXIII. The Harrowing of Hell. 

XXIV. The Resurrection. 

XXV. The Appearance of Christ on the Road to Emaus. 
XXVI. The Appearance to Thomas. 

XXVII. The Ascension. 
XXVIII. The Day of Judgment. 

XXIX. The Raising of Lazarus [evidently misplaced]. 
XXX. The Hanging of Judas. [Added to the MS. in the 16th cent.] 
With this MS. we finish the complete sets of the Biblical Plays. 

_,. _, . In the Bodleian Library, Oxford, among the Digby MSS., is 

MS. Plays. pi*eserved a volume containing several Miracle Plays of the time of 
Henry VII., or immediately preceding the Reformation. Three Plays are devoted to 
the Conversion of St. Paul, which, from the stage directions, could hardly have been 
written for a Craft Gild pageant, but rather for some purpose where ample accommoda- 
tion was provided for the stage, as St. Paul first enters upon horseback. The Devils at 
the finish, dismayed at the conversion of Paul, all " Vanyse " away with a " fyrye, flame 
and a tempest," thunder is also directed to be heard ! ! A Play called " Oreginale de 
Sancta Maria Magdalena" follows in this collection, and is of a similar elaborate 
character, no less than four stages or scaffolds being required. In this play we have 
Lazarus raised, but the mixture of fable with Scripture and the introduction of per- 
sonages such as '• Luxuria " and "Curiosity," places this play among the moralities 
rather than the Bible Plays. To this drama succeeds a MS. of a later date, yet bound 
up with the preceding play. It is entitled " Childermas Day," and deals with the 
slaughter of the Innocents. Although the MS. bears the date of 1512, it is evidently a 
transcript of an older original, and the date given is that of the transcription. 

The last play in this curious collection is another " Morality," being a MS. copy 
of the old Moral Play of " Mind, Will and Understanding." 

As before stated, no sooner was the Miracle Play produced at 
The Cornish 

mss. Chester in the current English of the fourteenth century, than from New- 

castle to Cornwall, Miracle Plays sprang into popularity with surprising rapidity. 

As the York Plays would have been unintelligible to a west country audience, we 
find in the Cornish " Guary Miracle," a translation of the English Play into Celtic- 
Saxon of that part of the kingdom. Several specimens of the " Guary " have been 
translated back into English, and may be found in the British Museum. [Harl. MSS., 

Richard Carew, who wrote the Survey of Cornwall, dated 1602, describes the 
Guary Miracle, and states " That for representing it they raise an amphitheatre in 

The Cornish Guary Miracle. 71 

some open field, having the diameter of this enclosed plain, some 40 or 50 foot. The 

county people flock from all sides many miles off, to see and hear it; for they have 

therein devils and devices to delight the eye and ear." From this it is evident that in 

the west country the method of representing the plays was totally different to the 

northern and midland counties. 

Although there is ample evidence that the Craft Gilds at New- 
The Newcastle ° * 

MS. and Plays. castle had a cycle of Plays beginning with the Creation and ending 
with Doomsday, which were annually represented on Corpus Christi day, from 1426 to 
1589, yet there remains only one MS. Play for our enquiry. It is the ever popular one 
of Noah and the Flood, played by the Shipwrights. From the books of the various 
incorporated companies we are able to gather a few crumbs of evidence, shewing that 
the Newcastle Play was in no way inferior to those at Chester or York. The following 
is a list of the Newcastle Trading Companies and Craft Gilds, with the date of incor- 
poration, and the particulars I can gather with regard to the Miracle Plays. 

I. The Merchant Adventurers. — a.d. 1285. The ordinance book, dated 1480, 
provides that every man of the fellowship within the town should take part 

in the annual procession on Corpus Christi. The Play they acted was 

termed " Hogmagog." Many entries occur in their books concerning the 

expenses of this Play. 

II. The Skinners and Glovers. — 1437. Theordinaryof the Glovers states that 

they must attend in a Livery on Corpus Christi day and play their Play. 

I I I. The Taylors.— 1536. They acted the Play of " The Descent into Hell." 

IV. The Bakers and Brewers.— Incorporated before 1446, but archives before 

1661 lost. 
V. The Tanners and Barkers. — In their ordinary dated 1532 they are enjoined 
to set forth their pageant at the Feast of Corpus Christi, etc., etc. 
VI. The Cordwainers. — 17th Henry VI. No particulars. 

VII. The Butchers. — 1621. No particulars of an earlier incorporation. 

VIII. The Smiths. — Ordinary dated January 14th, 1436, states they shall play their 
Play at Corpus Christi at their own expense on pain of forfeiting a pound of 
wax. Their Play was " The Purification." 

IX. Fullers and Dyers. — 1477. They have many entries in their books concerning 
the expense of their Play, but the title is not given. 

X. Master Mariners.— 1492. Anciently the Gild of the Blessed Trinity. There 
are no particulars of any play assigned them, although they probably had 
XI. The Weavers.— 1527. Their Play was " The Bearing of the Cross." 

XII. Barber Chirurgeons and Chandelers.— 1442. Played " The Baptizing of 

XIII. Shipwrights.— The Play of Noah's Flood. [Published in Brand's History of 


XIV. The Coopers.— 1426. Their ordinary dated January 20th, 1426, contains the 

earliest mention of the Miracle Plays at Newcastle. 

XV. Carpenters or Wrights.— 1579. Their Play was " The Burial of Christ." 

XVI. The Masons.— Their ordinary dated September 1st, 1581, states, "At all 
times hereafter for ever whensoever the general plaies of the Towne of New- 
castle, antiently called the Corpus Christi Plays, shall be plaied, they shall 

72 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

cause to be set forth and played among other plays of the said town the plaie 
antientlye named The Buriall of our Lady Saint Mary the Virgin. Every 
absent brother to forfeit lis. VId." (2s. 6d.) 
XVII. The Joiners. — 1589. They are enjoined to perform such play as may be 

respectively assigned them. 
XVIII. The Millers.— 1578. The Play of "The Deliverance of the Children of 
Isrell out of Bondage and Servitude of King Pharo." 
XIX. Felt-Makers, Curriers and Armourers. Their ordinary dated October 
1st, 1546, joins them in a play on Corpus Christi day not specified. 
XX. The Colliers, Paviors and Carriage Men.— 1656. 
XXI. The Slaters. — 1451. A Play, "The Offering of Isaac by Abraham," to be 

acted on Corpus Christi day. 
XXII. Hoastmen (Shippers of Coal).— 1600. To act one play, to be given them by 
the Merchant Adventurers. 

XXIII. Bricklayers and Plasterers.— 1450. Two plays, " The Creation of Adam " 

and " The Flying of our Lady into Egype." 

XXIV. The Ropemakers.— 1648. The old ordinary lost. 
XXV. The Sailmakers.— 1663. Of late date. 

XXVI. Upholsterers, Tinplate Workers and Stationers.— 1675. Of a late 

XXVII. Goldsmiths (and others).— 1536. Played " The Three Kings of Coleyn." 

Mr. Brand, the Historian of Newcastle, says that he sought in vain in all the 
archives of the several societies of that town for the text of the plays, and concludes 
they were probably industriously destroyed as reliques of Popish superstition. 
Other MS. Texts Besides the fragments at Newcastle, there exist a few plays in 

of Plays, &c Mg connected with the following places :— 

Croxton (Norfolk ?) 1461.— The play of the Sacrament, MS. at Trinity College, 
Dublin. F. IV. 20. Edited by Prof. W. Stokes, Transactions of the Philo- 
logical Society, 1860-1. Berlin. 

Penairth, Cornwall, 1504.— MS. in Cornish, Life of St. Meriasek. Edited also by 
Prof. W. Stokes. London, 1872. 

Cornwall.— The Creation of the World. MS. in Cornish; a transcript dated 1611. 
Edited by Prof. "W. Stokes for the Philological Society. Berlin, 1863. 

Norfolk and Suffolk.— 15th century MS. transcript. The play of Abraham and Isaac. 
MS. at Broome Hall. 

Dublin.— 15th century ; a cycle of 14 plays known, but only one exists, the play of 
Isaac and Abraham. Trinity College, Dublin. MS.D IV. 18. Printed by 
Collier, 1836. 

British Museum.— Harl. MS. 2253, is the Harrowing of Hell : temp. Edw. III. 

Bodleian Library, Oxford.— MS. E mus. 160. Two plays, The Burial of Christ, and 
the Resurrection. 16th century transcript. 
The following is a list of towns, among many others, where the plays were 

known to have been represented but no texts remain. 

London— 12th century. Miracle Plays : see Stow's Survey. 

Skinners Well, Clerkenwell, 1391. The Passion of Our Lord and the Creation 

of the World ; lasted three days. Stow. 
Clerkenwell, 1409. The Creation ; lasted eight days. Stow. 
„ Grey Friars, 1557. The Passion of Christ. Stryjoe. 

Moralities and Interludes. 73 

London— 1 4th and 15th centuries. The Holy Trinity Gild of St. Botolph without Alders- 
gate Street. Pageants of the Holy Trinity, S l Fabyan, S l Sebastian, S l 
Botolph, and "the Terement." [The Burial of Christ.] Hones Ancient 
Mysteries, etc. 

I have shown elsewhere 1 that the Masons' Company of London before the 
Reformation were closely connected with the Priory of the Holy Trinity, Aklgate, and 
possessed one of the banners of the Holy Trinity so late as 1665. 

Canterbury. — temp. Hen. VI. The play of Corpus Christi by the Crafts: Burgmote 
Orders for the City, a.d. 1500. MS. in Cathedral Library. 
h — 1501. The Three Kings of Coleyn. Hist. MS. Commission, 9th Report, 

p. 147. 

Beverley — 1407-1604. A cycle of 36 plays. See Beverlac, by G. Poulson ; also Lans- 
downe MS. 896, British Museum. 

Winchester — 1487. Christi Descensus ad infernos. MS. Wolvesey. Ecclesiastical 

Worcester — 1467. Five plays among the Crafts. Municipal Records. 

Sleaford — 1477. The Three Kings of Cologne and the Ascension. British Museum, 
Add. MSS., 28533. 

Leicester — L477. The Passion Play. Leicester Records. 

Aberdeen — 1442-1531. Offerand of our Lady. Council Registers. 

Edinburgh — 1503. Records of the City. 

Bassingbourne, Cambridgeshire — 1511. Play of St. George. Churchwardens' Accounts. 

Bethersden, Kent — 1522. Ludi Beataa Christinas. Churchwardens' Accounts. 

Heybridge, Essex — 1532. Churchwardens' Accounts. 

Wymondham, Norfolk — 1549. Holinshed, 1587. 

Reading — 1499-1557. The Three Kings, The Resurrection and Passion Play. Church- 
wardens' Accounts. 

Lincoln— 1564. Old Tobit. Gent's Mag., vol. liv., p. 103. 

Shrewsbury — 1574. Fosbrohe, Encyclopaedia of Antiquities. 

Tewkesbqry — 1578-1585. Churchwardens' Accounts. 

Witney — 16th century. The Resurrection. W. Lambarde, Dictionarium Anglise, etc. 

Preston *\ 

Lancaster > Corpus Christi plays ; temp. James I. Weever's Funeral Monuments. 

Kendal ' 

Hull — Trinity House Books. 

Moralities and Although of minor importance, yet we must not neglect to glance 

at those dramas known as Moralities and Interludes, which were quite 
independent of any sequence, and which from an early date were very popular with the 
multitude. As in the case of the Biblical Creation-Domsday Play, Interludes originated 
at first in the Church. The Image of St. Nicholas and the Raising of Lazarus are 
among the early works of Hilarius, an English monk who flourished in France under 
Abelard. These short plays were termed Interludes, as they were performed during 
service in the Church. We may imagine the enthusiasm of an awe-struck congregation 
when in the Raising of Lazarus, the officiating Priest, who represented Lazarus, rises 
from the tomb and admonishes the people. Stories of the Saints were commonly 
represented in this way. 

1 See my History of the Masons' Company, pp. 79, 80, 81, etc. 

74 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The Moralities are of a different construction, and as many were printed in the 
reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, there is no difficulty in forming an opinion about 

They were of a general moral nature, written by many authors, for the purpose 
of enforcing suitable lessons for gentle and humane conduct in an age that was only 
gradually heading off the roughness of feudalism. They do not apply to the Gilds in 
any way. 

Yet these Moralities have their interest ; they may be regarded as the connecting 
links which joined the miracle play to the legitimate drama. They were the forerunners 
of those early comedies, Ralph Roister Doister and Gammer Gurton's Needle, plays 
which made possible the works of the Elizabethan Dramatists, who in their turn were 
succeeded by the immortal bard, William Shakespere. 

The Plays and Having reviewed the MS. evidences concerning the various texts 

* y ' of the Plays, we may now turn our attention to their nature and repre- 
sentation by the Craft Gilds. In a general way the plays were not long, perhaps 
occupying about twenty minutes to half an hour for each, some much less. The charac- 
ters in each play were comparatively few, at least the speaking parts ; doubtless there 
was a considerable number of assistants to make up the scene, but the dialogue is 
usually restricted to not more than four or five. 

That our ancestors were not easily shocked by the necessary realism of some of 
the acts, may be gathered from the following lines in the Creation Play. 

"Thr Fall of Man." 

Adam dicet, sic. — Alas! alas! ff<>r this fals dede 

My fleshy frend my fo I fynde 
Scharaeful synne doth us unhende 

I see us nakyd before and behynde 
Our Lordes wurd wold we not drede 

Therefore we be now caytyvys unkynde 
Our pore prevytes ffor to hede 

Summe ffygg-levys fayn wolde I fynde 

ffor to hyde oure schame. — \_Ex. the Coventry MS.~\ 

The popular appreciation of the humourous in nature was considered in the 
Deluge Play, the domestic troubles of Noah being received with delight. The Play 
opens with God's announcement of the coming deluge, and commands Noah to build 
the Ark. 

The play proceeds with the building of the " Shippe," which, when finished, 
Noah is anxious to enter with all his family. Noah's wife, a lady with a difficult 
temper, has no faith in her husband's story of the coming flood, and refuses to sail with 
him, and roundly abuses him for being a fool. Noah, who laments the "crabbed 
nature" of womankind, enters the Ark, leaving his wife outside. In reply to her 
husband's appeal to follow him, she gives vent to a volley of strong language, and says 
that unless he will take certain of her lady friends (gossips) with him he may " row 
where he lists and get a new wife," as " she will not out of this towne." At last one of 
her sons, Japhet, induces her to come on board, which at length she does, and salutes 
Noah with a box on the ears, etc., etc. At York, towards the end of the play, Noah 
wishing to find out if the waters are abating, "casts the lead" in regular sailor 
fashion. This Play was usually the property of the Shipwrights. 

The Text of the Plays. 75 


Yea Sir sette up youer saile 

And rowe fourth with evil baile, 

For withouten fa, vie 

I will not out of this towne ; 

But I have my gossippes everyechone, 

One foote further 1 will not gone ; 

The shall not drowne, by Sante John ! 

And 1 maye save ther life. 

The loven me full wel, by Christe ! 

But thou lett them into thy Cheiste (ark) 

Elles rowe nowe wher thy leiste 

And gette thee a newe wiffe.— Chester Play*. 

Besides the ridiculous, the pathetic chord was also struck. In the Play of 
Abraham offering up Isaac, we read, when the latter is bound and on the aliar. 

Isaac — A mercye, father why tarye you soe ? 
Smyte of my head, and let me goe : 
1 pray you rid me of my woe. 
For nowe I take my leve. 
Abraham — Ah ! sonne my harte will break in three 
To heare thee speake such words to me 
Jesu ! on me Thou have pittye 
That I have moste in mynde.— Chester Plays. 

The New Testament incidents, with the exception of the Play of " The Three 
Shepherds watching their Flocks by Night," are all treated in a very reverent manner, 
and the language used sometimes rises even to eloquence. The Shepherds' Play, how- 
ever, includes a comic sheep stealer, and the snepherds appeal to the laughter-loving 
public by first complaining of the heavy taxes they pay, of their shrewish wives and the 
disadvantages of matrimony, besides expressing the usual discontent at the lowness of 
their wages. 

In the play dealing with the Birth of Christ at Coventry, which play is the only 
one of the Gild plays of that town extant, the character of Herod was most imposing 
and considerable licence seems to have been allowed him. 

The following curious stage direction, " Here Erode ragis in the pagond and in 
the strete alsoe," would imply that after expressing his fury and rage on being informed 
that the Wise Men from the Bast had escaped from his messengers, he descends from 
the stage in his passion and continues his violence in the crowd of spectators. 

Shakespeare, who may easily have been present at the last representation of the 
Coventry plays in 1591, probably had them in mind when he wrote the Second Scene of 
Act III. in Hamlet : 

Hamlet : I would have such a fellow whipped for o'er-doing Termagant : 
it out-herods Herod : pray yoa avoid it. 

Compare also Antony and Cleopatra, Act III., Scene 3, and Merry Wives of 
Windsor, Act II., Scene 1. 

On the other hand, the touching scenes in the Life of Christ leave nothing to be 
desired, and the terrible nature of the Crucifixion, although crudely graphic in every 
detail, loses nothing of its sanctity in the treatment it receives in the Play. 

76 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

We may sum up the dialogue generally very favourably and admit that these 
Plays must have exercised a beneficial effect upon the populace -whenever and wherever 
a representation took place. 

From the ordinances and other documents remaining among civic and corporate 
archives, we are able to form a very clear idea as to the manner in which the plays were 
given by the various Craft Gilds in corporate towns. 

At Newcastle the ordinaries of the Crafts all shew that upon incorporation it was 
generally enjoined that they should bear part of the expense and labour in producing 
a play or pageant annually on Corpus Christi day. 

At York we gather from the city records that so early as 1399 the positions to 
be taken up by the various Gilds in and about the city were carefully arranged so that 
after the Creation Play No. I. had ended, it moved to another place, and gave way for 
Play No. II., which, at its finish, moved after No. I., giving place for Play No. III., and 
so on in a regular specified round. 

Prom the books of these companies and other sources it is clear that each Gild 
or Craft had to provide a movable stage on which to give its play. This scaffold was 
draped and mounted on wheels, so that after having taken up its allotted place in the 
pageant it could move on in its turn and act its play in the proper sequence without 
much difficulty. 

Archdeacon Rogers, who died in 1595, was an eyewitness of the Miracle Plays at 
Chester, and has left the following account, 1 which is of considerable interest as des- 
cribing the modus operandi in that city. 

" The time of the yeare they weare played was Monday, Tuesday and Wensedaye 
in Whitson weeke. The maner of these playes weare, every company had his pagiant, 
or parte, which pagiants weare a high scafolde with 2 rowmes, a higher and a lower, 
upon 4 wheeles. In the lower they apparelled them selves, and in the higher rowme 
they played, being all open on the tope, that all behoulders mighte heare and see them. 
The places where they played them was in every streete. They begane first at the abay 
gates, and when the firste pagiante was played, it was wheeled to the high crosse 
before the mayor, and so to every streete : and soe every streete had a pagiante playinge 
before them at one time, till all the pagiantes for the daye appoynted weare played : and 
when one pagiant was neere ended, worde was broughte from streete to streete, that 
soe the mighte come in place thereof, exceedinge orderlye, and all the streetes have 
theire pagiantes afore them all at one time playeinge togeather ; to se which playes was 
greate resorte, and also scafoldes and stages made in the streetes in those places where 
they determined to playe theire pagiantes." 

Chaucer, writing two hundred years earlier (1375), evidently saw these Miracle 
Plays performed much in the same manner. In the Millers Tale we read of " Jolly 
Absolon," who 

" Sometimes to shew his lightness and maistrie, 
He plaieth Herode on a skaffold hie." — [Canterbury Tales. - ] 

Prom civic and corporation records, as well as the account books of certain com- 
panies, it is evident that it was customary to provide professional actors to take some of 
the principal parts in the drama, their own responsibility being in the production of 
their play, and not in the training of amateur actors, to the possible neglect of their 
Craft. In 1591 all the Coventry Companies contracted with a " Universal Provider '' 
to produce all the dramas in their Corpus Christi Play. 

1 Brit. Mus., Harl. MS. No. 1948, fol. 48. 

Wages and Expenses. 


To meet the expenses of these plays the members of the companies were rated 
accordingly. At York, the Shipmen, or Mariners, paid, if a Master, twopence yearly, if 
a fellow (i.e., a common sailor) only a penny, towards their Play of " Noah and the 
Flood," and it is probable that other Crafts had similar rules. This " pageant money " 
as it was called, became a source of income long after the plays had ceased, and the pay- 
ment of it in some cases continued at York so late as 1771. From Coventry we gather 
the following remuneration to actors in 1490. 

Itm to Pilatte is sonne ... ... mid. 

to Peter and to Malchus ... xvid. 

to the devyll and to Judas ... xvmd. 

to Anna ... ... ... us. nd. 


At Hull in 1447, the character representing God received 6d. ; in 1484, 8d. ; 
in 1487, lOd. ; and in 1520 his salary reached Is. In 1485 Noah received 8d. and his 
wife Is. At Coventry, in 1585, we find the following : 

Item payd to John Hopper for playing of Jesus and Zacharyas ms. 

1573. — Payd to Fawston for hanging Judas ... mid. 

,, to Fawston for Coc-croyng ... mid. 

1578. — Payd for a new hoke to hang Judas .. vid. 

At Newcastle the following interesting items occur in the Fullers and Dyer's 
Company's accounts. 

The Charggs of the play this yere. 
First for the rehearsal of the playe before the Crafte 
Item to a Mynstrell yt Nyght 
for Salmone Troute 
„ Wyn ... 

„ Maundy loves and caks 
,, 3 yerds and a lyn cloth for God's Coot 
„ the carynge of the trout and wyn about the 

,, drynk and thayr suppers that waited of the 

s . 


10 . 





3 . 


2 . 


3 . 


. 12 

Summa Totalis 

At Coventry the account books of the Company of Smiths show the expenses of 
keeping the moveable stage in order. 

1462 — Item — expended at the fest of Corpus Christi yn 
reparacion of the pagent, that ys to say, a 
peyre of new whelys the pryce ... ... viiis. 

Item — for naylys and ii hokys for the sayd pagient iiiid. 

1470 — Item — ii clampys of iron for the pagent ... viid. 

Item — ii legges to the pagent and the workman- 
ship withall ... ... ... ... ... vid. 

1480 — Item — paid for ii peyre newe whelis ... ... viiis. 

Item — expenses at the settyng of hem... ... viid. 

Item — for byndyng of tham ... ... ... viiid. 

Item — payd for a Carpenter for the pagent rowf vid. 

78 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

The stages when not in use were kept by the Crafts in pagent houses or sheds. 
The Smiths' Company have frequent entries in their accounts concerning them : — 

Item — paide to James Bradshawe for mendyng 

the pagent-howse doores ... ... iiiid. 

Item — paide to Baylyffe Emerzon for halfe-yeres 

rent of the pagent howse ... ... iis. vid. 

Item — gyven to Bryan, a sharman, for his good 

wyll of the pagent-house ... ... xd. 

These few extracts will, I think, shew how heartily the Crafts entered into the 
work of producing their respective Plays. Their responsibility was not light. Once 
having had a play assigned them, they were bound under various penalties to worthily 
and regularly sustain the same. We can therefore account for the fact that with a 
Craft such as the Masons, it was necessary to join them to a rich company, as the Gold- 
smiths, in order that their play should not fall through, by reason of the fluctuation in 
their numbers, caused by the constant alteration of their field of labour. 

With regard to the stationary Crafts we find them allotted, as far as possible, such 
plays as the nature of their occupations would select. For example, near the sea ports the 
Mariners or Shipwrights played "Noah and the Flood." At Chester, in the absence of 
Mariners, this play was given to the Watermen, who drew water from the river Dee. 
To the Ironmongers and Ropers was given "The Crucifixion;" to the Tanners and 
Barkers of York was given "The Creation;" to the Marshalls, or Shippers, was 
assigned "The Setting Out and Flight of Mary with the Child and Joseph into Egypt;" 
to the Cooks, " The Harrowing in Hell ! " and to the Mercers, " The Offering of Gifts 
by the Three Kings at the Nativity." 

Where the occupations of the Crafts could not be fitted in with the scenes in the 
drama, we do not find any particular reason for the distribution of the plays. However, 
once assigned, the custom of the Gilds was to keep to them, and very little change is to 
be observed. In the case of the Masons they were associated, as we know, with the 
Goldsmiths of Chester in producing " The Massacre of the Innocents." At York tbey 
were also classed with the Goldsmiths in the plays of "The Coming of the Three 
Kings" and "The Adoration." At a later period they were included with the 
Laborers and Hatmakers in the play of " The Purification," and at Newcastle they were 
given " The Burial of our Lady Saint Mary the Virgin." It is evident therefore that 
there was no special play with which the Masons were generally connected. 

We must not overlook the fact that the New Testament received more attention 
than the Old, and we find in no case any mention of King Solomon, or the Temple being 
treated in the Corpus Christi or other play, and it is useless to speculate on the proba- 
bility of one having existed. 

Of the popularity of the miracle plays there is no question. For three hundred 
years they were the chief form of gratuitous amusement provided for the multitude, 
and doubtless influenced for the better the moral and social life of the country folk who 
gathered together to witness the representations. 

Although the Reformation greatly altered the religious opinions of the clerical 
party, yet the love for the Biblical drama was so deeply planted in the hearts of the 
people that these plays survived the general change brought about in the services of 
the church and continued to be acted up to the close of the Elizabethan Age ; being 
finally suppressed by James I. 

Discussion. 79 

Conclusion. Having now reached the end of oar investigations, so far as this 

short paper will allow, we may again put the original questions. First, are we indebted 
to the Miracle Plays for any part of our present ritual ? Secondly, can we trace in any 
of the Plays, Moralities or Interludes, any scrap of tradition that can account for the 
Hiramic Legend ? 

To the first question I think we may reply, that as dramatic representation was 
evidently a great factor in the hands of the clergy in bringing home to an unlettered 
people the truths of the Scripture, such a means of procedure must have forced itself 
upon the pre-reformation Masons as a suitable channel for instilling any special 
tradition they may have thought necessary to keep alive in their Craft; and further, 
such realistic plays as " The Burial of Christ," and "The Raising of Lazarus," so well 
known to them as part of their Corpus Christi and Whitsuntide Plays, although never 
assigned to them, may have had considerable effect in the formation of any private 
Craft Play, mystery or legend, they wished to perpetuate, always supposing that at that 
date such legend existed. 

With regard to the second question I am unable to trace any foundation for the 
Hiramic Legend in any of the MS. Plays or Interludes that exist. A legend of un- 
doubted Eastern origin such as that of the Three Kings of Cologne, was we know long 
forgotten until the MS. tnrned up in the British Museum [Harl. MS. 1704, fo. 49]. 
And it is possible that the origin of the Hiramic legend may also one day be found in 
some Hebrew or Arabic MS. Indeed, so far back in the history of our Lodge as 1886, 
Brother the late Professor T. Hayter Lewis read a remarkable paper on "An Early 
Version of the Hiramic Legend." This early notice was found by Professor Marks (a 
non-mason) in an Arabic MS. of the 14th century written in Hebrew at Cambridge. 
Unfortunately the particulars were not carefully noted down by him at the time, and 
the press mark of the MS. was not preserved, so that our Brother was unable to follow 
up the subject. According to Dr. Marks the word Mach formed a key word, the letters 
forming the beginning of other words. The note made by Dr. Marks was 

mnxd = We have found 


un.N = Our Master 
nVn = Hiram. 

T • 

For further details of this rebus or square, I refer to Bro. Hayter Lewis' paper 
in our Transactions, vol. i., p. 34-35-36. 

In any case I consider we have in our ritual the dry bones of an interesting Craft 
Drama, containing a legend that was easily applied by the Masons to one or more of the 
existing well known plays, but that in the present state of our knowledge we are unable 
to resuscitate these dry bones and clothe the body in its proper garments ; beyond this I 
have nothing further to offer for your consideration, and I leave the subject of the Miracle 
Play with regret at not having made a discovery that would have thrown light upon an 
occult portion of our traditions. 

Bro. C. J. Castle desired to propose a hearty vote of thanks to the Worshipful 
Master for the paper which he had brought before them that evening. It displayed 
much learning, great research, and admirable fulness of detail, and would be very useful 
to every student, 

80 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Bro. C. Purdon Clarke seconded the vote, and gave some interesting details 
respecting recent discoveries in connection with the old masques, showing that in the 
matter of scenery, staging and dress, they were much more advanced than had 
previously been supposed. 

After a few remarks from Dr. T. Berks Hutchinson, 
The Secretary read the following notes from Bros. Hughan and Rylands: — 

I consider that our esteemed W.M. has done good and interesting work in his 
paper on " The Miracle Play," and though he has failed to discover any facts that 
throw any light on the Hiramic Legend in relation to Freemasonry, he has so ably 
arranged a number of particulars, concerning Miracle Plays generally, that the subject 
is made attractive, and the data supplied will enable Students so desirous, to continue 
their researches. 

The Masons, apparently for the reasons named, did not enjoy any prominence as 
caterers of Miracle Plays, and being associated, more or less, with another Craft, 
suggests that so far as the evidence goes, there is nothing to indicate that the Masonic 
Ritual is at all indebted to the Miracle Play for its legends or traditions. 

The Hebrew reference was quite familiar to me, in a slightly altered form, long 
before the reading of the paper by the lamented Professor T. Hayter Lewis, and was 
supposed to explain the esoteric portion of the Third Degree, but to my mind entirely 
failed to do so. 

However, so long as we keep to facts in our investigations, only good can come 
of such researches. 


The Mystery Plays having by myself and others, been suggested as a possible 
source from which certain of the legends of Freemasonry have been obtained, we must 
all welcome and express our satisfaction at receiving the W.M's. paper, in which he has 
gathered together and arranged many scattered notes on this interesting subject. The 
list of plays found in the various MSS. arranged by the W.M. in this convenient form 
enables us to see at once what subjects were contained in each cycle, and to recognise 
immediately the attribution of each subject to the several trades. 

Although our legends might some of them have had their origin in one or more 
of the Miracle Plays, there is one point which seems to me to do away with the 
possibility of anything more than a very slight resemblance between the two. 

It must be remembered that the Plays were for public view : the legends of 
Freemasonry, on the contrary, must have been secret, if they formed a portion of any 
of the ceremonies ; to believe otherwise seems impossible. 

It has often been said that in assigning the Plays to the various trades some care 
seems to have been taken to make the arrangement appropriate. In some instances this 
is quite evident, but with regard to many of the trades, and the Masons, particularly 
when they were joined with the Goldsmiths, for example, it would be very difficult to 
find a Play which would in any definite point suit the two trades. It seems to me more 
than likely that the arrangement of the trades was probably ruled to a large extent by 
their order of precedence : or by the cost of producing each particular play. 

W. H. Rylands. 

The Rev. W. E. Scott-Hall said: — With regard to the quotation from Matthew of 
Paris, Geoffrey de Gorham was a member of the University of Paris, and while yet a 
secular person, was invited to come from Paris to take the mastership of the Abbey School, 
St. Albans. His arrival was delayed and the school given to another. He therefore settled 

Discussion. 81 

for awhile at Dunstable, and while there borrowed from the Sacristan of St. Albans 
copes (capoe chorales) in which to array the performers of a miracle play in honour of 
St. Katherine. During the performance these copes were destroyed by fire and Geoffrey 
took this disaster so much to heart, that he abandoned the world and entered the 
Abbey of St. Albans as a monk. By 1119 he had risen to be its Abbot, and it is by 
reckoning 1 back from this year that we arrive at the end of the eleventh century as the 
probable date of the performance of his unlucky play. He died 1146, and was succeeded 
the same year by Rodulph Gobyon. 1 am indebted to Pollard for these facts and I think 
they prove that Geoffrey was not a monk when he wrote the " Ludus de Sancta 

"Writing of the Chester plays in the introduction to his book on " English 
Miracle Plays " Pollard says : — According to statements made at the end of the 16th 
century in the "Banes," or proclamation of the Chester plays, this great cycle dates 
in some form from the mayoralty of John Arneway (1268-1276). Its composition is 
attributed to " Randall Higgenet, a monk of Chester Abbey," and the story is confused 
by the assignment of Arneway's term of office to the years 1327-28. An attempt has 
been made to reconcile these statements by supposing that the plays were originally 
acted in French at the earlier of the two dates, and that " Randall Higgenett," who has 
been somewhat rashly identified with Ralph Higden, the chronicler, subsequently 
translated them into English. The theory is supported by some minor evidence, but is 
discredited by the language of the plays, and by the relations in which they stood to 
other cycles. 

C. L. Kingsford, writing in the Dictionary of National Biography^ goes into the 
question of Higden's supposed identification with Randall Higgenet, the alleged author 
of the " Chester Plays," and on the authority of Warton (History of English Poetry, 
ii, 224, Ed. Hazlitt) states that the identification of the author of the "Chester Plays," 
with Higden is out of the question. Higden took monastic vows at Chester in 1299, 
and died 12th March, 1363. Supposing therefore that the Pope'granted permission for 
the plays to be acted in English in 1338, Higden would then be 25 years of age, and 
allowing that he visited Rome three times before this permission was granted (as stated 
in the British Museum MSS.) he must have made his first visit to Rome before he was 
20, which seems rather improbable, as also that so young a man should be entrusted 
with so important a mission. 

Again, William Marriott, in his book entitled "A Collection of English Miracle 
Plays," printed at Bale, 1838, says : — " About the year 1268 Miracle Plays were per- 
formed in Chester, and continued to be acted there for many successive centuries." 

It was probably not in the "West, but in the East Midlands that Miracle Plays 
were first acted in English, though we may assign the probable date of their first per- 
formance to a period very little later than the Mayoralty of Sir John Arneway. This 
opinion is confirmed by Professor Ten Brink (Gesch. der alt. eng. Lit. 251.) 

In 1264 Pope Urban IV. instituted the Feast of Corpus Christi, and this, no 
doubt, gave an impetus to the performance of miracle plays, for shortly afterwards we 
read in the British Museum MS. of the Chester Plays that the author " was thrice at 
Rome endeavouring to obtain leave of the Pope to have them in the English tongue." 
But it was the Council of Vienna (1311) which gave an even greater impetus to the 
plays, for the celebration of Corpus Christi on the Thursday immediately following 
Trinity Sunday was strictly enjoined by a decree of this Council, and was adopted by 
the trade gilds in many towns as their chief festival of the year. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Bro. G. "W. Speth said: Our thanks are due to our W.M. not only for the 
interesting paper he has brought before us, but for its usefulness in spite of the negative 
conclusion at which he has arrived, with which we must all agree. Although this 
is disappointing in a Masonic sense, the service to tbe Masonic student is none the less. 
The wayworn traveller, arriving at cross roads undecided which to pursue, can have 
nothing but gratitude for the benevolent individual who had set up the warning at one 
or other of them " No thoroughfare." It saves him trouble and vexation and possibly 
many a weary league. Bro. Conder has labelled the Miracle Play " no thoroughfare," 
and thereby saved many of us from pursuing the road he has traversed with the 
certainty of disappointment before us. But setting aside the Masonic view, the paper 
must be of value to all as giving an excellent summary of an intensely interesting 
subject. The main facts are now at our disposal, and if we desire further details, the 
paper points out to us where we can find them. I desire to add my personal thanks to 
those which I am sure the Brethren will heartily accord on the motion of Bros. Castle 
and Purdon Clarke. 

The S.W. put the motion which was carried by acclamation. 

Bro. E. Conder, jun., briefly replied, thanking the brethren for their hearty vote 
of thanks and for the kindly attention which they had accorded him during the reading 
of the paper. 



"'*<>* cow**** 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 




SOURCE of friction between our Brethren in Germany has lately 
been removed. 

In 1892, Bro. Professor Settegast, Privy Councillor, at the 
venerable age of 73 years, having previously resigned his position 
as Grand Master of the " Royal York " Grand Lodge at Berlin, and 
subsequently his membership under that jurisdiction, and joined 
Lodge " Ferdinande Caroline," at Hamburg, under the Grand 
Lodge at Hamburg, set up a new Grand Lodge in Berlin, called " Kaiser Frederick of 
Masonic Fidelity." One of the reasons alleged was that under the sway of the three 
Grand Lodges of Berlin, which divided among them the allegiance of all Prussian 
Lodges, it was impossible for a Jew to obtain initiation. Furthermore, Bro. Settegast 
objected to all degrees going beyond the third. The events will be found in fuller detail 
mA.Q.C, v. 192, etseq. 

There are eight Grand Lodges in all Germany, and the recognition of a foreign 
or of a new Grand Lodge depends upon the resolutions formed at the annual Diet of 
the eight Grand Masters. In this case it was refused and the refusal has been main- 
tained up to the present. 

But further than this, it was a question whether the new Grand Lodge could 
exist according to the laws of the kingdom of Prussia, totally irrespective of Masonic 
feeling. In 1798 a Royal Edict was issued forbidding all secret societies throughout 
the Prussian dominions, but excepting the Freemasons on condition that the Lodges 
depended from one of the then and still existing three Grand Lodges in Berlin. It was 
very doubtful whether the lapse of time had so modified this decree as to render it 
obsolete, although owing to the aggrandisement of Prussia, in latter years a fourth 
Grand Lodge, formerly outside the limits of the kingdom, was now within it, and had 
not been suppressed, but allowed to work undisturbed. The Grand Lodge of Hanover 
had been suppressed, but that was for political reasons well understood. On the other 
hand, that of Frankfort, the Mother Lodge of the Eclectic Union, had not been inter- 
fered with. But it seems to have been tactitly understood that the 1798 edict would 
debar the Frankfort or any other Grand Lodge from erecting daughters in Prussia 
proper. Previous to the Settegast events the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, in conformity 
with the Masonic laws regulating the establishment of Lodges in Germany, had notified 
to the three Grand Lodges of Berlin its intention to found a Hamburg Lodge in that 
city, and the Grand Lodges in question replied that it was not for them to accord or 
withhold permission, but for the police under the said edict. Whereupon the Grand 
Lodge of Hamburg, having at that time no footing in Prussia, had to abandon the idea. 
But Bro. Settegast and his friends, all of them Prussian subjects, and regular masons 
domiciled in Berlin, decided to try issues with the judicial authorities and founded a 
Lodge of their own. 

The Settegast Lodge was thereupon brought before the Upper Police Court, in 
August, 1893, the Berlin Grand Lodges thinking that thus they would attain their end 

84 ^Transactions ofjhe Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

and suppress the new organisation. But they were defeated, the law declared that the 
edict was now inoperative, and that all Lodges in Prussia stood under the same general 
law, that applying to clubs in general. Fuller details will be found in A.Q.G., vi., p. 124. 
The political legality of the Kaiser Frederick Grand Lodge, being thus assured, 
there only remained for it to prove its vitality and power of resistance in face of 
passive opposition and non-recognition by the Masonic Brotherhood in Germany. I am 
unaware how many Lodges it founded altogether, but I think there were at least six or 
seven distributed in the old Prussian territories, at various times. I believe two of them 
were of short duration, but others flourished remarkably until the present time, the 
more so if we remember that their members were debarred from affiliation or Masonic 
communion with the recognised regular Lodges. 

But the decision of the Berlin Police Court, or rather the superior court 
(Oberverwaltungs Gericht at Potsdam) had more far reaching results. Hitherto no 
lodge could be founded in Prussia proper, except under the jurisdiction of the three 
Berlin Grand Lodges, although there was nothing to prevent the Berlin Grand Lodges 
erecting Lodges in any other jurisdiction in Germany, a state of things of which they 
took full advantage, so that in Hamburg and many other cities there were Berlin Lodges 
existing side by side with those of the local Grand Lodge. The arrangement was rather 
one-sided, but our German brothers never held the territorial sovereignty doctrine, and 
I am not aware that any friction was ever caused hereby. But now that the road was 
clear, the Grand Lodges of Hamburg and Frankfort began to found Lodges of their own 
in Prussia. Darmstadt also attempted it, but did not succeed. As these admit Jews 
and confine themselves to three degrees, the raison d'etre of the Settegast revolt ceased, 
and its object might he considered as attained. Again I am not aware how many there 
were, I think there were four, but one of them, the Hamburg Lodge " Victoria " in 
Berlin, has been the means of reconciling all parties and regularising the Settegast 

The Settegast Grand Lodge was always viewed with favour by the Hamburg 
authorities, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say that their object of providing 
admission to our rites for all creeds in Prussia, won the sympathy of the Hamburg 
brethren. As a consequence Bro. Wiebe, the Grand Master of Hamburg, has been in 
communication with the Settegast organisation for some years, to find a means of recon- 
ciliation. Bro. Settegast himself, an old man even at the commencement of the proceed- 
ings, soon resigned his Grand Mastership, but his successors felt it incumbent upon them 
to hold out for some years, in order to prove their right to exist, and as a protest against 
the opposition they had met. Having done this for eight years successfully, and 
sufficiently vindicated their position, the time had now arrived for all parties courageously 
and unselfishly to take steps to end all friction. 

During the last few months some 200 of members of the Lodges under Grand 
Lodge Frederick, belonging apparently to three Lodges in Berlin and one in Charlotten- 
burg, were successively initiated, on ballot, by the Hamburg Lodge " Victoria," in Berlin, 
thus " healing " any irregularity in their previous initiation. There are several hundred 
members of the Settegast Lodges who for one reason or another could not be initiated 
yet. Then on the 18th of October, 1900, the Victoria Lodge held a meeting which will 
be memorable in German Freemasonry. The Lodge being opened, the visitors from the 
sister Lodges of the other jurisdictions were admitted, and finally the Senior Grand 
Warden of Hamburg, as representing the Grand Master, who was detained in the latter 
city owing to a meeting of his own Grand Lodge. The W.M., Bro. Philippsohn (probably 
a Jew, to judge by his name) announced the initiation of the 200 Settegast Brethren, 

TJie " Settegast " Grand Lodge of Germany. 85 

and Bro. Rosenberg (another Jew evidently), W.M. of one of tlie former Settegast 
Lodges, returned thanks on behalf of all. Much to their own very natural sorrow, but 
in the interests of the German craft as a whole, they had resolved to allow their own 
cherished organisation to lapse, and now promised single-hearted fidelity to their new 
mother, the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. Bro. Meissner, S.G.W., as representing the 
G.M., then assumed the chair, welcomed the new bx^ethren and ordered Bros. Moller and 
Katz, hitherto Grand and Past-Deputy Grand Masters of Grand Lodge Frederick to be 
admitted, who were then affiliated to the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. Bro. Settegast 
himself was prevented from attending by indisposition and old age. The day being the 
birthday of the late Kaiser Frederick, the memory of our deceased illustrious brother 
was honoured in solemn silence. Truly an auspicious date for the occasion. A banquet 
followed, of course, at which Bro. Meissner was able to inform the brethren that he had 
received a telegram from the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, then in session, that Bro. 
Settegast had just been elected an hon. member of that body. Thus was initiated the 
grand reconciliation, and it will be observed that not only were the chiefs of the Grand 
Lodge of Hamburg, and of the Grand Lodge Frederick present, but that the ceremony 
was also graced by the presence of the latter's chief opponents, brethren from the sister 
Lodges of Berlin. 

The concluding scene took place ten days later, on Sunday, the 28th October. At 
5.30 a Grand Lodge of Hamburg was opened in the rooms hitherto used by Grand 
Lodge Frederick. Assistant Deputy Grand Master C. W. Meyer presided, assisted by 
almost the entire body of Hamburg Grand Lodge officers. Having announced that the 
W.M. of a Berlin Lodge and of one at Rostock, who were present as visitors, had been 
elected hon. members of the Grand Lodge, he gave place to the Deputy Grand Master 
Harden, who proceeded to instal, as Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, 
Lodges Germania, Humanitas and Pestalozzi, of Berlin, and Mirror of Wisdom, Char- 
lottenburg, constituted by the Grand Lodge on October 18th, 1900, on the motion of the 
former Settegast members. The Grand Master, Bro. C. C. Wiebe, now assumed the 
chair, announced officially the hon. membership of Bro. Settegast, and closed the Lodge. 

Thereupon Br. Moller, hitherto G.M. of Grand Lodge Frederick occupied the 
East, and called his Grand Officers to their places, opened for the last time Grand Lodge 
Frederick. He gave a clear account of the proceedings of the last eight years, and 
stated that, having vindicated their virility, and having attained their end, the possibility 
of a Masonic career for men of all creeds in Prussia, it was their first Grand Master 
Bro. Settegast, who had himself unselfishly paved the way for the present proceedings. 
Bro. Wiebe and the Grand Lodge of Hamburg had more than met them half way, and 
the result was that many of the members and four of the Lodges, lately under Grand 
Lodge Frederick, were now integral parts of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. Nothing 
remained but to close Grand Lodge Frederick, but before so doing, they would now 
elect Bro. Wiebe an hon. member of that Grand Lodge, as a slight token of the affection 
in which they held him. 

This was accordingly done, and after Bro. Wiebe had expressed his thanks, Bro. 
Moller rose and in loud tones proclaimed : — " I now declare this Worshipful Grand 
Lodge Kaiser Frederick of Masonic Fidelity closed for ever and ever." The Grand 
Wardens, after repeating this formula in the same manner, extinguished the lights 
and the deacons rolled up the floor-cloth. 

The final act followed immediately. Bro. Wiebe once more assumed the chair, 
called his Grand Officers to their places, and re-opened the Grand Lodge of Hamburg 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

He then announced that the four Lodges regularised that evening, together with the 
three Lodges of Hamburg already existing in Berlin, Hammonia, Schroder and Victoria, 
and two lodges in Stettin and Breslau respectively, already warranted but not yet 
consecrated, would in future form a Provincial Grand Lodge of Berlin under the Grand 
Lodge of Hamburg. The Provincial Grand Lodge was then constituted with Bro. 
Moller, late Grand Master of Frederick, as Provincial Grand Master, who appointed 
his provincial grand officers. After various interchanges of hon. membership among 
the several Lodges, speeches, letters and telegrams of congratulation from Lodges of 
sister jurisdictions, the Provincial Grand Lodge was closed. At the ensuing banquet, 
the portrait of Bro. Wiebe, to be placed in the Lodge room, was unveiled. 

Such is an epitome of these remarkable proceedings. Our space precludes 
giving them in extenso, but a perusal of the official report only intensifies my admiration 
of the sound common sense, fraternal give and take, elevated sentiment, and dignified 
bearing of all concerned. The friction of eight years, which never at any time 
degenerated into childish vindictiveness or unfraternal abuse, has been assuaged 
without loss of self-esteem on either side, and without leaving sufficient ground for the 
slightest soreness, or anything but brotherly concord. 

c,fcM. OF LOOCf 

c* v A<4 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 87 


ISTORY of the Howe Lodge, No. 587 (originally No. 857), 1851- 

1901. By Bro. A. D. Brooks, J.W., Birmingham, 1901. 

A capital little memoire, well conceived and executed. With 

a history of only fifty years to record, the writer has at once 

perceived that extracts from minutes and detailed description would 

have little interest for anyone, least of all for the student. He has, 

therefore, confined himself to giving a most readable account of the 

reasons which lay behind the formation of the Lodge, of its initial straggles, and 

ultimate success. The Lodge was founded by some earnest brethren who felt it well 

to protest against the habit of the Birmingham Lodges at that time of meeting in 

taverns, the consequent expense upon banquets, and the ill-natured remarks from 

outside arising therefrom. The members were willing, in order to carry out their 

views, to postpone for a time the social side of the Craft, and to dip deeply into their 

own pockets, with the result that they not only met from the first in private rooms, 

and subsequently moved into other premises which allowed them to accommodate other 

Lodges which wished to follow their example, but finally so influenced the Birmingham 

Craft that a handsome Masonic Hall has been built, and that now few Lodges 

in Birmingham meet at a tavern, and the whole tone of the Craft has been very 

much raised. This does not, by any means, constitute the whole of their admirable 

work, which has extended in every direction, ritual, charity, etc., and the Lodge may 

well be proud of its position and past history. 

G. W. Speth. 

A Retrospect of the Burrell Lodge No. 1829. Coming" of Age. By A. J. 

Carpenter, P.M. . . . August, 1900. 

A deftly told, straightforward, unpretentious account, interesting to its own 
members, of the first twenty-one years in the life of a young Lodge. The Lodge was 
founded at and for Shoreham, but is now located at Brighton. We have here, once 
more exemplified, the phenomenon with which we are so familar in London, that of a 
Lodge started in and for a suburb, well-manned and officered, judiciously conducted, 
deservedly successful, and yet, nolens volens, sooner or later drifting to the centre of the 
Metropolis, and inevitably losing its suburban character in the long run. 

G. W. Speth. 

Antiquity of Chester Masonry. The " Royal Chester " and " Cestrian " 

Lodges. The monograph with this very suggestive title is by Bro. John Armstrong, 
P.Prov.S.G.W. of Cheshire, and one of our esteemed C.C. 1 Although it runs to but 
some eighty pages, so many important matters are treated therein, of a more or less 
debatable character, and the author has made known such valuable facts relating to the 
Craft, that to fully consider the numerous questions involved, would require quite as 
much space as the interesting work itself. Happily a more ambitious volume will 
appear ere long, by the same diligent Masonic student, devoted to a History of Free- 
masonry in Chester, when the whole subject can be, and will be, fully considered in all 
its bearings, and one or two startling claims made by Bro. Armstrong will be duly 
weighed by the light of the evidence submitted. 

1 *' Cheater : Bro. J. Thomas, Printer and Stationer, Brook Street, 1900" (Price 2/-). 

88 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Meanwhile a few words about the present paper will not be amiss. It was prepared 
and read by Bro. Armstrong before the Cestrian Lodge No. 425 [Chester], November 
15th, 1900. Were such addresses more general, I venture to think that what are 
styled " ordinary Lodge Meetings " (without " work " to do), would attract a thoughtful 
class of members, and retain their interest in the Fraternity, much better than the 
present system of simply " opening " and " closing " Lodges and then dispersing, without 
really transacting any Masonic business whatever. 

Bro. Armstrong begins by introducing the old Lodge of Chester and another at 
Warrington, to which Randle Holme and Elias Ashmole respectively belonged, and 
suggests that the latter was a branch of the former Lodge which when Ashmole was 
initiated in 1646, was "the great seat of Masonry." A brief reference then follows to 
" Ranulf Higden and the Abbey of St. Werberg," in relation to the celebrated Chronicle 
and the Policronycon, the latter being regarded as the authority on which the traditional 
part of the Cooke MS. of 1400 was written. It is thus " more than probable that 
Higden, three hundred years before Randle Holme, had some connection with a Lodge 
or Guild of Masons in Chester, of which the 17th century Lodge was a continuation." 

Then come the three Lodges at Chester, which were recorded at the Quarterly 
Communication of the Grand Lodge at London, on 27th November, 1725 ; the senior of 
the trio held at the " Sunn" returning, at the head of its list, " Coll. Fra. Columbine, 
Provincial Grand Master," with his Deputy, Samuel Smith, and two Wardens. The 
W.M. and his Wardens follow immediately afterwards. Bro. Armstrong considers, 
that this, the premier Prov.G.M., was nominated at the time by the members of the 
Lodge, which may or may not be, but ixudoubtedly it is the first time that such an office 
is named in any English Records. Now, be it remembered that on the Engraved List 
of 1725, preserved in Grand Lodge, the first two Lodges at Chester are noted, and in a 
later edition of the same year (in the Library of the Supreme Council 33° Washington 
D.C., U.S.A.), the three are duly entered. How then can Bro. Armstrong state of the 
senior of the trio, that it " kept aloof and remained aloof until 1739, when they paid two 
guineas for a Constitution, and came under the wing of Grand Lodge ? " It was on the 
Boll in 1725. 

I pass over the declaration that this Lodge " had met for years, perhaps centuries, 
before this time, by its own inherent right," as there are no means of determining the 
point, save that doubtless it existed before 1725, and probably long before. It is not 
easy, however, to understand what justification there is for the claim that this "No. 180 
[in 1739] had been in existence generations before any of the Time Immemorial Lodges in 
London, which united to form the Grand Lodge of 1717." That there were Lodges in 
Chester, ages before 1717 is quite possible, but how is it known that this particular Lodge, 
held at the " Sunn," and on the English Roll of 1725 had existed for such a long period? 

Naturally Bro. Armstrong refers to the Book of the Prov.G.M. of Cheshire, etc., 
to whieh Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley recently drew attention, as preserved in the 

The Lodge at the " Sun " failed to appear in the next Engraved List preserved 
(1729), but it is interesting to note that between then and 1739, Bro. Armstrong believes 
it was working, only not as a subordinate of the Grand Lodge. The oldest of its minutes, 
so far discovered are January 1738 [? 1739 O.S.], several of which are reproduced in the 
tastv brochure under review, and from that year onward, several valuable Lodge entries' 
are recorded and made known for the first time. There were a " Master's Deacon" and 
a " Warden's Deacon " elected, an instance being given so early as 1743, thus following 
the Irish custom sooner than was generally the case with the " modern " Lodges. 

"Reviews. 89 

Many of the particulars mentioned by Bro. Armstrong are of a most interesting 

character, especially concerning the distinguished members connected from time to time 

with the Craft in Cheshire; and elaborate Lists of Members and Officers, down to 1P00, 

re printed in the valuable Appendix. I am delighted to know that this monograph, 

however, is but the herald of a complete History of the Province by the same Brother. 


The Records of the Dublin Gild of Merchants, known as the Gild of the 

Holy Trinity, 1438-1671. By Henry F. Berry, M.A., M.R.I.A., F.R S.A.I. 

This is a separate print of a paper read before the Royal Society of Antiquaries, 
Ireland, by Bro. H. F. Berry, on the 81st October, 1899. That it is thorough in treat- 
ment, acute in observation, and pleasant reading from first to last, need not be insisted 
upon, because these are points which we have learnt to expect in everything which 
comes from Bro. Berry's pen. The Merchant Gild of Dublin was the Gild par excellence 
of that city, and the records of the Gild practically cover the social, municipal, and 
commercial history of the citizens in general. As such, it cannot fail to arouse the 
attention of every Masonic student, because our studies are by no means confined to 
operative and speculative Masonry, and we cannot hope to make any solid advance 
without an extended knowledge of the surroundings of our predecessors. The wider 
we cast our net, the greater the probability of enmeshing some important fact which 
might otherwise escape our search. 

The very title of the paper almost precludes the expectation of much of a 
specifically Masonic nature being found therein, and yet I must confess I am a little 
disappointed. The Gild had in its charge the upkeep of the Chapel of the Holy Trinity 
in the Cathedral, and it possessed house property of considerable value. Therefore, I 
imagined some reference to builders and building operations might be found, but from 
first to last there is nothing of the sort. It is curious indeed that in investigating the 
records of one gild after another, the same hiatus meets us so often. What is the 
reason ? These matters were important enough surely; there must have been building 
contracts, contractors or masons, payments, even disputes, but they never seem to be 
mentioned. It is not that Bro. Berry has omitted to notice them, he is an enthusiastic 
Mason and would have been careful to preserve the least allusion. There were Masons 
enough in Dublin, as its buildings demonstrate, although there never was a City Masons' 
Company, and we know in some cases where these Masons came from. 

The Merchants Gild was governed by two Masters and two Wardens chosen 
yearly, and the general body of the fellows is addressed throughout as " Worshypfull 
mastyrs." In 1560 we find a most curious enactment. That no merchant was to be 
admitted to the freedom of the city or to the fraternity until he had served seven years' 
apprenticeship to a Brother of the house, and also three years as a journeyman to a Brother. 
This intermediate stage of journeyman before acquiring the mastership is, so far as I 
know, most unusual, almost unknown indeed, in British Gild life, although invariably 
found in Continental Gilds. But the point to be noted is that the journeyman was not 
a fellow of the Gild, he was not admitted to the fraternity until he had served three 
years as a journeyman. I have always contended that, in masonry as in other crafts, 
the individual must be a master before he could be a fellow, and that to look upon the 
Mason Fellow Craft as identical with journeyman is altogether wrong. So tar as this 
entry can carry any weight at all, it supports my argument. Fellow Craft and 
journeyman are totally distinct ideas ; the same workman may combine both characters, 

90 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

but if he be a Fellow Craft he is at the same time a Master of his Craft, whether he 
work as a mere journeyman or not. 

The contributions of Bro. Berry to antiquarian research have previously been 
reviewed in our Transactions; when will he give us the pleasure of noticing some 
communication specifically Masonic ? 

G. W. Speth. 

The Little Red Book Of Bristol. Published under the authority of the 
Council of the City and County of Bristol, and edited by Francis B. Bickley, Assistant 
in the Department of MSS., British Museum. Bristol : W. Crofton Hemmons, St. 
Stephen Street. London : Henry Sotheran & Co., 140, Strand, W.C., and 37, Piccadilly, 
W. 1900. Two vols, quarto, 30/- net. 

I cannot describe this book better than in the words of the publisher's prospectus. 
" This important register of Bristol, which was originated by William de Colford, the 
Recorder, in 1314, and covers a period of about one hundred and fifty years, records the 
liberties, franchises and constitutions of the town, many chantry foundations, and a 
highly interesting series of trade-gild ordinances. The position of Bristol in the middle 
ages makes this register of exceptional importance. From its pages may be traced the 
growth and development of a huge and flourishing town of that period. The ordinances 
of the Common Council throw great light on the habits and mode of life of the citizens ; 
and the gild ordinances enrolled from time to time not only serve to indicate the trend 
of these institutions in this particular town, but are representative of the general 
tendency of such gilds elsewhere. All the entries affecting Bristol have been fully 
transcribed, and in many cases translations have been supplied. There is a full index, 
and a glossary of terms. To all interested in municipal and economic history, the Little 
Red Book of Bristol contains much of importance, and to the philological student the 
entries in English afford many examples of archaic and obsolete words." 

To this let me add that every promise held out in the prospectus has been more 
than kept. Not only the editor, but also the printer and binder have excelled them- 
selves, and supplied us with one of the choicest productions of its kind, two handsome 
volumes which will be cherished by every lover of books for their own sake, as well as 
by every antiquarian student. 1 he various facsimiles are exquisite reproductions, the 
old views and seals are quaint and well executed, and the index is a marvel of complete- 
ness, while the exceptionally short list of corrigenda does credit to the proof-reader. 

But if my chagrin, from a Masonic point of view, was distinctly perceptible after 
perusing Bro. Berry's paper reviewed above, what was my disappointment on reading 
The Little Red Book? Again, not one word of operative masonry! With the muni- 
cipal records before me of one hundred and fifty years of one of the chief trading centres 
of England, with every document aud entry reproduced, with the whole life of the city 
laid open before me, or presumably so, only three slight indications that such a thing as 
a mason or even a carpenter ever had his being in Bristol at all ! We have full transcripts 
of 14th century ordinances of the Bakers, Barbers, Cobblers, Cordwainers, Drapers, 
Dyers, Farriers, Smiths, Cutlers, Lockyers, Fullers, Hoopers, Mariners, Pewterers, 
Skinners, Tailors, Tanners, and Weavers : but Masons ? Carpenters ? Bricklayers ? 
Tylers ? Paviours ? not a hint. Did the bouses and churches of Bristol grow like 
plants? Again I ask, what can be the reason for this state of things? Even if we 
suppose that the masons claimed to be Free-masons, not amenahle to the Mayor and 
Council, surely there must have been some attempt to make them subservient ? Why 
is not this recorded ? And even this reason would not hold good for the other building 

Reviews. 91 

trades which I have mentioned. Were it not for three passages which I will now refer 

to, it would be open to us to infer that no mason or carpenter ever trod the streets of 

Bristol. At f. 133 of the Little Red Book, p. 132 of vol. II., we have " The view of the 

tenementes lyinge in the Cokyn Rewe [Cook's Row] of Bristowe, in the Hye Strete." 

This was a question of investigating cases where residents in Cook's Row had carried 

stalls, show-boards and steps out beyond the building line on to city property, and the 

surveyors were Stevyn Hopkyns, Thomas Colyer, masons, Thomas Skidmore, and Stevyn 

Canon, carpynters. And at f. 133b., we have "The vew off the partable wall bytwen 

the towne off Bristowe and my lady Lyle bytwen ther bothen growndes," and the 

surveyors were John Dyrnmok, John Walter, masons, Nycolas Andrewes and Rychard 

Somere, Carpynters, all described as Burgesses. Finally, on the same folio, there is a 

" trew avew off and yn and vppon a walJe at the Pithay gate," by Raffe Sporryowre and 

John Waltare, Massons, Rychard Somere and Nycolas Ambrosse, Carpynters. The 

dates are 1470, 1493 and 1496 respectively. 

G. W. Speth. 

Historical Sketch of Lodge St. Andrew, No. 179. . . . By James 

Smith, P.M. . . . Dumfries. Dumfries and Galloway Courier and Herald, 1901. 

Bro. James Smith has already favoured us with several histories of local Lodges, 
for instance "The Old Lodge of Dumfries," "St, Michael's, Kilwinning, No. 63," etc., 
and would appear to have set himself the task of preserving all the Masonic records of 
his immediate vicinity. His former productions have been reviewed in our past 
Transactions, and are all simply, well and lucidly written, with a discrimination not 
always found, inasmuch as he never wearies the reader by recital of minutes of little 
interest and re-iteration of well known facts and customs. 

Lodge St. Andrew was founded in 1774, and after a fairly prosperous career 
appears to have gradually faded away about 1805. Ten years later, in 1815, an attempt 
was made to revive it, but without success, and it was struck off the list of Scottish 
Lodges in 1816. 

The chief interest of the student in this Lodge arises from the fact that it 
became the Lodge to which Robert Burns attached himself during his residence in 
Dumfries. He was "assumed a member" at the meeting of the 27th December, 1788, 
and his last attendance is recorded on the 1 4th April, 1796. No mention is made of 
his death in the minutes of the Lodge. All references to the bard are carefully 
extracted by Bro. Smith, who also gives us all other matters of importance in the 
history of the Lodge. It is but a small pamphlet of some 16 pages, every one of which 
is interesting, and the little sketch may be heartily commended to the reader. 

G. W. Speth. 


*co WNA -n^ 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


T is with regret that -we have to announce the death of Brothers 

Sir Francis G. M. Boileau, Bart., Ketteringham, Norfolk, 
in his seventy- first year, on the 1st December, 1900. Sir Francis, 
who was Grand Superintendent of the Royal Arch Province of 
Norfolk, joined us in 1894. 

G. F. Travers-Drapes, of Bangkok, Siam, at Singapore, on the 28th October, 
1900. Bro. Travers-Drapes joined us in March, 1888, was a Past Deputy District 
Grand Master of Burma, and acted as our Local Secretary in that country for some 
years. Only a few months ago he was instrumental in founding the first Lodge in Siam, 
an Irish one. 

Walter Waring", M.D., of Norwich. Our Brother, who was a P.M. of Union 
Lodge No. 52, Norwich, joined us in March, 1898. In April, 1900, he resigned his 
membership temporarily, being about to proceed to the front in South Africa, stating 
that he intended to take it up again should he return safely. He was on the Militia 
Medical Staff Corps, went out as Surgeon-Captain, was attached to General Buller's 
Field Force, and served in all the battles in Natal, and subsequently in those in the 
Transvaal. His promotion on account of excellent service was rapid ; he obtained his 
Majority in May, and his Lieut.-Colonelcy in August. In the early part of September 
he was attacked with dysentery, recovered, but before getting quite well, went back to 
work and suffered a relapse which proved fatal. He died at Pinedon Hospital, in Natal, 
on the 6th October, aged only 43. The members of his Lodge are putting up a brass to 
his memory. 

Walter James Boyce, of Bexley, Kent, on the 17th December, 1900. Our 
Brother joined the Circle in June, 1896. 

Rev. Charles J. Martyn, of Daglingworth Rectory, Gloucestershire, on the 9th 
January, 1901. Bro. Martyn, who was a Past Grand Chaplain of England, was initiated 
in the Apollo University Lodge, Oxford, in 1856, and very soon made his mark in Free- 
masonry. As Dep.Prov.G.M. of Suffolk he was so beloved that when he was removed 
to Gloucestershire, the Province refused to allow him to resign his office in Suffolk. In 
spite of the great distance between his residence and his sphere of Masonic duty, he 
continued to attend to the latter most punctiliously until his sudden and unexpected 
death. It will be generally admitted that no more popular member of the body of 
Grand Officers ever lived, his presence at our meetings was always hailed with delight. 
Genial, humourous, earnest, broad-minded, and invariably cheery, his loss will be 
severely felt everywhere, but especially in Suffolk and at Grand Lodge. The brethren 
who were with us at Gloucester last July will remember how evidently he enjoyed our 
presence, and how cheerfully he did his best to welcome us and promote the success of 
our gathering. Bro. Martyn joined our Correspondence Circle in June, 1898. 

GuillerniO Rafael Frias, of Sagua-la-grande, Cuba, on December 2nd, 1900. 
Our late Brother was French Consul at Sagua, an enthusiastic Mason even at a time 



when it was not unaccompanied with serious risk to he known as such, a diligent Masonic 
student, and a frequent contributor to Masonic journals. He joined our Correspondence 
Circle in October, 1889. A recent hurricane and inundation at Sagua robbf d bim of all 
his possessions, and this blow, at his advanced age, seems to bave deprived bim of his 
wonted spirit and elasticity. From that time be began to droop, and passed away after 
a brief illness. 

Abel Penfold, of Woolwich, on the 5th February, 1900, who joined us in 
November, 1889. 

Cecil Macartney Block, of Rio de Janeiro, on the 2ith January last, who 
joined us in Januury, 1897. 

Stanley Franklin Massey, until lately of Rio de Janeiro, in London on the 
13th March, 1901, a member of the Correspondence Circle since November 1896. 

SEAL or 


94 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 




UR1NG 1900 thirteen new Lodges were erected by the various Grand 

Lodges of Germany. By the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, eight, of 

which four are in Berlin, and one each in Charlottenburg, Stettin, 

Concepcion and Copenhagen. The Mother Grand Lodge of the Three 

Globes, two, in Finsterwald and Hanover. The National Grand Lodge, 

two, in Berlin and Birkenwerder. And by the Grand Lodge of the 

" Sun " at Bayreuth, one, in Nuremberg. As two of these Lodges are 

outside the German Empire, the Lodges on German soil have increased from 416 to 427, 

and the total number of Lodges dependent upon the eight German Grand Lodges, from 

426 to 439, including the five independent Lodges. (Latomia). 

Saxony. — According to the report 1899-1900 of the Grand Lodge of Saxony, the 
total membership of the jurisdiction amounts to 42^9, showing an increase of twenty- 
four members during the year. The largest increase, twenty-one, is credited to the 
Lodge " Zum goldenen Apfel," Dresden. The largest Lodge is the " Zu den drei 
Schwertern," Dresden, with (552, and it is followed closely by the Golden Apple with 
630: the smallest is Lodge "Johannes in Orlagau," Neustadt, with 4L (DteBauhiitte.) 


Gould's "Military Lodges." — From many quarters come excellent reviews of 
our Brother's interesting work, which seems to be highly appreciated by our American 
cousins. Bro. Dr. Joseph Robbins, P.G.M., of Illinois, thus delivers himself in his 
Report on Foreign Correspondence, 1900, to the Grand Lodge of his jurisdiction. 

" Military Lodges by the distinguished Masonic historian, Robert Freke Gould, 
published by Gale and Polden, 2, Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, London. This little 
book of 218 pages, with its wealth of anecdotes of famous soldiers and sailors who have 
been connected with Masonry, traces the history of military and naval lodges; and it is 
surprising to find how many of them touch the Masonic history of the United States and 
Canada, and how much light they reflect upon it. Our brethren who read it will find 
in it all the fascination of personal adventure combined with indispensable historical 
knowledge in a way not to be found within the covers of any other book that we know of." 


Geneva. — We are accustomed in our Lodge, " L'Union des Cceurs " in Geneva, 
to consecrate the last of the year to a family reunion to which only members of the 
Lodo-e are admitted. On reading in the last number of Ars your interesting chronicle 
on Masonry in the Transvaal during the war, I thought that a translation of it might 
prove interesting to my brethren at this meeting. Unfortunately the state of my health 
kept meat home, and it was one of my dear friends, Bro. Andeoud, who read the com- 
munication for me, with the following result. The whole Lodge was intensely moved, 
and our Almoner, Bro. Noblet, proposed to devote the usual collection that evening to 
the institution which Bro. Haarburger is endeavouring to create at Bloemfontein. The 
proposal was unanimously adopted, and resulted in the collection of 100 francs, which 
I am sending to you with the greetings of the Lodge, for transmission to Bro. Haarburger. 

Chronicle. 95 

Our brethren of the Union des Coours have in this action been swayed by the 
feeli.ig of solidarity and affection which unites them to their brethren in the Transvaal 
and England, and they desire thereby to show their admiration for- those who, during 
these dark days of strife and mourning, know how to raise on high the banner of uni- 
versal brotherhood, even in the midst of fratricidal war. 1st January, 1901. 

Louis R. Wkber. 


The Calendar of the Grand Lod^e of Norway, Midsummer 1900, shows 2836 
members of the Fraternity, an increase of lOi during the preceding year. (Latomia.) 


From the interesting Annual Address of the R.W.Dep.G.M., Sir James Creed 
Meredith, and the statistics appended thereto, we gather the following. 

Nine warrants for new Lodges were issued in 1 ( .*0<), of which one only was 
outside the sister kingdom, namely at Bangkok, Siam. At the time of printing, 
however, it was not known that our old brother and C.C. member, Bro. Travers- Drapes, 
late Dep.Dis.Gr.M., of Burma, and for many years our Local Secretary in that possession, 
was deceased, and as he was the mainstay of the movement, the warrant has since been 
returned. This is a pity. At the present time there is no Masonic Lodge of any 
constitution in the kingdom of Siam, and it may now be a long while before any further 
attempt is made to introduce the Light of the Craft into that portion of Asia. 

Two warrants one in Westmeath, and one in Western Australia, were surrendered. 

Fourteen brethren were restored to Masonic Fellowship, one was expelled, and 
three were suspended during the year. 

The Committee of Charity granted £330 in relief during" the twelve months. 
This is exclusive of grants in aid of the Schools and Jubilee Funds, and the Belfast 
Charity Fund, and corresponds with the grants made by our Board of Benevolence. 

The income of the year was in round numbers £4,000, and the expenditure 
£3,330. But there were special receipts and special outgoings, amounting to nearly 
£6,500, on account of the new building of Freemasons' Hall. 

Not the least pleasing feature of Sir James' address is the statement of the 
excellent work done by the schools and the distinctions won in the examinations by both 
girls and boys. It is evident that the instruction afforded is of a quality which the 
Irish Brethren may be proud of, and the results are not less remarkable thau those 
afforded by the similar Masonic Schools in England. 

Hull.— On the 5th March, Bro. Sydney T. Klein lectured on the "Great 
Symbol" to the Humber Installed Masters' Lodge, and drew an exceptionally large 


Bloemfontein.— Lodge "Rising Star" No. 1022 which, under the direction of 
its eminent Master, Bro. Haarburger, a German by birth, held the memorable meeting 
last April to rejoice in the escape from assassination of our present King, then Grand 
Master, at which almost all the chief generals serving in South Africa at the time were 
present, besides an unprecedented gath rins* of brethren of all nationalities and juris- 
dictions, held a Mourning Lodge on the 31st of January last in honour of our late 
beloved Queen. 

96 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

On this occasion also the gathering was unprecedentedly large, eve i exceeding that 
of last April, visitors from Trish, Scottish, Netherlands and neighbouring English 
Lodges participating. We are pleased to note that not only were there many Boer 
Brothers present, but even several Boer prisoners " on parole." It is quite evident that 
no greater factor in the conciliation of races, which we all hope for, exists in South Africa 
than Lodge Rising Star. This is testified not only by the presence of oar Brothers "on 
parole," but also by the fact that Bro. P. S. Blignant. a Past Master under the Nether- 
lands Constitution, a former Minister of the Orange Free State, and a Brother-in-law 
of ex-President Steyn, is a member of the Lodge and was present on this occasion. Two 
very eloquent Orations were delivered by the Very Rev. Bro. Vincent, Dean of Bloem- 
fontein, D.G.C., and the Rev. Bro. Craig, Lodge Chaplain, which we regret our want of 
space precludes us from reproducing. 

Kimberley. — " I have been very happy, I did duty throughout the siege, but 
never saw a Boer. I kept my office open right through the siege, unless the 100-lb. shell 
was about, I then thought it good enough to shut up and go to shelter. I used some- 
time to think it was all bunkum, that there could not be an investing force around us, 
as no attempt was ever made to take the town, only a desultory and annoying discharge 
of guns at a long distance. I little thought there were 12,000 surrounding us. Our 
great danger was the large area we had to guard. However, that is all over. I am 
glad to have had the experience: short commons did me no harm, nor sleeping in the 
open air, although I am 60 years of age. But I am not anxious to repeat the dose. 

Daring the siege we practically closed up Masonry. The last meeting held was 
the Installation in my own Lodge on the 8th October, 1899. We then adjourned sine 
die. One Lodge did go to Beaconsfield under dispensation and hold one or two meetings. 
We gave up our Temple for a hospital for fever cases, and it was so occupied until 
July. We are now once more in our usual routine, and I wish the country was the same." 
Kimberly, 9th November, 1900. A. W. Adams. 

A brother writes : " There is a humourous feature of Masonry in times of war. 
Tommy is getting more convinced every day that De Wet is a Freemason. The general 
opinion of Mr. Atkins is that he will never be caught, as both Lords Roberts and 
Kitchener are Freemasons, and for this reason have decided to let him alone. 

As a matter of fact, Freemasonry does not flourish among the Boers as a class. 
The Dutch Reformed Church is opposed to the Craft, and there are only very few Dutch 
farmers who belong to our Society, and, of course, De Wet is not one of them." 


0&>ervdfi tt 

! ■ 

■■■■'■ ■ ■ 



FRIDAY, 3rd MAY, 1901. 

HE Loclgo met at Freemasons' Hall, at half-past four o'clock. 

Present :— Bros. E. Ccrader, W.M. ; G. Greiner, S.W. ; E. J. Castle, J.W. ; 
A. H. Markham, S.D. ; Rev. J. W. Horsley, J.D.; R. P. Gould, D.C.; E. Armitage, 
Steward; and Past Masters, W. M. Bywater, W. H. Rylands, S. T. Klein, E. 
Macbean, Dr. W. W. Westcott, C. Purdon Clarke, C. Kupforschmidt, and Dr. B. 

The Lodge was draped iu mourning. 

Letters were received from the following members, expressing their regret that, through illness 
and other causes, they were unable to be present : — Sir Walter Besant, J. P. Rylands, Col. S. C. Pratt, 
W. J. Hughan, T. B. Whytehead, J. Ramsden Riley, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, Rev. C. J. Ball, F. H. 
Goldney, G. L. Shackles, H. le Strange, F. J. W. Crowe, J. T. Thorpe. 

The W.M. announced that Bro. W. H. Rylands, P.M., had been chosen to fill the office of 
Secretary for the remainder of the year. 

Bro. W. H. Rylands having been presented by Bro. Gould, D. of C, was duly invested by 
the W.M. 

The Minutes of the Committee held on the 1st March and of the meeting held on the 1st 
March, and the special committee meeting of the 25th April, were read and confirmed. 

The W.M. proposed and the S.W. seconded as a joining member Bro. Robert Hovenden, aged 
71, of Heathcote, Park Hill Road, Croydon, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and Treasurer of 
the Royal Historical Society, a Past Grand Steward, P.M. of several Lodges, and since 1897 a member 
of the Correspondence Circle. He is the author and editor of " Registers of Canterbury Cathedral," 
and many other archaeological works. 

One Lodge and 67 Brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The following members of the Correspondence Circle were present : — Bros. A. Digby-Green, 
W. Baker, Dr. C. Wells, C. Paine, T. Cohu, T. Charters White, J. P. Richards, J. Ross Robertson, 
S. A. Mugford, J. Bodenham, J. Coote, J. C. Pocock, W. J. Songhurst, R. Petherbridge, W. A. Bowser, 
W. N. Haydon, Dr. B. T. Hutchinson, A. F. Robbins, Rev. H. Cart, W. Tailby, C. T. Mold, D.G.M., 
Arg.Rep., J. L. Barrett, W. F. Lamonby, P.A.G.D.C, C. Lewis, W. Reeve, G- E. P. Hertslet, F. A. Powell, 
J. Lloyd Bennett, A. Fisher, C. H. Bestow, J. Thompson, W. Bushbridge, G. J. Smith, F. W. Mitchell, 
Rev. W. E. Scott-Hall, R. S. Ellis, W. F. Stauffer, C H. Barnes, H. James, Rev. C. E. L. Wright, F. W. 
Levander, W. G. Lipscombe, E. H. Buckeridge, T. C. Edmonds, T. G. Miller, H. Griffiths, C. Isler, L. 
Danielsson, J. Thomas, P.G.D., J. H. Clare, T. Taylor, J.G.D., S. Walsh Owen, H. T. Taylor, E. R. Cleaton, 
A. G. Boswell aud W. Cooper Hobbs. 

Also the following visitors : — Bros. G. A. Bear, St. John's Lodge, No. 68; J. D. Brooks, W.M. 
of Saye and Sele Lodge, No. 1973; R. Barrett, Cornish Lodge, No. 2369; and P. S. Cooper, Imperial 
Lodge, No. 1694. 

The W.M. addressed the Lodge as follows : — 

RETHREN, since we last met, only a few short weeks ago, this Lodge 
has suffered a crushing blow in the terrible loss of its esteemed and 
valued Secretary, Bro. Speth. The mysterious thread we call life has 
been snapped asunder, and the soul of a Brother has been summoned 
to the Grand Lodge above. The awful secrets of life and death are at 
length revealed to him, and the troubles of this mortal existence are 
exchanged for the bliss of eternal rest. 

You are called together this evening, not to assist in the ordinary labours for 
which this Lodge was founded, but to perform a duty, which however sad and painful 
it is to us all, it, nevertheless, claims our first attention. 

I feel sure, therefore, that you will all join with me in expressing to Mrs. Speth 
and her daughters the great affection and respect we bore for their dear one, and the 
deep sympathy we all feel for them in their hour of sorrow. May the Great Architect 

98 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

of the Universe of his infinite mercy grant to them his fatherly support in this time of 
trial and affliction. 

Knowing well your feelings, a mere formal vote of condolence is quite unnecessary, 
and I am sure you will allow me to convey to Mrs. Speth and her family the heartfelt 
sympathy of every member of the Lodge. 

This evening we have elected Bro. Kylands temporarily to fill the office of 
Secretary. As one of the oldest and greatest friends of our late Bro. Speth, and as one 
of the Founders of this Lodge, he has expressed to me his wish to say a few words in 
remembrance of the merits of the esteemed Brother, whose position he has been called 
upon to occupy. 

Bro. Rylands then said : — As the W.M. has told you Brethren, I have asked him 
to grant me the favour of being the one to perform this duty to the memory of our 
friend, to whom our Lodge owes so much ; and it is to me a great privilege to be 
permitted to discharge to some extent the obligation, by recognising how great were 
the many services he performed. 

Speth was born on the 30th of April, 1847, and had he been spared but a few 
days longer, he would have completed his fifty-fourth year. As he himself informs 
us, in his earliest work : " Connected ever since my birth, as I have been in a manner, 
with the Lodge of Unity, and acquainted with many of its members, long since gone to 
their rest," it cannot be wondered that following in the footsteps of a worthy father, 
on the 22nd of January 1872, at the age of about twenty-five years, he was initiated into 
Masonry in that Lodge. Having made himself fully qualified by filling all the Offices, 
he was raised to the Chair of Master in the year 1876, and his tenure of that important 
position was marked by honour to both himself and the Lodge. Speth as is known to 
many of you was an accomplished musician, and ever anxious to give assistance where 
he was able, it is not surprising to find that soon after his year of office had expired he 
was elected the organist, and presided over the music so necessary for our ceremonies. 

Having ably discharged the duties of all the offices he had been called upon to 
fill, his natural energy of mind and thought still remained unsatisfied and disappointed ; 
to him the repetition of sentences and formulas, so easily acquired by an ordinary 
intellect, left still much to be known and examined ; and it may be seen from the first 
book on Masonry bearing his name, how the seeds were sown and took root in his 
receptive mind. Seeds of learning, which trained and guided by his ruling lode-star of 
truth, before many years had passed, were destined to place him in the foremost rank 
of the Masonic Archaeologists. 

In the Preface to his modest History of his mother Lodge, the Lodge of Unity, 
No. 183, which was published in 1881, and as the work of a beginner does him infinite 
credit, he states : 

" When some months back, finding myself master of much spare time, I began to 
investigate the old Minutes of our Lodge, with a view to writing its history, my 
intention was merely to jot down a short summary of the principal events connected 
therewith — such as might perhaps cover a couple of sheets of foolscap, and would form 
a short paper to be read in Lodge, if deemed worthy of that honour. As, however, my 
interest in our doings gradually increased, so did 1 find more and more difficulty in 
rejecting this fact and the other, until my notes alone formed quite a bulky paper. I 
then determined to make my history as exhaustive as in me lay, and soon discovered 
that this required the acquisition of more information than could be supplied from our 
own annals, involving me in researches for which my previous experiences had hardly 

In Memuriam : G. W. Speth. 99 

fitted me. The work, however, fascinated me, and thanks to encouragement liberally 
bestowed, I was induced to persevere ; and the results, good, bad, or indifferent, such 
as they may prove, I now offer for your perusal." 

This sentence, written by our devoted Brother, no less than twenty years ago, 
points clearly to the feelings which actuated him throughout his life, and is as true with 
regard to every writing he has left us, as it was in respect to this simple beginning of the 
development of his Masonic enquiries. 

He was indeed fortunate, at the very commencement of these studies, in gaining 
the acquaintance and friendship of that veteran in Masonic Archaeology, Brother 
Hughan : and the assistance of Brother Buss, at that time the Assistant Grand 
Secretary, to whom no one ever applied in vain for help. 

Whilst gracefully acknowledging his indebtedness to these Brethren, he modestly 
ushered his little work into the sea of Masonic literature, with this parting apology : " In 
" now presenting to you the maiden effort of my inexperienced pen, of whose manifold 
" shortcomings I entertain a vague, and probably well-founded, apprehension, let me 
" entreat your brotherly indulgence. Let your just appreciation be tempered with 
fraternal mercy : exercise your charity in the widest signification of the word, and let 
" it ' cover a multitude ' of my sins. 

" The labour of many months is now finished. To me it has been a labour of love : 
" if it prove acceptable to you, even in the smallest degree, it will not be ' Love's 
" labour lost.' " 

The true light of Masonry, from a mere spark burning darkly in the distance, to 
Speth now burnt more brightly, and he had come to realise, how much there was to 
know in Masonry, over and above what Harriet Martiueau, so aptly named in another 
connection, "frames and forms." He realised also the truth, that however necessary 
they may be to any system, from them alone could not be obtained the best of what was 
to be learned. 

A new field of study was at once opened to him : and was as he tells us a labour 
of love. Ever seeking for more light, he devoted himself to the examination of every 
Masonic book to which he could gain access : The catalogue of Kloss became his most 
valued instructor, and his intimate knowledge of many of the European languages 
enabled him to extend his researches to a large number of works, almost entirely 
unkuown to the ordinary Mason. 

His energy of mind, as well as the wish to impart the knowledge he had obtained 
to others, not so fortunately endowed, prompted the idea of translating and publishing 
English editions of the best works of the Continental Masonic writers : he was however 
destined to disappointment, he found so small an amount of encouragement, that our 
literature has remained so much the poorer. It is, however, some slight consolation 
to us to think that to Speth's labours Brother Gould was indebted for much of the 
lengthy chapters devoted to the French Trade Guilds, and Continental Freemasonry, 
included in the later volumes of his momumental History. 

In the year 1884, when the preliminary steps were taken, in order to gather 
together the little band of Masonic students, it was felt that the list of founders of the 
proposed Lodge would not be complete without the addition of the name of Brother 
Speth : and at a latter period, when the appointment of a Secretary became necessary, 
the unanimous opinion was that he was the most suitable brother to fill that office, and 
no one has done so much as he has done during sixteen years of incessant labour, to prove 
how well he has merited the choice. 

100 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Besides the peculiarly onerous duties of his office, duties largely created by 
himself, in his great love for the Craft in general and more particularly for this Lodge, 
he has found time not only to deliver lectures in many parts of the country, but to 
considerably add to our knowledge by many printed communications. The bare list of 
his writings is a cause of astonishment : scarcely a Masonic journal exists, but 
somewhere in its pages we may find records of his studies, and our own Transactions 
are enriched by many efforts, grappling in an original and straightforward manner 
with some of the most difficult problems in the history of Freemasonry. 

His reputation as a learned Mason naturally travelled far and wide, and many 
were the well earned honours which were offered to him. To him, as he tells us, it was 
all "a labour of love," everything must be done to clear away the doubts, and difficulties 
which meet the student in his path, when searching for light. Our Lodge he realised 
might be made one of principal agents in effecting this, and Speth used his every 
endeavour, and devoted all his energies to assist in the work. He died like a man, 
good and true, literally in harness, for only a few days before the end came he had 
issued his admirably conceived, and excellently written book entitled a Masonic 
Curriculum : and had made ready a paper for the Lodge, advancing a new and original 
explanation of a difficult point in our history. 

Ever wishing to make a daily advancement in Masonic knowledge, and to help 
others to follow in his path, Masonry to him must never be a means of gaining advantages 
for himself, but was only to be used as something instrumental in enabling him to give 
assistance to other's. He saw clearly what a power the Lodge might be in spreading 
Masonic learning, and in enlarging true Masonic thought, if only the means could be 
found to make it thus useful. To him is due the honour of the happy inspiration of 
creating the Correspondence Circle : and to them, now scattered over the whole face of 
the globe, is due the honour of having ably supported his efforts. 

In controversy, Speth was never an enemy, but an honest opponent. With 
great skill and characteristic candour and courage, he would advance his opinious 
without heat and without acrimony. 

Quick and keen, though never treacherous as a foe in argument, he like an 
honest man, always fought fair. 

If it so happened that, misled by information, he drew an inference or advanced 
a theory, which, in discussion pioved to be untenable, Speth had the manly courage 
and feeling to admit his error, because he fought for truth and not for victory ; and his 
noble nature told him, that if an error has been made, no disgrace, but rather honour is 
attached to an open acknowledgment of it ; and that when beaten in argument if his 
opinions w r ere fairly disputed, this should never be a reason for personal ill feeling. 

Speth was the kindest of friends and a just and upright man and Mason, every 
action of his life was guided by his honesty of purpose, and of evil dealing he was 
incapable. His simplicity and trustfulness of mind, and a belief that all were as faithful 
to their obligations as he was himself, if it led him into errors, these errors were 
always marked by a kindliness of intention that could merit no blame. 

This gentleness of mind sparkled out in his kindly and genial disposition, and 
gave the confidence that friendship towards him could never be misplaced. Honest, 
just, upright and blessed with more than an ordinary amount of the milk of human 
kindness, he endeared himself to everyone. 

What more can I say of that kind and valued friend, whose loss I share with you 

In Memoriam : G. W. Speth. 101 

The G.A.O.T.U. has been pleased to call to himself a great and noble life. 
The best years of that life and all his energies and thoughts were freely given to the 
services of Masonry and our Lodge. With no other intention than that of raising 
a monument to Intelligent Masonry, our Brother has unwittingly raised a living 
monument to himself ; and let us Brethren mourning his loss, and in memory of him, 
register the solemn vow, that his work shall not have been in vain, and that we will 
not allow it to crumble away, but one and all of us, following his worthy example, will 
add to, and foster the labour of his life, knowing that being built upon such firm 
foundations, our only duty is to hand it down to our successors, as strong and powerful 
as he has left it to us. 

Bro. R. F. Gour,D said : — At a meeting which took place shortly before the 
formation of this Lodge, there were present Bros. Sir Charles Warren, Sir Walter 
Besant, W. H. Rylands, and myself. The question was asked, — of what number of 
brethren should the Lodge be composed? Bro. Besant at once said, " Of forty, to 
correspond with the French 'Immortals,' " which name, as all are aware, is frequently 
used to describe the Members of the Academy of France. 

The Address to which we have just listened has suggested to me another point 
of resemblance which, though only of a fortuitous character, has been manifested in 
the proceedings of to-night between the French Academicians and ourselves. 

It is a custom of the Academy, that on the death of a member, the person 
elected to fill the vacant chair should pronounce an eulogium on the deceased. 

A precisely similar duty has this evening devolved upon Bro. Rylands, on his 
succeeding to the office which was so long and worthily held by Bro. Speth, and I think 
I may say, without the slightest fear of contradiction, that the Brother to whose 
eloquent words we have just listened, has delivered a most able and touching address. 

Our Worshipful Master has referred to me as a very old friend of our dear Bro. 
Speth. I believe I am the oldest in the room, and my thoughts go back nearly a score 
of years, when the idea of forming a Students' Lodge was mentioned to him by myself. 
It at once caught his fancy, and I do not exaggerate in saying, that from that moment, 
the carrying theory into practice by the erection of a Lodge composed of brethren 
interested in the literature of Freemasony, became the predominant wish of his heart. 

At that time the cape stone of our present structure, the Outer Circle, was not 
thought of. The idea had not even occurred to the fertile mind of Bro. Speth. But it 
soon came, and before a year had elapsed I received a letter from him, containing the 
germ of what without doubt must be regarded as the most brilliant inspiration which 
has ever occurred to any votary of Masonic research. 

In the gratifying position which this Lodge has attained we have the results of 
our late Brother's life's work. The success he has achieved for us, it must be our object 
by united action to maintain, and the best tribute we can pay to his memory, will be, to 
let there be no falling off in the high standard of excellence which has been reached by 
our publications, so that it may be said of the Masonic edifice which we have combined 
to rear, and whose dimensions we may yet hope to extend, "The Workmen die, but 
the Work goes on." 

M.W. Bro. J. Ross Rohertson, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada 
(Ontario) said : — I am very grateful to have the opportunity of joining with my 
brethren of the Quatuor Coronati in their words of sorrow for my old friend and 

102 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

brother, George W. Speth. My heart goes out in all its fulness, in sympathy for those 
whom our Brother has left behind, and for the Craft in this Lodge who have sustained 
so great a loss by his death. As we journey along life's highway we lose those who are 
nearest and dearest to us, whether in the family or the fraternal circle but of all who 
have passed away of my friends for years, I count this loss of Bro. Speth the greatest 
of all. Sad was it to me when I arrived in Antwerp from Egypt a few days ago to be 
told by Bro. Albert Kruger, in response to my expression of delight at a coming- Sunday 
afternoon with Bro. Speth, that the Brother whom I expected to meet had passed away. 
The shock indeed was a real one. For years in my annual trip to Europe I have fore- 
gathered with the late Brother, and as a personal friend I have found him true and 
genial, ready to do all that he could with his intimate knowledge of Craft work and 
history, to aid those engaged in similar work. To me his loss is irreparable. During 
the past ten years, while engaged on my History of Freemasonry in Canada, I had 
resource to Bro. Speth on many, many occasions, and his knowledge, his advice and 
suggestion aided me materially in the bringing together material parts of my history. 
The day, however, has now past when I will be gladdened by his greeting, and as we 
sit here to-day we realize the grim truth that he who has gone will no longer inter- 
change a friendly word nor greet us with his welcome and well-remembered voice. In 
sorrow to-day we have called the roll, but for one in our circle no answer is returned, 
and then the memory of you who are here turns to that day, a week or two ago, when 
in the churchyard at Bromley you heard the sound of mattocked clay as it fell on the 
coffin of him who was so dear to us all. This Lodge owes much to our late Brother, 
and his removal from this sphere of labour deserves the mark we give it to-day in this 
tribute of respect, for his knowledge of Craft work and history, and his activity and 
energy has done so much to make this Lodge the centre from which the best of Craft 
literature radiates. Speaking in this Lodge and to the many sitting here who knew 
Bro. Speth in his Masonic life and in his home, I need not recall his many good parts — 
and his death is not only a loss to this fraternal circle but to the Craft of the world, 
who looked up to him'as an acknowledged authority, an earnest and zealous worker, a 
worthy Craftsman and one who lived close to the lines laid down in the book that lies 
open on our altar. As an humble member of the Correspondence Circle of this Lodge, 
and as one who had for many years the personal and intimate friendship of the late 
Bro. Speth, let me just say, that I am sure I but re-echo the words that will be heard 
far and wide on the fraternal circle, words of deep sorrow and sympathy for the loss of 
so valued a brother. Time is always thinning our ranks, but even time can never 
deaden the recollection of the Brother who sat in this Lodge when last it met, and 
whose whole heart and soul was wrapped up in this particular field of labour. Surely 
the Brother who has gone has left us the pleasant memory of an honest and earnest life 
— both in his home and in this circle of his brethren. 

Bro. Edward Macbean, P.M., said — I have listened with very great satisfaction 
indeed to the " appreciation" of our late Secretary by Bro. W. H. Rylands, who, from 
earlier association, both being Founders, is peculiarly well fitted to form a sound opinion ; 
and I desire to be associated with his tribute to the Masonic knowledge, organizing 
capacity, business ability and ceaseless activity of Bro. Speth. I can, after thirteen 
years membership of the Inner Circle, corroborate to the fullest extent every word that 
we have heard on this mournful subject. It is very fitting that in the present circum- 
stances we should have with us so distinguished a Craftsman as Bro. J. Ross Robertson, 
Past Grand Master of Canada, who has borne convincing testimony to the high 

In Memoriam : 0. W. Speth. 103 

estimation in which Bro. G. W. Speth was held across the sea, and we may venture 
to believe that, though without special warrant, be was voicing the prevailing feeling 
throughout the Masonic Student World. 

Bro. Speth was my " Sponsor " in 2076, — as it was owing to a chance remark 
that I joined this Lodge instead of another — so that I have an added cause for grief in 
this time of sorrow. 

I would like to add my eulogium, but dealing with the Man as distinguished from 
the Mason; for I have had considerable opportunities of knowing our dear Brother in 
private life. I have resided in his house, and on more than one occasion he and his 
(now bereaved) family have spent a few days in my Scottish home — besides which we 
have done a little touring together. It is under such circumstances that a man's true 
character becomes apparent — for we know it does sometimes make a difference whether 
a person is wearing slippers, knickerbockers or evening dress. We all remember how 
bright and genial he was at our Lodge dinners, passing round the tables with a smile 
and a word for each Brother; heedless of his own repast, ready to tell a little story or 
listen to someone else. Such as he was there I have found him also in Margate, Bromley, 
London, Bradford, Glasgow and the Western Highlands under widely varying 

His stock of good nature was illimitable, and a more equable temper it would be 
difficult to find; to the full he enjoyed living and it ministered to his pleasure to see 
others equally happy. His ready smile was itself a delight and called into play the 
better feelings of those around. Wet weather did not damp his spirits, but rather 
roused him to discover some recreation to spend time pleasantly and profitably. Having 
travelled far, and studied men and countries, as well as books, his conversational powers 
found fuller play to enlighten and charm his companions with information drawn from 
many sources ; occasionally diversified by some amusing narrative reminiscent of earlier 
days. Even the knowledge — which, however, he kept absolutely secret — of the deadly 
blight which eventually cut short, with such startling suddenness, this useful life, did 
not interfere with his daily avocations ; he was a brave man, if not indeed a hero. He 
is now beyond our ken, but we all think of the afflicted widow and daughters, and trust 
that the G.A.O.T.U., will speedily assuage their grief and leave them only the sweet 
memory of an attached husband and affectionate father : whose chief happiness was at 
his own fireside. 

I leave to those now in authority the mournful duty of acknowledging our 
great loss— though fully alive to it personally — and wish here rather to place on 
record my own sorrow at the demise of a tried and valued friend ; for as the late Albert 
Pike wrote me many years ago, we reach an age when the removal of old comrades 
causes an aching void, never after to be satisfied. 

Bro, W. F. Lamonby, P.A.G.D.C. of England, and P.D.G.M. of Victoria 
(Australia) said : — W.M. and Brethren, as an old member of the Correspondence 
Circle, may I, too, be permitted to tender my humble tribute to the memory of our 
dear departed friend and Brother. It was during my sojourn in Australia when 
joining the Correspondence Circle, that I became acquainted with Bro. Speth. I at 
once found him to be, not only a courteous and prompt man of business, but he o-reatlv 
impressed me with his scholarly talents. On my return to the old country, I lost little 
time in meeting him, and from that day I am proud to say that, whether in Lod°-e 
or during those delightful summer outings, of which he was the presiding genius, he 
was always the same kind and genial friend, and most willing in dispensing his vast 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

and marvellous stores of knowledge. As our secretary he was a veritable nunquam 
dormio, and the world of Masonry is very much the poorer by his lamented death. 
I trust his immediate colleagues will forgive me, when I say, " Take him for all in all, 
we shall never see his like again." 

The Secretary read the folloiving : — 

So sudden has been the shock, so keen the pang, that we instinctively shrink 
from the attempt to translate into words our deep grief at our dear Brother's death. 
For the moment, we thrust back our personal sorrow, and find it hard enough to express 
in fitting terms our sense of the calamity that has befallen not only our Lodge, but the 
whole Fraternity of Freemasons. We shall find ample cause for lasting regret in the 
consideration of the more public aspects of the loss we have sustained. The loss of the 
friend, George William Speth, had best be left unsaid while the wound is raw, and the 
heart is sore. 

We have lost the truest of friends : but what is our loss to that of the little 

home circle whom he loved so well ? It does not bear to be talked of. Time alone, 

God's good time, can lighten the blow for them. Meanwhile, let us alleviate our own 

sorrow by so ordering matters that the widow and the orphans shall know of our 

sympathy by deeds, not by words alone. 

W. J. Chetwode Ckawley. 

The W.M. stated that he as well as Bro. Rylands had received a very large number of letters 
from Lodges and members expressing their sorrow at the heavy blow which had fallen on the family of 
our late Brother Speth, and on the Lodge. He felt sure it would be in accordance with the sentiments 
of everyone, when he expressed how much the many kindly and affectionate references had been 
appreciated by all. 

The labours of the evening being ended the Lodge was closed in perfect harmony. There was 
no refreshment atterwards. 


t£ U amn,m ISc , ' l-fy 


iv a ms. 





git* groiju'* Qax) xxx Rawest* 

24th of JUNE, 1901. 

HE Lodge was draped in mourning. 

The Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present : — Bros. E. Conder, 
Juu., W.M. ; G. Greiner, S.W. ; E. Armitage as J.W. ; W. II. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C., 
Secretary; R. F. Gould, P.G.D., D.C. ; and F. H. Goldney, P.G.D., Steward; Dr. 
Chetwode Crawley, P.G.D., Ireland ; Dr. Wynn Westcott, P.M.; W. M. Bywater, 
P.G.Sw.B., P.M. ; C. Kupferschmidt, A.G.S.G.C., P.M.; and C. Purdon Clarke, P.M. 

Also the following 38 members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. C. T. 
Mold, Dis.G.M., Argentine Republic, T. Charters White, G. P. G. Hills, E. A. T. 
Breed, Dr. A. E. Wynter, Dr. L. G. Boor, F. W. Levander, A. C. Mead, W. F. Woods, G. E. P. Hertslet, 
H. Eaborn, J. T. Fripp, Dr. W. II. Cummings, P.G.O., Rev. A. G. Lennox Robertson, H. White, C. H. 
Bestow, W. F. Stuttaford, A. Oliver, F. H. Alderson, R. Hovcnden, W. J. Songhurst, R. Petherbridge, 
R. J. Campbell, A. S. Gedge, H. Harris, C. Paine, S. A. Mugford, S. Walsh Owen, S. H. Furze Morrish, 
J. Procter Watson, P. J. Edwards, J. W. Stevens, J. Cooke, E. Glaeser, W. Reeve, R. Lake, F.R.C.S., E. 
Rivington, and M. Montesole. 

Also the following four visitors : — Bros. II. II. White, St. Stephen's Lodge, No. 2424; E. K. 
Thomas, Lodge St. Alban's, No. 38, S.A.C. ; J. Davidson, Eleanor Lodge, No. 1707; and W. R. Mead, 
Imperial Lodge, No. 1697. 

Two Lodges and 25 Brethren were admitted to the membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

Bro. Robert Hovenden, F.S.A., was elected a member of the Lodge. 

Letters of apology for unavoidable absence were acknowledged from Bros- Admiral Markham, 
P.Dis.G.M., Malta; G. L. Shackles, Hull; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D., Torquay; E. J. Castle, K.C., London; 
J. P. Rylands, Birkenhead; J. T. Thorp, Leicester; E. Macbean, Glasgow; and S. T. Klein, Reigate. 

The Secretary called attention to the exhibits : —A number of Mss. and books formerly belonging 
to the Rev. Samuel Hemming, D.D., who was appointed the S.G.W. in 1813. The Mss. were presented 
to the Lodge by Dr. Richard Lake, and the printed books by him on behalf of Bro. A. Hemming, the 
descendant of the former owner. 

Two large pictures beautifully illuminated on vellum, one being a symbolical representation of 
various degrees in Masonry, and the other a portrait of the former possessor of both, Bro. J. M. Ragon, 
in Masonic costume, exhibited by Bro. J. D. Fripp. 

The thanks of the Lodge were offered for these donations and exhibitions. 

The W.M. said, as one of the oldest friends in the Lodge of our late distinguished Treasurer, 
Bro. W. H. Rylands had asked his permission to offer a tribute to the memory of the late Bro. Besant. 

The Secretary then read the following memorial notice : — 

NLY a few weeks ago we met together, Brethren, to record our 
sorrow at the great loss to friendship and Masonry, by the sadden 
death of our valued Secretary ; and now again we meet, but too soon, 
to deplore the heavy blow that has so recently fallen upon us, by 
the death of our distinguished Treasurer. 

They were both, as you know, numbered among the Founders : 
and both held important offices in our Lodge, from its very commencement. 

The channels into which the lives of each were directed, were, it is true, very 
different ; but there is much that was akin, for the same ruling passion governed both 
alike; life to them was only tolerable when it included a more than ordinary portion of 
hard and conscientious work. And following the true tenets of Freemasonry, they 
were guided by a wish to order their lives and actions by the rules of truth and honesty ; 
giving to their fellow-workers whenever it was in their power, that kindly encourage- 
ment and well-timed assistance, which so sweetens the toil and troubles of this mortal 

106 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Sir Walter Besant was born at Portsmouth, on the 14th of August, 1836, being 
the third son of Mr. William Besant. After having received a private education, he 
went in 1854 to King's College, London, where he remained for about two years ; 
passing in 1855 to Christ's College, Cambridge, where he graduated as 18th Wrangler, 
taking his B.A. in 1859 and MA. in 1863. 

Having relinquished his original intention of taking Holy Orders, in 1860 he left 
this country and became the Senior Professor at the Royal College of Mauritius, which 
in 1862 possessed no less than 243 pupils. This position he held until the year 1868, 
when he resigned it, owing to the effect of the climate on his health, which threatened 
to break down. 

On returning to England in 1868, he was appointed the Secretary of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, then only in its infancy ; and it is largely owing to Besant's energy, 
knowledge, and skill in direction, that this admirable Society has been enabled to throw 
so much light, on the ancient City of Jerusalem, and many other sites in Palestine, of 
the greatest interest to Biblical students. He worked very hard for many years to 
secure the welfare of the Fund, and only relinquished the position of Secretary, after 
nearly twenty years labour, in 1886, when he became the Honorary Secretary. 

From 1887 to 1891 he was a Trustee of the People's Palace ; in the formation, 
and success of which, he was largely instrumental. 

For the protection of authors, so often at that time imposed upon by unscrupulous 
publishers, he created the Incorporated Society of Authors, and in it gathered together 
most of those best known in literature; himself holding the office of Chairman of 
Committee from 1887 to 1892. The official journal of the Society called " The Author," 
first issued in the year 1890, was edited by him. 

In 1894 he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1895 he 
received from Her late Majesty the honour of Knighthood, in recognition of his great 
services to literature. 

Such are the bare facts of Besant's career : In 1871 he published anonymously, 
like some of his other stories, his first work of fiction, " Ready Money Mortiboy," Avritten 
in conjunction with James Rice. 

Up to the time of the death of Rice, this literary partnership, which produced 
such good results, continued : and the proliBc pen of Besant was never idle. The 
partnership being dissolved by death, Besant still remained a writer of fiction to the end, 

Many criticisms have now and formerly been passed on his works : but it 
has always seemed to me that in keeping up the traditions of novelists, Besant 
made the actors in his various novels, by their own actions and speech alone, teach 
their character to the reader; without endless explanations, moralisations and descrip- 
tions. The thousands of people who have read with pleasure and profit the many works 
of fiction we owe to his fertile mind, would, I am sure, join with me in saying that one 
great charm of his writings and one great advantage that they possess, in a marked 
degree, is that of being entirely pure and wholesome : a moral qualification, not too 
common among writers and readers in the present age. 

Sir Walter, however, was not only a writer of fiction, he was an antiquary also. 
Possessed of a perfect knowledge of the old French language, and having an intense 
admiration for the older French writers, it is not surprising to find that his first efforts 
in the making of books, published in 1868, immediately after his return to England 
from Mauritius, was a work entitled, " Studies in Early French Poetry " ; followed in 
1879 by one called " Rabelais," and still later, in 1883, by " Readings in Rabelais." 

To these must be added several books referring to the work done by the Palestine 
Exploration Fund ; the result of his great interest in all that shed light on the history 

In Memoriam : Sir Walter Besant. 107 

of Jerusalem .and the Holy Land. And to his energy and knowledge we owe the 
formation of that little band of antiquaries, called the Palestine Pilgrim Text Society, 
of which he acted from the beginning to the end as the Treasurer and Secretary. Its 
object was the publication with explanatory notes of various descriptions and accounts 
of Palestine and the Holy Places and of the topographical references in ancient and 
mediaeval literature, from the earliest times to the period of the Crusades or later. 
Commenced in 1886, the intended work was completed in 1898, and translations were 
published of the greatest interest, from writings in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Hebrew, old 
French and old German; the series of thirteen volumes, including the works of a great 
number of writers. In fact, for the first time the whole of this invaluable collection was 
issued in the English language. 

With an intense affection for this great City and everything concerned with its 
history, Besant produced the three charming works, "London," "Westminster" and 
" South London," works which alone would carry his name down to posterity. Written 
in a popular and interesting manner, they at the same time display his intimate and 
varied knowledge of everything concerning the places of which he wrote. 

These were to have been followed by a much greater work on London, being, in 
fact, a new edition of Stow's Survey, first published in the reign of Elizabeth. How 
much of this was finished is unknown to me. but it must ever be a subject of regret 
that Besant was not spared to us long enough to complete the work with his own hands. 

While admiring, Brethren, like the outer world, the fine intellectual and moral 
qualities of our distinguished Brother, our greater interest must necessarily be centred 
in his connection with Masonry and with our Lodge. And although his many occupa- 
tions prevented his often coming among us, his interest in our doings never flagged, 
and I rarely met him but he asked me of the Lodge. 

Sir Walter was initiated into Masonry in the Lodge of Harmony, Port Louis, 
Mauritius, in the year 1862, and on his return to England, he joined the Marquess of 
Dalhousie Lodge, London, No. 1159, in 1869, which had been consecrated only about 
two years earlier, and was mainly composed of Anglo-Indians. It will be remembered 
that our late P.M. William Simpson was initiated in the same Lodge in the year 1871. 
Our Brother Hughan, had much to do with the commencement of the Marquis of 
Dalhousie Lodge, and he informs me that it was at this time that he became acquainted 
with Sir Walter, who, in 1873 occupied the chair. 

Besant's interest in the history of Freemasonry commenced at an early date, for 
on the 29th of January, 1869, the inaugural meeting of the " Masonic Archaeological 
Institute," was held at Freemasons' Hall. The last meeting of this Society appears to 
have been held on the 17th of June 1872, and a short account of it will be found in our 
Transactions (vol. ii., 1889, pp. 124, 158.) 

In this Society, Besant took the liveliest interest ; to him Freemasonry had a 
history, but it is not difficult to see that the tendency of almost all the papers, read and 
arranged to be read before the Institute, was to connect Freemasonry with the Alchemists, 
the Rosicrucians, and perhaps Gnosticism. 

Soon after the commencement of my acquaintance with Besant, in or about 1877, 
after I had come to reside in London, Simpson said to me that Besant wished to see me 
about one of our subjects of conversation, the foundation of a Lodge which should devoto 
its attention to the history of Freemasonry. I called at the office of the Palestine Fund, 
and after some discussion, he agreed with my proposal, that the time was not ready for 
such a scheme, but we both felt that the idea was only suspended and must not be for- 
gotten. A year or two later, when Gould's History was in progress, and the MasoniG 

108 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Monthly, so ably edited by our dear friend, the late Brother Woodford, had ceased to be 
issued ; the question of a Lodge or Society naturally rose again. I then applied to 
Besant, he entered into the idea at once, a meeting was arranged to be held at my 
chambers, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, when Gould met Sir Charles Warren and Besant, and 
the two soldiers and the two Masons making up the necessary four, laid the foundation 
for our Lodge ; of which the subsequent history speaks for itself. 

One word more Brethren, and I have finished. The kindly and courteous 
personality of Sir Walter, rendered him a general favourite, and one of the most popular 
of men, ever willing to assist those in need, his private and unknown charity must have 
been very great. Full of a varied knowledge, his thoughts were intensely human, and 
kindness itself. I cannot do better than quote from one of the many obituary notices 
that have appeared, and though written from an unmasonic point of view sums up those 
gentle feelings which belong to a good and true Mason. It is as follows : " Most of his 
novels are marked by the same pleasant characteristics — a fluent easy style, a gentle, 
optimistic view of life, a sympathy for the poor and the oppressed, an appreciation of 
truth, goodness, and constancy. The vivacious humour of the Besant-and-Rice series is 
less conspicuous in the latter period, but, on the other hand, there is more humanity, a 
larger outlook, the impress of a wider experience, and more knowledge of men and books. 
All of them were the conscientious work of a diligent student, who wrote with convic- 
tion and earnestness, and put the best fruit of his active brain and his kindly heart into 
his novels." 

The W.M. remarked that, following the wishes and arrangements of our late esteemed 
Secretary, that these two papers should be taken together this evening, would he was sure, meet with 
the approval of the Lodge. 

The paper on Naymus Grecus, having been written, Bro. Speth requested Bro. Dr. Ghetwode 
Crawley to compose a reply, or "counterblast," as he amusingly named it. This was also finished 
before the death of Bro. Speth : and only a few mere verbal corrections have since been made, as will be 
gathered from the phraseology, which has advisedly been left untouched. They were entered to be 
read together, at this present meeting, and may well be called Naymus Grecus and Marcus Grecus, 
Pro and Con. 

The way in which these two members of the Inner Circle were able to differ so essentially in 
their opinions, and yet so amicably, exhibits the true Masonic spirit : but it must be a lasting regret to 
us all that our good friend and Brother Speth is no longer with us to add to his reply. 

Bro. W. H. Rylands (Secretary), then read an abstract of the first of the papers, as follows :- 



" So it befell that their was on' Curious Masson that height Naymus grecus that 
had byn at the making of Sallomons Temple & he came into ffraunce and there he taught 
the Science of massonrey to men of ffraunce. And there was one of the Regall lyne of 
ffraunce that height Charles Martell And he was A man that Loved well suche A Crafte 
and Drewe to this Naymus grecus and Learned of him the Crafte And to[ok] vppon him 
the Chardges & y e mann's." 

(Grand Lodge MS. Boll of the Constitutions of Freemasons, No. 1.) 

^t^\ n 

f K/\ AW 



HAVE quoted the above legend from a MS. in the custody of the 
Grand Lodge of England; it is dated 25th December, 1583. The 
Lowland MS. is supposed to date from several years earlier, but the 
original is unknown to us, and we have only a printed version of it 
which was published in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1815. Although 
this also contains the legend in almost the same words, it will be safer 

Naymus Grecus. 109 

to consider 1583 as the earliest mention we have. The still earlier MSS. the Regius 
Poem and Matthew Cooke's MS., are both silent on the matter. Every MS. version of 
the Old Charges subsequent to the Grand Lodge Roll makes the same statement. As 
the Cooke was written about 1400, we may date the introduction of this legend into our 
traditional history at between 1400 and say 1500 a.d. 

It will be acknowledged at once that, if Naymus Grecus was a workman at 
Solomon's Temple, and survived to teach Masonry to Charles Martel, he was indeed a 
remarkable personage. In the sporting language of the day, he beat the previous best 
record for longevity, that of Methuselah, by some 800 years or more. No wonder then 
that the minds of our students have been exercised to identify him. 

Bro. Gould x does not attempt this task, but inclines to the opinion that " Naymus 
Grecus " stood originally as " one with a Greek name." Since then we have had many 
papers in our Transactions devoted to the search for the actual person intended. 

The late Mr. Wyatt Papworth, F.R.I. B.A., was the first to seriously attack the 
question. 2 He tabulated the name as it variously appears in some 70 MSS., and suggests 
eight possible derivations, but evidently without much faith in the likelihood of any 
one of them proving correct. He makes two points which it is well to bear in mind. 
First, that the original mention of the name in a Masonic MS. "must have been in a 
debased handwriting during the period 1430 to 1560, for it to have come to pass that the 
Name has received so many fanciful spellings as will be found on examination." This 
agrees with my estimate of the period of its introduction. And secondly that Naymus 
Grecus is always found in close conjunction with Charles Martel. If they really lived 
about the same time, nothing would be more natural. 

Bro. 0. C. Howard gave us a paper on "Naymus Grecus Identified" in 1891. 3 
With admirable ingenuity he worked out and maintained a theory that Naymus Grecas 
represented the ultimate perversion of " the Greeks of Nemausus or Nismes," Nemausian 
Greeks, Naymus Groecus. 

Dr. S. Russell Forbes i thought that Naymus was a real name, probably a 
resident of the Collegia or Schola for Greek exiles, founded in Rome about 7G0, and that 
this supposed Naymus had been taken by Charlemagne to Aix, and from there had 
passed to St. Alban's Abbey in Offa's time. 

Bro. J. Yarker 5 sides with Bro. Howard and adduces additional arguments. 

But most remarkable of all, as I now think, Bro. Yarker returned to the attack 
later on 6 and drew attention to the fact that Bro. R. H. Murdoch, Major R.A., had 
advanced the opinion that Marcus Groscus, from whom Roger Bacon probably derived 
his knowledge of gunpowder, was identical with Naymus Grecus. The really astonishing 
point is that, in spite of Bro. Yarker's note, neither I nor anyone else looked into the 
matter, and that I had entirely forgotten the reference until engaged upon the present 
paper, and then only accidentally came across it while looking up some other articles. 

Bro. W. H. Upton 7 thinks that the original version read, "one bight Grecus" 
which became " one bight or named Grecus," which finally crystallised into " one bight 
Naymus Grecus," but here also we have no attempt to identify him. 

Finally, Bro. S. T. Klein, in his paper on the Great Symbol 8 thinks that Naymus 
Grecus is an anagram on the name of Simon Grynaeus, a mathematician, who in the 16th 
century gave us the famous Greek edition of the Books of Euclid, of which our first 
English, edition was a translation. To this I objected at the time, thatSymon Grynaeus 

'History of F., i., 248. "A.Q.C., iii., 162. 3 A.Q.C., iv., 200. 

*A.Q.C. v., 20. b A.q.C. vi., 34. « Ibid, 148. 

1 The True Text of the Book of Constitutions, A.Q.C. vii., 124. S A.Q,C. viii. 

110 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

only died 45 years before we meet Namns Greens, and that to convert a real person into 
the mythical demi-god which our traditions show him to be, would require at least 200 
years. I still hold this view strongly. 

Several months ago I made the acquaintance of Bro. Murdoch, and he kindly 
sent me his Memoirs Historical and Biographical. The Bronte-Walton Family. 1 It is in 
no way concerned with Freemasonry, and therefore 1 was surprised to find at p. 8 
" Neither Bacon nor Schwartz invented gunpowder : both monks alike discovered the 
prescription from the Marcus or Mam us Grecus parchment. It is remarkable, that the 
Freemasons also trace their Charters and knowledge of the mysteries of nature and 
science to the ancient parchments of Maymus or Naymus Grecus. The French, who 
were artillery scientists while the English were mere mechanicians, also call Marcus 
Graacus their first father." This is evidently the passage to which Bro. barker 
had alluded, his note having fallen on deaf ears. It will be seen that Bro. Murdoch 
apparently knew nothing of the puzzle which Maymus has always been to us, but that 
he knew he was cited in our Masonic MSS., and did not hesitate to identify him with 
the " first father" of the French artillerists. Bio. Murdoch kindly gave me what further 
information he possessed about his Marcus, and since then I have pursued the enquiry, 
and now propose to place before you the results. The chief questions are, who was 
Marcus Gra?cus ? What and where are his parchments ? Is it possible to connect him 
with our own Naymus ? 

Several manuscripts ascribed to the authorship of Marcus Grascus undoubtedly 
do exist. They are all copies of the same treatise, beginning with the words " Incipit 
Liber Ignium." Two copies are in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, and to their 
presence it is doubtless due that the French artillerists of the 17th and 18th centuries 
were so familiar with Marcus Girccus, who did not seem to have been quite so well known 
in England at that date. 

The Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, Paris, 1860, says, s.v. Marcus Grcecus, " La 
Bibl. Imp. [now Nat.] possesses two copies of a little treatise, entitled ' Liber ignium 
ad comburendos hostes, anctore Marco Gneco.' These copies are numbered 7156 and 7158, 
and would appear to be, one of the fourteenth, the other of the fifteenth centuries." In 
the edition of 1820, the N.B.U. says, "We think he ought to be called Marchus the 
Greek, and we believe that the manuscript which we possess is nothing but an extract 
in Latin from a work in Greek." " The writing of Liber ignium (No. 7156) can scarcely 
be older than the last half of the 14th century. It is a book of recipes in Latin for 
rockets and other fulminating powders." 

Berthelot, in his Histoire des Sciences, La Chimie au Moyen Age, 1893, gives a 
transcript of the manuscript and a translation, with variants, from the copies "at Paris 
and at Munich." As to the date of the MSS., at p. 67, M. Berthelot writes, " They 
date from the end of the 13th century or commencement of the 14th, according to the 
opinion of paleographers. M. Ch. V. Langlois, whose special competence in this matter 
is well known, is inclined to carry the date back to the last quarter of the 14th century." 
Again, on pp. 92-93, " Let us try to define the exact date, not of the original 
work of Marcus, of which we neither possess the original Greek, supposing that it 
existed, nor the Arabic text, but at least of the Latin translation which we have. Now, 
in the actual Latin form before us, the book cannot be assigned an earlier date than the 
13th century. It contains a certain number of Arabic words. We know that Latin 
translations of Arabic chemical texts are not met with before the end of the 12th 

1 Woolwich Royal Artillery Institution, 1895. 

Naymns Grecus. Ill 

century, and mostly belong to the 13th. It is well to record that the volume of manu- 
scripts No. 7156, in which is found the Liber ignium, is full of Latin translations of 
Arabic authors. It is one of the oldest alchemical MSS. in Latin which exists, and it 
corresponds with the appearance of alchemy in the West, under the special form in which 
it was imported by the Arabs. The Latin text of Marcus Graeous is a part of the same 
origin and tradition and the date can scarcely be placed anterior to this importation." 
And he concludes : " In brief, the Liber ignium would seem to be a Latin translation, 
made about the 12th or 13th century, of one of those technical treatises of recipes, 
re-edited and transmitted unceasingly from the earliest antiquity, across the Arabian 
Orient and the Latin Occident, of which the alchemical writings Mappte clavicula and 
the works of Eraclius and Theophilus (equally under Greek names) supply well known 
examples." (p. 94.) 

I think we may rest satisfied with this opinion as to date : other writers who 
mention the MS. do not seinously differ. 

As we have seen, ihere are two copies in the National Libi'ary at Paris, and 
according to M. Berthelot two, numbered 197 and 267, in the Royal Library at Munich. 
I have come across mention of still others. Benj. Robins, — Mathematical Tracts, London, 
1761, quoting from Dr. Samuel Jebb, " Opus Majus," of Roger Bacon, says, " And this 
appears yet plain from the treatise of Marcus Groscus, intitled Liber ignium. This is 
the manuscript in the possession of Dr. Mead." 

Copies from Dr. Mead's MS. are perhaps scarcely to be counted, as they were 
made for antiquarian purposes at a recent date, still, Lewis Dutens 1 states that Dr. 
Jebb had favoured him with a copy which he had taken of Dr. Mead's manuscript. There 
is a 16th century MS. copy of a portion of Liber ignium in the Brit. Mus. — Add. MS. 
34113, f. 18, b, et seq. 

Ripley and Dana's American Cycl. speaks of a copy at Oxford, but I imagine the 
editors may have mistaken another document at Oxford for the Liber ignium. Major 
W. H. Wardell 2 says, " An epistle by Ferrarius, a Spanish monk, and a contemporaiy of 
Bacon, which is preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, gives recipes for Greek fire 
rockets and thunder." Major Murdoch writes to me that he saw a lithographed 
supposed facsimile of the Liber ignium in the hands of a friend of his, Bro. Weston, at 
whose death it disappeared. 

As we may possibly come to the conclusion that Marcus Grsecus is really our old 
Brother in the Craft, Naymus Grecus, and as it is alleged that Bacon and Schwartz 
both owed their knowledge of gunpowder to his book, it may interest the brethren to 
know the exact passage in the MS. upon which this assertion is founded. It runs : 
" Secundus modus ignus volatilis hoc modo conficitur; lib. i. sulphuris vivi ; lib. ii. 
corbonis silicis ; salis petrose vi. libras, quae tria subtilissime terantur in lapide 

" Another method : flying fire may be prepared this way : of live sulphur 1-lb ; 
of willow charcoal 2-lbs; of saltpetre 6-lbs; which three are to be triturated most fine 
in a stone mortar." 

Who Marcus Groocus was, and when he lived, is a difficult question to decide. The 
majority of Biographical Dictionaries and Enclyclopoadias are vague and practically re- 
produce the same tale. They all suggest that his works were known to and utilised by 
Roger Bacon (1214-1292), and that he was cited by an Arabian physician, Mesua, 

'An enquiry into the origin of the Discoveries attributed to the Moderns, London, 1769. 

2 Handbook of Gunpowder, London, 1888. 

112 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

(about A. D. 800), and even that lie is the Grsecus mentioned by Galen, (a.d. 130-circa 200.) 
They seem to have all copied more or less from each other or from some original writer 
whom I have not taken the trouble to identify, and as regards Galen's knowledge of our 
Marcus, I am not inclined to attribute any weight to the supposition. So far as Mesua's 
mention of our Marcus is concerned, the allegation seems to result from an inaccurate 
interpretation of that writer's words. Mesua was an Arabian physician who flourished 
in the 9th century. His name appears to have been Yahia-abou-zakaria-ben-Masoniah, 
which cumbrous form has been, for the benefit of suffering students, abbreviated to John 
Mesua. His in folio, entitled " Opera Medica, Joan. Mesuo?," was printed at Venice in 
1471, and innumerable times afterwards during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. 
There are upwards of sixty entries under his name, Yuhanna ibn Masawaih, in the 
British Museum, from 1471 to the latest Berlin edition of 1893. 

In the 1581 edition p. 85, col. i., we find : " De Simplicibus ; s.v. Arthanita, ' Et 
dicit Groscus : succus ejus cum mellicrato aut secaniabin, etc." As M. Berthelot juslly 
points out, this simply refers to some Greek author, "referred to, following the nsual 
custom of the Arabic writers, nnder the generic name of Greek, the Greek : and has 
nothing to do with the author of Liber ignium." 

Major H. W. Wardell 1 says " Marcus Grrecus, who lived about the end of the 
8th century .... Albertus Magnus, in his treatise Be Mirabile Mundi, repeats 
almost word for word several receipts in the work of Marcus GraBcus." The date of the 
birth of Albertus Magnus is in dispute, some giving 1193, others 1205, but all agree 
that he died in 1280. Berthelot assigns the " De Mirabilibus " to a pupil of Albertus 
Magnus, instead of to the Great Albert himself, but as they were contemporaneous, this 
makes no real difference. He says that there are other works which contain a series of 
articles identical with some in the Liber ignium, such as " De subtilitate," Frankfurt, 
1592: Porta, " Magia naturalis," 1644: Biringuccio, "Pyrotechnics" cited by Reinaud 
and Fave : the name of Marcus Gra3cus is also found in many writers of the 17th 
century, and in " Le Livre de canonnerie et artifice a, feu," published anonymously at 
Paris in 1561. All these quotations must have been from manuscript copies, because, 
as M. Berthelot shows, " the treatise of Marcus Graecus remained unpublished until the 
19th century, when it was done, in 1804, by Porte du Theil, at the desire of Napoleon." 

The Biograjphie Universelle, 1820, suggests that his real name was Marchus the 
Greek, and that his book is a Latin extract from a Greek original, while the 1860 
edition of the same work says the name is sometimes written Malchus. 

The most serious attempt which I have so far come across, to date our Mai^cus, 
is by M. Berthelot, in the Histoire des Sciences, p. 89, which I translate in full. 

" The name of the author, Marcus Grsecus, i.e., Marcus the Greek, is not known 
in the history of alchemy, and is not found in the texts of the Collection des Alchimistes 
grecs. But Arabian authors mention as among the alchemists brought to their notice a 
certain Marcouche, King (so-called) of Egypt, also called Marcounah, who might well 
prove to be our individual. He is cited not only in the Arabic works properly so called, 
but in Latin translations of the middle ages, for example, in the treatise by the author 
named Senior Zadith, son of Hamuel. This last writer seems to be a Spanish Jew of 
the 12th or 13th century. It is in a work entitled Tabula chimica that I have found 
hitherto the most precise indications concerning Marcos, referred to as an alchemist. He 
is alluded to, for instance, in a dialogue between Hermes and Calid (p. 222). At page 
240 King Marcos is named several times in reference to a pursuit of the symbolical 

1 Ene. Brit., 9th ed., s.v. Gunpowder. 

Naymus Grecus. 113 

lion. On page 242, ' Marcos said to King Theodore ' the last name carrying us back to 
Greek tradition. Page 244 contains a whole discourse by Marcos. Hermes and Aros 
(Horus) reappear at the following page, as signs of the old traditions. Further on, the 
author cites the Arabian Avcrroes and once more Marcos (p. 246) ; followed by 
Avicenna, Plato, Solomon, etc., a singular mixture of names borrowed from Arabs, 
Greeks and Jews. Finally, in a commentary on Turba philosophorum, 1 written in the 
14th century, King Marcus is cited among divers alchemist authors, ancient and 
modern, such as Senior, Geber, Arnaud de Villeneuve, etc. This is all I have found 
about Marcos or Marcus in the Latin alchemical texts. These passages, Arabic and 
Latin, prove that there existed under the name of this author, among the Arabs, an 
alchemical work of some reputation, connected with some Greek tradition. As for the 
title of king, which is assigned to him, it is merely one of those honorific titles which 
the alchemists were wont prodigally to confer on each other, such as Petresius, king of 
Armenia, among the Greeks ; Geber, king of India, in the middle ages, etc. 

"Unfortunately no writing of any sort, not even a phrase, has come down to us 
which might enable us to formulate some clearer idea of the person called Marcus. 
Was he, besides being the author of alchemical works, also responsible for some old 
Greek compilation, which became the kernel of the existing Latin treatise, augmented 
by Byzantine and Arabian additions, of which the last probably do not date beyond the 
13th century. We will not venture to decide. . . ." 

In view of the foregoing, is it possible to connect, with any likelihood of being 
safe, our Masonic Naymus Grecus with the alchemist Marcus Grrecus ? 

Naymus Grecus, in order to comply with the conditions of the problem, must, as 
I maintain, have been dead at least 200 years before we meet him in Masonic tradition. 
Marcus Graecus, according to the concensus of opinion, lived in the 8th century, which 
allows much more than sufficient time for our purpose. 

Naymus Grecus is always and invariably associated with Charles Martel. 
Charles Martel lived from 689 to 741, therefore contemporaneously with Marcus. 
Naymus must have enjoyed such a reputation in the 15th and 16th centuries as 
to have warranted his inclusion in our traditions. We find his works re-written in the 
13th or 14th centuries, we have good reason for supposing that he was known to Albertus 
Magnus in the 13th century, and more than a suspicion that he was known to Roger 
Bacon about the same time, and we find identical passages in his treatise and in writers 
of the 15th and 16th centuries. 

All this seems to tell in favour of their identity, at least, there is nothing im- 
probable in it. The name of Marcus and Naymus are so much alike, that, especially 
considering the suffix of Grecus, the suggestion of connection seems a plausible one. 

But there are not wanting indications in our own MS. rolls that at one time the 
name was really written Marcus and not Naymus. In the table drawn up by Mr. Wyatt 
Papworth, he cites 53 occurrences of the name in our rolls. They are not by any means 
all Naymus or its variants. We find Naimus, Naymus, Nainus, Ninus, etc., 31 times, 
by far the larger number ; but we also find Mamus, Mainus, Mimus, and other variants 
beginning in M no less than 20 times, of which one is Marcus Graccas right out. 

How shall we account for this apparition of Marcus ? Either the 18th century 
scribe of the Phillipps No. 3 MS. had an original before him which contained the right 
word, which original must have been similarly copied from an equally correct one, and 
so on up the stream of time to the original of all ; or, the 18th century scribe happened 

1 Theatrum chemicum, vol. v., 61. 

114 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

to know or guess thab Marcus was meant when lie came upon the form Naymus Grecus, 
or finally, Naymus must have been so badly written that the scribe involuntarily read 
it as Marcus. 

If we accept the first supposition, that Marcus at one time stood in the original 
of all, then cadit quaestio. The second would almost be assuming too much knowledge 
for a mere copyist in the early years of the century before last, and if we suppose him 
an educated archaeologist, then he was only advancing 200 years ago the theory which 
I am now submitting for your consideration. But, if we adopt the last alternative, that 
it was an accidental amendment to the text, then I ask, if Naymus was once, and at so 
recent a date, when caligraphy was infinitely more distinct than in the 14th century, 
misread as Marcus, why should not much more probably Marcus have been misread as 
Mamus, Memus, Naymus, etc., 500 years ago ? 

I must not conclude without expressing my great indebtedness to Dr. W. J. 
Chetwode Crawley and to Mr. F. Compton Price, for invaluable assistance in collating 
and verifying many references for me, and to the latter for providing me with a mass of 
excerpts from many writers, which have been of the utmost' service to me. 

If it be not too presumptious to identify Naymus Grecus, the Mason, with 
Marcus Grascus, the alchemist, one slight step forward has been made. There still 
remains the question of the individuality of Marcus. That such a man did exist in the 
8th century, and that he was a student of science, seems clear enough, but who he was 
and where he lived are still involved in mystery. 

Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley, after referring in kindly terms to the very sad cause which had 
prevented these two papers being taken with a discussion, as was originally intended, gave an abstract 
of the following : — 



P.G.D., Irelafid. 

OT satisfied with his own most suggestive paper, our accomplished 
Secretary has thought it advisable, in the interests of fraternal 
discussion, that the considerations which militate against the 
identification of Naymus Groocus with Marcus Graecus should be laid 
before the Lodge. The post of advocatus Diaholi is proverbially 
thankless, and it is with consequent misgivings that the task has 
been accepted. 

In view of the thick cloud of ignorance that has stood for centuries between the 
radiance of Marcus Graacus and the heedless eye of Literature, it is proper to begin by 
ascertaining with precision the original sources of our information concerning Marcus 
Grgecus and his achievements. We can then trace the development of such myths as 
may have grown up round him, and see whether they fulfil the requirements of the 
myth of Naymus Graacus. Thus every reader will be in possession of materials for 
forming a judgment for himself as to the validity of the suggested identification of 
Naymus Grascus with Marcus Graecus. 

Marcus Grsecus Eversus. 115 

Highest among these sources of information, as in the case of all ancient authors, 
we must rank the original MSS. containing what arc called the " Works " of Marcus 
Graecus. The description is surprisingly meagre. The complete " Works" of Marcus 
Grascus do not exceed the limits of a single sheet or strip of parchment folded in 
four (tin pli double). The few leaves, of which the earliest MS. is composed, are bound 
up with several other 14th and loth century MSS., and preserved in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale at Paris. On these few leaves are written in a 14th century hand thirty- 
five recipes or formulas, making up not quite two hundred lines of manuscript, inclusive 
of headings and incomplete lines. Most of the thirty-five recipes have to do with 
incendiary compositions of a military character, used in the warfare of the post-classical 
and Dark ages, notably with the far-famed Greek fire. The compilation is entitled 
Liber ignium ad comburendos hostes, or, as it might be Englished, "Manual of Military 
Combustibles for effective use against hostile troops." To all appearance, it is a soldier's 
memorandum book, for use in early Medieval warfare. The difficulty in the way of 
accepting this view is the difficulty of finding a Captain of those days, who can be 
credited with the accomplishment of reading, much less of writing down, scientific 
memoranda. Besides, some of the formulas are unpractical and unlikely to be used in 
the field, while others are wholly unconnected with warfare. Hence, the Liber ignium 
would seem to be a set of notes drawn up for a soldier, by a scribe who increased the 
number, if he did not enhance the military utility, of his formulas by including sundry 
wonder-working receipts of a miscellaneous kind. Some such origin is consistent with, 
if not suggested by the words of the title of the original MS. All modern notices of 
Marcus Grascus have implied, and some have directly asserted, that he was the author 
or inventor of the recipes now standing in his name. Such an assumption is not, 
however, warranted by the testimony of the MSS. themselves. 

The chief Paris MS. begins with the following words : 

Incipit liber ignium descriptus a Marco Graeco. — That is, " Here begins a Manual 
of Combustibles, set down in writing by Marcus Graecus." The turn of the phrase is 
not such as would be used if the writer meant to set up a claim to authorship, or even 
to translation from a foreign tongue. 

The later Munich MS. varies the reading, but confirms the inference : 

Explicit liber ignium a Marclw Graeco compositus. — That is, " Thus opens a 
Manual of Combustibles compiled by Marchus Graecus." It would almost appear as if 
the variation in the words of the Munich MS. was so chosen as to reiterate the 
impression, already conveyed by the earlier Paris MS., that there was no question of 
authorship or of translation. 

The Paris MS., from which we have quoted above, is admitted on all hands to be 
the earliest and most complete copy of the " Works " of Marcus Graecus. It has been 
thrice printed, and the story of these successive editions will form an important 
feature in the survey we propose to take of Marcus Graecus and his myth. There is 
in the same magnificent Library, a second MS. of the Liber ignium, but later by a 
century or so. It is evidently a copy of the former. Such as they are, these two are 
the only complete MSS. of the " Works " of Marcus Graecus, known to be in existence. 
There are two incomplete MSS. at Munich, and a third, also incomplete, in the British 
Museum. The earlier of the two MSS. at Munich is a copy of the Paris one ; the other 
so-called Munich MS. is not a copy at all, but a single sheet containing twenty-one out of 
the thirty-five recipes, together with some others of an obviously more modern type. 
When we add to these five, Dr. Mead's transcript, and any modern copies made from it, 
we positively exhaust the stook of copies of Marcus Graecus known to have been in 

116 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

existence at any time between the date at which the earliest was written, and the date 
when the curiosity of the Great Napoleon caused the scanty document to be edited in 

Nor do the MSS. appear to have been well known in their own, or any other age. 
The editors to whom Napoleon entrusted the task, ransacked classical and post-classical 
literature in vain for mention of the supposed originals, and had to put up with late fifteenth- 
century authors instead. The earliest notice that can be claimed for the Liber ignium is 
to be found amid the bickerings of the stormy controversy that raged between the elder 
Scaliger (1484-1558) and Jerome Cardan (1501-1576). But reference to the original 
passage will show that, even at this date, neither Marcus Grsecus nor the Liber ignium 
was specifically named. 1 Though the recipe quoted appears in the Liber ignium, 
yet it may have been quoted from some other medieval book. The first author who can 
be said to have mentioned Marcus Grtecus by name was Gianbattista Porta (1550-1615) 
who makes a similar quotation in his Magia Naturalis, Lib. xii, 10. Porta ascribes 
the quotation to Marcus Gracchus, a much less suspicious collocation of names than 
Marcus Grascus. 2 

These references, together with two obscure authors exhumed by MM. Reinaud 
and Fave in their classical work on Greek fire absolutely exhaust the list of quotations 
from, references to, or mentions of Marcus Groecus in the whole range of literature up to 
the middle of the 17th century. 3 

Whether we judge by the number of copies of his MSS., or by the frequency of 
allusions to him in his contemporaries, or by the repetition of his name and mention of 
his achievements by his successors, we cannot resist the conclusion that Marcus Graecus 
was obscure among the obscure of his time. 

Having thus endeavoured to appraise the influence of the Liber ignium in its 
medieval form, it is expedient to ascertain how far back that form can be traced. 
The best, the only evidence we can adduce, is the age of the MS. itself. The earlier of 
the two manuscripts in the Bibliotheque Nationale is universally admitted to be of the 
fourteenth century. But if so, there is nothing wonderful in the contents. By the end 
of the fourteenth century, the world was in possession of the secrets of the formulas, so 
far as they were worth possessing. The element of wonder comes in only when we 
assume the existence of a Greek, or, if need be, an Arabic original, of great antiquity. 
It might even suffice if we could accept the veritable parchment before us as the 
harbinger of the dawn of Western Science. Taking advantage of the dictum of the 
experts, that the handwriting of the MS. was not later than 1400, and might be " vers la 
fin du xiiime siecle," the confident assertion followed that the MS. musth&Ye been written 
in the thirteenth century, or as M. Berthelot, with true French aplomb, puts it, 

1 J. C. Scaliger, Dc Subtilitate ad Hieronymum Cardanum, Exercit. xiii., pp. 71, 72, of the 
Frankfort edition, Apud hacredes Andr. Wecheli, 1582. The formula cited deals with the composition 
of Greek fire, and as far as the passage in Scaliger is concerned might have come from De Mirabilibus 
Mundi. M. Berthelot, the latest French editor, himself seems a little vague on the point, for he twice 
misdates the Frankfort edition. 

2 The passage will be found at p. 479 of the Leyden edition of Porta's works, 1644. On the 
following page occurs the reference to Galen which was triumphantly quoted as proving the date of 
Marcus Graecus to be anterior to that of Galen. As a matter of fact, it has nothing to do with Marcus 
Graecus or the Liber ignium. Porta is treating of the spontaneous combustion of kitchen-middens and 
refuse-heaps, and quotes from Galen an instance of a house in Mysia being thus set on fire. " Vim 

facile ignem concipiendi obtinet solaribus radiis stercus columbunus. Eefert Oalenus in Mysia, quae est 
Asiae pars, sic domum confagrasse." Portae Opera, Leyden, 1644, p. 480. 

3 The other two sixteenth century authors cited in Le Feu gre'geois et les origines de la poudre a 
canon, Reinaud et Fave, Paris, 1845, are, as mentioned by Bro. Speth, Biringuccio, and Le Livre de 
Cannonerie. They are not in any Library to which the present writer has access. 

Marctis Grcecus Eversus. 117 

" Or, le livre dans la forme de sa redaction latine actuelle, no pent guereetre 
assigne a une epoque plus reculee que le xiiime siecle." 

This assertion, which M. Berthelot calls "preciser la date," makes things so easy. 
No further proof is required of the antiquity of Marcus Graecus, or of the existence of a 
Greek or Arabic original. These inconvenient questions can be shelved. It goes with- 
out saying that those Mediaeval giants, who, in countries other than France, struggled 
to a knowledge of the secrets of Nature, must have acquired their knowledge from 
this MS. preserved by French care. Treatises that touched on similar matter must have 
borrowed from it. 

Of the former inference, Roger Bacon is an instance in point : of the latter, the 
tractate De mirabilibus Mundi will serve as an example. To understand the matter, our 
unscientific readers will take it that among the formulas compiled by Marcus Graecus 
are two sets that l^espectively involve, or, rather, proclaim a knowledge of gunpowder and 
of alcohol, and that if the date of this compilation can be pushed back far enough, the 
fathers of medieval science, to whom such knowledge is ascribed, become second- 
hand plagiarists from a MS. current in France. The French writers — none others 
have treated of Marcus Graecus — have assumed, and MM. Hoefer and Berthelot have 
gone so far as to assert that Roger Bacon derived his knowledge of gunpowder 
directly from Marcus Graecus, and that, therefore, this MS. must have been before 
Roger Bacon when he wrote his Opus Majus. There is no attempt at prx>of of the 
assertion. It never emerges from the domain of assumption, supposed to require 
no further support than is to be gathered from the undisguised nature of Bacon's 
copy. Now, on this point we can speak with some authority. The leading MS. 
of Roger Bacon's Opus Majus is in the Libraiy of Trinity College, Dublin. From the 
manuscript, all printed editions, whether in the United Kingdom, or on the Continent, 
have been derived down to the Oxford Edition of 1897. We give the passage in Friar 
Bacon's own words, with a translation. 

" Quaedam vero auditum perturbant in tantum, quod si subito et de nocte 
artificio sufficients fierent, nee posset civitas nee exercitus sustinere. Nullus 
tonitrui fragor posset comparari. Quaedam tantum terrorem visui incutiunt, 
quod coruscationes nubium longe minus et sine comparatione perturbant : 
quibus operibus Gideon in castrum Midianitarum consimilia aestimatur fuisse 
operatus. Et experimentum majus rei capimus ex hoc ludicro puerili, quod 
fit in multis mundi partibus ; sc., ut instrumento facto ad quantitatem 
pollicis humani, ex violentia illius salis, qui sal petrae vocatur, tarn horribilis 
sonus nascitur in ruptura tarn modicae rei ; sc, modici pergameniquod fortis 
tonitrui sentiatur excedere rugitum et coruscationem maximam sic luminis 
jubar excedit." 

Opus Majus, Pars quinta, Distinctio Secunda, Exemplum Tertium, {in medio). 
[Some things disquiet the sense of heai*ing to such an extent, that if they were 
let off with sufficient skill, suddenly and by night, no city or army could 
stand them. No crash of thunder would be comparable. Some things strike 
the eyesight with such terror, that the lightning flashes of the clouds are 
beyond comparison less disquieting : and Gideon is thought to have made 
use of contrivances similar to these against the camp of the Midianites. 
And we take an incident of this very thing from a schoolboy's trick, 
practised in many parts of the world, viz., that with an implement made 
to the size of a man's thumb, by the violence of that salt, which is called 

118 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

saltpetre, so terrible a noise is begotten by the bursting of so sliglit a thing, 
viz., of a sliglit bit of parchment, that it can be felt to surpass a loud 
thunder clap, and the splendour of its light surpasses the brightest lightning 

In his admirable review of the possible claims of Marcus Graecus, Bro. Speth 
has quoted the gist of the formula from the Liber ignium, and we supply it in its entirety, 
for purposes of comparison. 

"XIII Secundus modus ignis volatilis hoc modo couficitur. R. Ace. L. I. 

Sulfuris vivi. L. n. cai'bonum tiliae vel cilie, vi. L. salis petrosi, quae tria 

subtilissime terantur in lapide marmores. Postea pulverem ad libitum in 

tunica reponatis volatili, vel tonitruum facientem. 

" Nota. Tunica ad volandum debet esse gracilis et longa et cum praedicto 

pulvere optime conculcato repleta. Tunica vero tonitruum faciens debet esse 

brevis et grossa, et praedicto pulvere semiplena, et ab utraque parte fortissime 

filo ferreo bene ligata. 

" Nota, quod in qualibet tunica parvum foramen faciendum est, ut tenta 

imposita accendatur, quae tenta in extremitatibus fit gracilis, in medio vero 

lata et preadicto pulvere repleta. 

"Nota, quod ad volandum tunica plicaturas ad libitum habere potest; 

tonitruum vero faciens, quam plurimas plicaturas. 

" Nota, quod duplex poteris tonitruum atque duplex volatile instrumentum : 

videlicet tunicam includendo." 

[A second kind of explosive is compounded as follows. Take lib. of black 

sulphur : 21bs. of willow or linden charcoal ; and 61bs. of saltpetre : and let 

these three ingredients be brought to a very fine powder on a marble slab. 

Then you enclose the powder in a casing, according to your wish, as a squib, 

or for use as a cracker. 

Note. The casing for a squib ought to be slender and elongated, and filled 

with the aforesaid powder well rammed down. On the other hand, the 

casing of a cracker ought to be short and thick, and half filled with the 

aforesaid powder, and very firmly closed with iron wire at each end. 

Note, that in either casing a small vent is to be open, in order that a slow 

match placed in it may be lit, which match is made slender at the ends, but 

thick in the middle, and filled with the aforesaid powder. 

Note, that the casing of a squib may, if you like, have more folds than one, 

but the cracker should have as many folds as possible. 

Note, that you can have a double squib, or a double cracker ; that is, by 

inserting a casing.] 

Every reader can make comparison for himself between Roger Bacon's loose state- 
ment and Marcus Graecus' definite formula. If, as seems reasonable, the reader finds 
Bacon's statement to represent the older and less scientific stage of knowledge, the further 
inference follows that when the Opus Majus was written in 12G7. no such compilation as 
that of Marcus was current in Western Europe in the three languages of which Bacon 
was master: Latin, Greek and Arabic. 

The case with regard to the tractate Be Mirabilibus Mundi stands on similar 
grounds. This tractate was long attributed to Albertus Magnus, another of these 
giants of Medieval science, who died four years after Friar Bacon had completed his 

Marcus Grxcus Everstts. 119 

Opus Majiis. But modern criticism has relegated the tractate to a generation subsequent 
to Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon. Undoubtedly, several of the recipes of Marcus 
Grajcus are in Be Mirabilibus Mundi, and one copied from the other, no doubt. But 
which copied from the other? The Liber ionium is not even a pamphlet; the Be 
Mirabilibus Mundi is a work of some literary pretension. The one is obscure among 
obscure manuscripts ; the other is comparatively well known, and was widely read among 
contemporaries. The oddest thing in this rivalry of dates is that the main, though not 
the only reason for removing Be Mirabilibus Mundi from the century which Albertus 
Magnus adorned, is that it displays knowledge that was certainly unknown to that 
great man. Conspicuous amid this fresh knowledge stand the very formulas on which 
we have animadverted above ! One should have thought, like case, like rule. 

Whether we judge by the handwriting or by the contents of the MS., we cannot 
place the introduction of Marcus Grrecus to the learned at an earlier date than the 14th 
century, and to the Craftsmen at a correspondingly later date, leaving too brief an 
interval for the growth of a Freemasons' myth. 

For, certainly, a myth has grown up round Marcus Grascus. But this myth 
is the growth of the last century. Its development stands plainly forth in the story 
of the successive printed editions of the few lines ascribed to Marcus Groscus. 

This is how the MS. came to be printed. At the beginning of the 19th century, 
the victorious arms of France met with a reverse in Egypt, where General Menou, with 
all his forces, surrendered on 2nd September, 1801, to General (Lord) Hutchinson, who, 
by the by, was at the time Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. 
Egypt had been unlucky for French arms. St. Louis and the French crusaders had met 
with reverses there more than five hundred years before, and some of the interest 
roused by the late disaster was reflected on the former discomfiture, in which the 
employment of Greek fire played a part. The curiosity of the Great Napoleon was 
excited. The MS. of Marcus Groocus, reputed to contain a recipe for Greek fire, was 
exhumed, and the task of editing it was entrusted by the French Government to M. de 
La Porte Du Theil, a most competent scholar. His tiny pamphlet was reserved by the 
Emperor for private presentation, and is rarely to be met with even in public libraries. 
Little has been added since Du Theil's day to the data he brought together, though more 
critical research into authorities has seriously modified his conclusions, or, more properly 
speaking, his assumptions. Yet these assumptions have muddied the whole stream of 
comment on Marcus Groscus down to our own day. In the first place, Du Theil seems to 
have been biassed by Dutens' assertion that Marcus Grrecuswas known to, and mentioned 
by Galen (fl a.d. 175) and by Mesua (fl a.d. 800) - 1 Subsequent research has shown both 
these assertions to be unfounded. There is absolutely no mention, explicit or implicit, 
of Marcus Grrecus before the 14th century. Secondly, influenced by the epithet Graecus, 
Du Theil thought himself warranted in assuming that the thirty-five recipes had been 
translated from a Greek text, written, presumably, prior to Galen ; a text of which not 

1 Theso allegations seera to be clue to Louis Dutens [du Chillon], (1729-1812) a Huguenot, with 
English connections, who attained ecclesiastical preferment in England, though he was more remarkable 
as a keen politician and versatile man of letters than as a zealous Churchman. At the accession of 
George III. he attached himself to the party that gloried in styling itself " the King's friends," and he 
succeeded in ingratiating himself with powerful patrons. He was a classical scholar of wide attain- 
ments, and possessed a lucid French style, though always hampered in his English. In 1776, Dutens 
published in Paris a paradoxical work entitled " Iidcherches sur VOrigine des decouvertes attributes aux 
Moderncn." He laboured to prove that all our boasted modern science had been known to the ancients, 
and he showed that his reading had been more wide than exact. Incidentally, he demonstrated how 
meagre was the reputation of Marcus Graccus, for he did not mention him till the advent of a London 
edition published twenty years later. Then he made up for lost time by reading into Porta a testimony 
from Galen to Marcus Graecus, and boldly asserted that when Mesua, treating of a wholly different 
subject, casually alluded to an unnamed Greek (Graecus), he must have meant Marcus Graecus. Thus 
the myth began just a hundred years ago. 

120 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

the least trace was to be found in literature, science, or history. Du Theil found 
corroboration for this hypothesis in the existence of alleged Hellenisms in the Latin 
text before him. This imaginary Greek original was speedily found to land its 
supporters in difficulties. Napoleon presented a copy of Du Theil's pamphlet to the 
University of Gottingen. It fell into the hands of Professor Johann Becktnann, just in 
time to be mentioned in the closing pages of his great work, The History of Inventions. 
Beckmann pointed out that two, at least, of the recipes involved knowledge which was 
absurdly beyond the Greek science of Galeu's day, or, for the matter of that, of Mesua's 
day. 1 In the third place, the recipe for Greek fire was found by chemists to be quite 
inadequate to produce the effects ascribed to that composition by the ancients, so that 
there was no ground for attributing it to an author of the period when true Greek fire 
was made and used. 

As a result of Du Theil's labours, the name of Marcus Graecus was admitted, for 
the first time, into a Biographical Dictionary. In 1820, that monument of French 
literary enterprise, the Biographie Universelle, devoted to him an article in which was 
embodied ail that was known and much that was only conjectured about him. M. 
Georges Fournier, who wrote the article, contributed some interesting extracts from 
de Joinville about Greek fire, and shrewdly pointed out that the spelling Marchus, 
found in one of the Munich MSS., was not consistent with the supposed original. 

We now come to a new stage in the accretion of myth round Marcus Grsecus. 
In 1842, J. Ch. F. Hoefer, a Thuringian by birth and a Frenchman by choice, published 
in Paris his Hisioire de la Ghimie dcpuis les temps les plus recules jusqu a nos jours. In 
this valuable and learned work, which displayed a wonderful acquaintance with both 
science and literature, Dr. Hoefer re-published the few score lines known as the 
Liber ignium. The exceptionally limited issue of Du Theil's edition was a better justifi- 
cation for the reprint than any improvement in the text, for Du Theil left little to be 
desired in point of accuracy. Nor did Hoefer free himself from the influence of the so-called 
testimony of Galen and Mesua. He took them as he found them in his predecessors, 
and viewed favourably the assumption that the Liber ignium was a translation from 
an Arabic original. Beckmann, it will be remembered, had suggested something of the 
sort, seeing the incongruity of assuming a Greek original for formulas that lay outside 
Greek knowdedge. 

But in Dr. Hoefer's hands the myth takes a new departure. No longer concerned 
with an impotent Greek fire, the interest shifts to the formula for gunpowder. Still 
assuming the antiquity of Marcus Grsecus, Dr. Hoefer saw no difficulty in holding that 
the Western World stood indebted for its first knowledge of gunpowder to this 
manuscript, happily preserved by French care in a French library. Prom this propo- 
sition the use of cannon flowed as a corollaiy, and presently Marcus Graacus stood forth 
the Father of French Artillery. 

This last development of the myth was greatly aided by the wide, and, it must 
be added, justly deserved, circulation attained by two subsequent works from Dr. 
Hoefer's prolific pen. In the Nouvelle Biographie Generate, which was entrusted to Dr. 
Hoefer's editorship, he admitted, in 1860, an article on Marcus Grsecus, in which the 
old errors about the testimony of the ancients were not corrected, and in which the new 
assertions about the introduction of gunpowder were emphasised. The writer of the 

1 Beitrdge zur Qeschichte der Erfindungen, Leipsic, 5 vols., 1785-1806. The learned Curator 
of the Munich Library, Baron von Aretin, published from the MS. under his charge an independent 
transcript of the formula given by Marcus Graecus for Greek fire, and corroborated Du Theil's accuracy. 
At that time, all the interest was concentrated on the Greek fire, and none on the antiquity of Marcus 

Marcus Grxcus Everstis. 121 

article construed the formula, No. xiii. of the Liber ignium, which we have cited for 
comparison with Friar Bacon's mention of gunpowder, in such a way as to suggest that 
the directions given by Marcus Groecus for making squibs and crackers were really 
specifications for cannon and bombards. Returning to the charge in 1872, Dr. Hoefer 
compiled a series of admirable popular histories of the sciences, based on his contri- 
butions to the Histoire TJniverselle of Victor Duruy. No man could be found better fitted 
for the task, and the series found immediate acceptance with that outer circle of students, 
who are not experts, but who take an intelligent interest in the history and progress of 
human knowledge. Expanding the thesis of his former book, Dr. Hoefer endorsed the 
claims of Marcus Groecus, without regard to chronological difficulties or scientific 

The attempt to connect Marcus Graecus with the invention or introduction of 
cannon and bombards cannot be treated seriously. It belongs to that stage in the 
growth of the myth when the formula for gunpowder took the place in public curiosity 
once held by the formula for Greek fire. It is not justified by the words of the Liber 
ignium. The French Artillerists themselves did not believe in it. Take two represen- 
tative witnesses ; the one standing at the beginning of the list of scientific French Artiller- 
ists ; the other closing the same list where it merges into the science of to-day. The 
early fame of the French Artillerists was due to the singular combination of military, 
mathematical and mechanical skill in the great engineer, Francois Blondel, who 
laid down for Louis le Grand, once for all, the true theory and practice of projectiles. 1 
In his treatise, there is no mention of Marcus Graecus, and, indeed, the account 
he gives of the origin of bombards is quite inconsistent with Marcus Graecus 
having' any hand in it. At the other end of the list, just at the dawn of our 
own time, stands the treatise by the Emperor Napoleon III., on the Past and Future 
of Artillery, a pregnant work that has borne much fruit. 2 When books are written 
by an Emperor, his readers may feel confident that no compromising omissions 
will be allowed to occur. Still, Marcus Graecus is again ignored. So much 
for this phase of the myth. 

Then came a lull in the affairs of Marcus Graecus, during which some notion of 
him percolated from Dr. Ferdinand Hoefer's Histories into general literature. The casual 
mention of Marcus Graecus quoted by Bro. Speth from the Encyclopaedia Britannica is 
an instance of this second-hand acquaintance with his name. 

No real accession to our knowledge of the Liber ignium took place till the publi- 
cation in 1893, of that section of M. Berthelot's History of the Sciences which treats of 
Medieval Chemistry. 3 The work is worthy of the reputation of the Author, who had 
filled the highest posts to which a scholar can attain in France, andhad been Minister of 
Public Instruction. 

The quotations from M. Berthelot's woi'k, which have been translated for us with 
such care and judgment by Bro. Speth, leave no need of saying more than that this 
latest editor of the Liber ignium found himself compelled to throw over the alleged 
testimony of Galen and Mesua, and to give up the contention that his author was a 
Greek to whom the secret of true Greek fire had been confided. But, unwilling to 
abandon the field altogether, he pushed back, to the verge of possibility, such evidence 

1 L Art de jeter les Bombes, par Monsieur Blondel, Mardchal de Camp aux Armies du Roy: cy- 
devant Maitrede Muthe'matique de Monseigneur le Dauphin. A Paris, chez I'Auteur, etc. mdclxxxiii. Avec 
privilege du Roy. 

2 Le Passe et VAvenir de V Artillerie, (Euvres de NapoUon III. Tome quatrieme. Henri Plon, 
Editeur ; Paris, 1856. 

3 Histoire des Sciences : La Chimie au Moyen Age ; par M. [Pierre-Eugene-Marcellin] Berthelot, 
SHateur s Secretaire perpetuel de I'Acaddmie des Sciences. Paris : 1893, 3 vols, quarto. 

122 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

as the handwriting of the MS. afforded, so as to get its date antecedent to Bacon's time, 
and started the hypothesis that it might have been translated from an Arabic version 
of a Greek original, or vice versa. This hypothesis M. Berthelot rested on alleged 
Arabisms he found in the text, in addition to the Hellenisms of Du Theil. It would 
have been more extraordinary if he had found no Hellenisms or Arabisms, for a Medieval 
chemist had no choice but to use technical terms that came straight from those languages. 

At this turn of the course, M. Berthelot starts a new hare. Having brushed 
aside the Marcus Groscus of the previous myth, M. Berthelot sets up in his stead 
Marcoosh, King of Egypt. It is no light matter thus to run counter to what Bro. 
Speth calls the consensus of opinion about Marcus Groscus. But the very name Marcus 
Grrecus does not inspire confidence. The claim of Greek nationality for a man of the 
name of Marcus needs explanation. It is as though one should come across mention of 
Roger Bacon, the Westphalian.or of Bertholdt Schwartz, the Somersetshire-man. Possibly 
there was a Westphalian named Roger Bacon, or a man from Somerset called Bertholdt 
Schwartz. But the combination is unlikely. It throws the burden of proof on those 
who assert that such discordantly named personages existed. This incongruity had 
attracted notice. In 1820, M. Fournier^Zs had caught at the variant Marchos of the 
Munich MS., as inconsistent with a Latin source. To fit the name for its new Egyptian 
owner, it must be made Semitic. Bat Marcus is no more Semitic than it is Greek. When 
the Evangelist who wrote the Second Gospel took the name Marcus instead of his 
former Semitic patronymic, the occurrence was carefully noted in the Sacred Narrative, 
which is else so bare of personal details. 1 

On the other hand, nothing was gained by the change. The new Marcoosh lent 
himself to the myth even less readily than did the old Marcus. To begin with, there 
never was a King of Egypt called Marcoosh. This demanded a refinement in the argu- 
ment : Marcoosh was not to be a real King, but only to be called so in token of his 
mighty works as an alchemist. But there are no works of Marcoosh to be found, good, 
bad, or indifferent. This demanded a further refinement. He might be called a king 
in right of the works with which he was credited by other alchemists. But the other 
alchemists did not even mention him. In this desperate strait, M. Berthelot makes bold 
to cite a certain, or rather, an uncertain Senior Zadith Ben Hamuel, who " seems to have 
been a Spanish Jew," and who may have lived " in the twelfth or the thirteenth century." 
This phantom witness is called,not to prove that there ever was a Marcoosh, King of Egypt, 
or that there was a treatise on combustibles current in his day, or that the explosive com- 
pounds of saltpetre were known to him, or for any purpose directly bearing on our 
inquiry, but solely to show that he had called one of the characters in some rhetorical 
Dialogues by the name of Marcos. The whole thing reads like the inconsequent reasoning 
of a nightmare. Nor is the impression lessened when we find that these Dialogues or 
Conversations of Senior Zadith have no connection, however remote, with the Liber 
ignium, and that they are, avowedly, as purely imaginary as Lucian's Dialogues of the 
Dead, or Walter Savage Landor's Imaginary Conversations. In the particular passages 
to which M. Berthelot has directed attention, the names of the characters are plainly 
intended as racial labels: King Solomon the Jew, Horus (Aros) the Egyptian, Hermes 
the Greek, Khaled (Calid) the Mahommedan, Marcus (Marcos) the Latin, and so on, and 
they are concerned, not with the dissemination of firebrands, but with the hunting of 
the symbolical Red Lion. 2 To attempt to prove by such citations the actual existence of 

1 Acts siii., 12 and 25. 

2 The curious enquirer will find the Tabula Chimica of Xenior Ben Hamuel in the Turba 
Philosophorum preserved in vol. v. of the Strasburg edition, 1613, of Lazarus Zetzner's Theatrum 
chemicum : a dreary monument of the erudition that passeth all understanding. 

Marcus Grsscus Eversus. 123 

Marcus Graecus, or Marcoosh, King of Egypt, is as though, five hundred years hence, 
one were to cite the Mr. Worldly Wiseman of Banyan's immortal allegory, in proof of 
the late Cardinal Wiseman's existence. Or, in closer analogy of futility, to illustrate the 
connection hetween Macpherson and the Poems of Ossian, by correlating Bon Gaultier's 
narrative of the exploits of the valiant Fhairshon, " with his four-and-twenty fighting 
men and five-and-thirty pipers." 

It is to be observed that for this expansion of the myth of Marcus Graacus we 
have, for the most part, been indebted to French sources. The reason is obvious. If 
we want to learn all about a French Saint we must go to a French Hagiology. And 
Marcus Graaeus is, as it were, a French Saint. His MS. is in a French Library, aud 
edited by French savants, to the detriment of less favoured nations. That is enough 
for a nation that fondly believes Charlemagne and the great Napoleon to have been 
born Frenchmen. By pushing back the date of the Paris MS., and by assuming its 
contents to have been known to Roger Bacon and his compeers, M. Berthelot has suc- 
ceeded in writing valuable and erudite History of Chemistry in the Middle Ages, filling 
three stout quarto volumes, much about the bulk of Bro. R. F. Gould's History of Free- 
masonry, in which the name of Roger Bacon occurs only casually, and that of Bertholdt 
Schwartz, not at all. In this M. Berthelot only follows the lead of the great Chemist, 
Wiirtz, at whose feet he sat in the Ecole des Arts. That eminent savant was wont 
to lay down in so many words that Chemistry belongs exclusively to the French. 1 It 
goes without saying, then, that the world must have been somehow indebted to France 
for gunpowder, and for alcohol. Perhaps the world would have been all the better without 
these two terrible gifts, whether they came through France or not. 

The only real, tangible facts in the case are that a set of thirty-five recipes, 
mostly concerned with military combustibles, exist on a strip of parchment, in the 
Bibliothegue Rationale at Paris, and that the inscription in a fourteenth century hand 
states that they were set down in writing, or compiled, by one Marcus Grsecus or 
Gracchus, who was never heard of before. Round this slender core of fact, the nineteenth 
century has plastered a mass of inconsistent conjectures, fictitious quotations 
and unwarranted inferences, utterly out of proportion to the inner kernel of truth. " Of 
a surety," quoth Panurge, " the joint is too large for the spit." 

Amid the heap of ill-matched materials into which the myth of Marcus Graacus 
has crumbled before our eyes, it is difficult to find a foothold for Naymus Graacus. 
Until our enthusiastic Secretary took the matter in hand, no serious attempt had been 
made to investigate the possible connection of the Liber ignium with the Old Charges of 
Freemasons. The lucid summary which he prefixed to his paper embodies the previous 
allusions to the question, and shows that they were mere suggestions inspired by 
similarity of name, and hazarded for whatever they might be worth, without any 
pretence at original research. Having gone carefully over the field, our accomplished 
Brother formulates two arguments, which may be taken as covering the grounds for 
assuming the identity of Marcus Graacus with Naynius Graacus. These arguments do 
equal credit to his research and his ingenuity. But they err by reason of over-con- 
clusiveness. They prove far too much. 

1 Dictionnaire de Chimie, par Ad. Wiirtz, Membre de Vlnstitut. Paris, 1869. The opening 
words of this standard French work are : " La Chimie est une science frangaise." The reader must 
remember that this froth of ebullient patriotism only affects the surface of the stream of French 
erudition. The works, from which we have skimmed these iridescent bubbles, challenge, each in its own 
way, the respect and admiration of the World of Letters. 

124 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The first argument assumes that Marcus Graacus lived in the eighth century after 
Christ. He might just as well have lived in the eighth century before Christ, as far as 
the evidence is concerned. For the selection of that particular century rests on the 
blind acceptance of a ludicrously irrelevant quotation from Mesua, with which we have 
sufficiently dealt above. Still, we are no nearer the identification of the author of the 
Liber ignium, if he did chance to live in the eighth or any other assigned century, with the 
traditional Brother of the Old Charges. Here are the farther propositions designed to 
furnish an inference in favour of the identification. 

" Naymus Grascus is always and invariably associated with Charles Martel. 
Charles Martel lived from 689 to 741, therefore contemporaneously with Marcus." 

The former proposition is quite true. In our legend, Charles Martel is always 
associated with Naymus Graecus. But so is King Solomon. Whatever this association 
proves of the one, it proves of the other. If it proves that Charles Martel was a contem- 
porary of Marcus, it proves with equal force that King Solomon was another of his contem- 
poraries. Thus we come back to the original appalling assertion, confirmed by this identifi- 
cation of old Naymus with new Marcus, that the Graacus we are in search of lived in the 
reign of both King Solomon and Charles Martel. If this conclusion will satisfy us, we need 
not have started on this voyage of discovery at all. For all we have gained by our 
syllogisms and our archaeology is the additional inference that King Solomon and 
Charles Martel were themselves contemporaries. Surely this is proving too much. 

The second argument for the identification of Naymus with Marcus is based on 
the similarity between their names, supported by the fact that the name Marcus does 
actually occur in one of the MS. versions of the Old Charges. If the proposition be 
true that Marcus is the original form because the eighteenth century scribe copied 
correctly, "and so on up the stream of time," it must be equally true of each of the 
other forms found in the eighteenth century MSS. of the Old Charges. For each of 
these scribes had an equal chance of copying correctly, " and so on up the stream of 
time," till we arrive at his special original form. Now, in Mr. Wyatt Papworth's table 
there are twenty-five distinct variations of the name, some of them, indeed, occurring 
more than once. Therefore, as far as the force of this argument goes, there are twenty- 
five concurrent genuine and original forms of the name. Surely this is proving too 

The supposition that the familiar name Marcus stood in the original text, and 
that it was corrupted by ignorant transcribers into the strange and unmeaning forms of 
Naymus and its congeners, is contrary to a well-known law of textual criticism. The 
stream of philological corruption flows from the unfamiliar to the familiar, from the 
word unintelligible to the copyist to the word he can understand. Ail languages are 
full of examples. The Bellerophon becomes the Billy Ruffian, the Girasole artichoke 
the Jerusalem artichoke, the Tatar becomes the Tartar, and the country of the Berbers 
is mis-called Barbary ; the dent-de-lion becomes the dandy-lion, and the mandragora 
man-drakes. So universal is the application of this principle that, in a case of disputed 
readings, the harder reading, the word or phrase likely to be unfamiliar to the copyist, is 
always to be preferred. It is hardly within the bounds of possibility, it would certainly 
be beyond the bounds of credibility, that the action of this law of language should be 
reversed in the case of Naymus Grsecus and Marcus Graacus. 1 

1 It is germane to the subject of this paper to note a perverse application of this philological 
law that has led to a fanciful origin being assigned to the word cracker, as applied to the detonating fire- 
work so dear to schoolboys from the days of Friar Bacon to those of Guy Fawkes. Writing of Greek fire, 
Chambers's Encyclopaedia (Vol. v., p. 83) says "it gradually died out before the advances of that still 
more effective competitor [gunpowder], and now little vestige remains of Greek-fire beyond a Norman 
corruption of its name in our firework ' cracker,' which derived from ' Creyke ' of the Middle Ages, is 

Marcus Grcecus Eversus. 125 

No more unlikely personage than Marcus Graecus could have been selected for 
the central figure of a Freemasons' myth. There is a jarring incongruity between the 
object, methods, and contents of the Liber ignium ad comburendos liostes and the Old 
Charges of Freemasons. It is hard to conceive what interest the cathedral builders 
can have felt in a batch of formulas designed to thoroughly buim up one's enemies. If 
the collection had anything to do with Architecture, or with Geometry, or with the 
traditional Secrets of Operative Masonry, the shadow of the compiler might, in process of 
time,have hardened and darkened into a myth among the Craftsmen whose forefathers had 
profited by his labours. But the Liber ignium has no bearing on the Craft of Masonry. 
Stay, let us not do Marcus Gra3cus injustice; there is one of his recipes that bears on 
Architecture ; here it is : — 

"XX. Ut domus quaelibet viridem induat colorem, et avicolae ejusdem 

coloris volando. 

R. Cerebrum aviculae in panno tentam involvens, et baculum inde 

faciens vel pabulum, et in lapide viridi novo cum oleo olivarum 


[To make any house put on a green colour, and birds in their flight of 
the same colour. 

Take the brain of a bird, rolling it up enveloped in a cloth, making it 
into a stick, or a paste, and let it be set on fire on a green stone, with 
fresh olive oil.] 

We can readily imagine the influence the publication of such a secret would 
exert over the Master-builders of the Dom at Cologne, or the Minster at York. There is 
no need to stipulate for the lapse of two centuries to allow of the architectural attain- 
ments of Marcus Gi^cus growing into a myth. The effect must have been instantaneous 

and complete. 

W. J. Chetwode Crawley. 

but a corruption of ' Grecque.' " This derivation, which we suspect to rest on one of Sir Francis Palgrave's 
guesses, stands sadly in need of a strong and continuous chain of linguistic evidence before it can be 
accepted by philologists. There seems no reason to doubt that " cracker," like croaker, crackle, creaker, 
and a hundred other congeners, is a word formed to represent the sound. 

\ <$rzin mux,) 


126 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


BY BRO. E. CONDER, /UN., F.S.A., W.M. 


Vol. II. 

HE Lodge has now received from the Cambridge University Press the 
second volume of extracts from the archives of the Borough of 
Leicester, edited by Miss Mary Bateman, Associate and Lecturer of 
Newnham College, Cambridge. It is -with sorrow and regret that 
we take np the work of reviewing these interesting pages, a labour 
of love left unfinished by our late lamented Bro. G. W. Speth, 
who looked upon the publication of these records as affording additional 
proof of his theory with regard to " Free and Free Mason." Had he been spared 
we should have benefited by his remarks concerning these Leicester Masons, founded 
on the entries in this second and concluding volume. Our late brother, writing on 
page 100 in vol. xii. of our Transactions, says : " My object in bringing this book 
before our members is to point out to them all allusions from therein to our operative 
brethren of the two centuries covered by these records (vol. i., 1103 — 1327), and to 
enquire in how far these either support or invalidate the theory I suggested in my 
paper ' Free and Freemason.' " 

After carefully recording the entries relating to the Masons of Leicester, so far 
as vol. i. gave him information, Bro. Speth brought his review to a close with the 
following remarks : " I know it is dangerous to draw conclusions from single facts or 
from one set of circumstances, and therefore do not desire to lay too great stress on 
the evidence to be derived from the Records of Leicester. But so far as these records 
go, they do seem to me to add weight to my theory that the Church Masons, after- 
wards known as Freemasons, were distinct from the Borough or Gild Masons, and that 
the Church Masons residing within a borough were not necessarily under the rule of 
the Mayor, being protected by the fee of the Church on which they were working and 
residing in a small space." It is not our wish or purpose, in reviewing this second 
volume, to discuss this most interesting point ; we shall therefore proceed to treat 
the remainder of the records from a general masonic point of view only. 

In every respect this second part equals the first, and reflects great credit upon 
the publishers, the paper and print being particularly good in every way, and we must 
congratulate the Corporation of Leicester in having secured the services of Miss 
Bateman for the completion of the publication of their priceless records. 

The introductory pages to volume ii. tell us that although covering a period 
of nearly two hundred years, yet the sequence of the records is marred by a gap of 
some seventy-five years, from 1380 to 1455. Not only are the Mayoral accounts and 
the Chamberlain's accounts wanting, but the records of the proceedings of the 
Merchant Gild are also lost. Consequently the important reigns of Henry IV. and 
Henry V. are a blank so far as the borough legislation is concerned. 

This is a regrettable circumstance, as Miss Bateman, in her learned introduction, 
points out that this very period was of considerable importance with regard to the 
lordship of the town. It was as Duke that Henry IV. leased the farm of the borough 
to the burgesses; on his accession, the town's relation to the Sovereign was therefore 

Leicestershire Masonry. 127 

two-sided. It was sometimes a public, sometimes a private relation. King Henry 
V. pronounced the men of his "Honour of Leicester" free from toll, but at his death 
the lort'ship and sovereignity were again for a time divided, Leicester being settled on 
Queen Catherine at her widowhood. On the accession of Edward IV. in 1461 
the double relation to the Sovereign was re-established, and the borough of Leicester 
was treated as part of the Duchy of Lancaster. The principal records are in Latin, 
but the local ones are in Norman French, and it is with the local ordinances and 
Mayoral accounts we have chiefly to deal, together with the notices of the Corpus 
Christi and Merchant Gilds. 

Miss Bateman reminds us that Leicester " like every other medieval town, was 
in the latter half of the fourteenth century full of clubs, which by co-operation provided 
for those members who had died, a seemly funeral, with prayers to release from 
purgatory, and for those members who were living, support in sickness or calamity, as 
well as a grand procession on the Patron Saints feast-day, a Club livery to wear at the 
procession, and a Club dinner." 

The most important of these social-religious Gilds was of course that of 
Corpus Christi. There were also Gilds of The Assumption, S. John, Saints 
Mary, Margaret and Katherine, S. Michael, and the Gild of St. George. Besides these 
there was of course The Merchant Gild, strictly secular. The various Crafts appear to 
have been governed by their Ordinances, or Craft rules drawn up by themselves without 
application for enrolment in the Town's Ai chives. As the Masons seem to have been 
peaceably inclined, no notice is found of them, as a Craft in the borough records. We 
do not think this absence of notice can be taken to substantiate any argument that they 
were free from the Town's Ordinances. According to the "Hall Book," p. 43., we find 
the " Othe of thoccupacions " given thus. 

The Othe — " I shall truly do and execute all good rulez and customes contenyed 
and specyfyed within myne Ordynall. I shalbe obbedyent to my Wardyns 
commandement at altymes convenient. I shall truly and duly pay all suche 
duties and forfeytes as shalbe dew within the seid ordynall and all other good 
rules and customes belongynge to the said ordynall to my knolege and power 
I shall meyntene and kepe so God me help and all his Saintes." 

This appears to have been the general oath administered to all the Craftsmen in 
the borough— there was also doubtless a separate oath taken before the Craft Gild 
itself by the members in which the usual obligation was inserted, which prevented 
competition by "foreign " craftsmen. 

With regard to the Masons, this clause must have been qualified in order to allow 
additional Masons to work within the borough if necessity arose. That they did employ 
Masons from without their franchise we have evidence from the records themselves. 

Our late Bro. Speth pointed out in volume i. that when the bridge was 
repaired in 1314, they called in a "foreigner," Master John of Banbury, and that they 
so far honoured another, Master Peter of Bagworth, by giving him the control of other 
works [see vol. xii., p. 104]. In this second volume of the records, we again come across 
Master Peter in connection with the West Bridge, but nowhere else is he mentioned. 

Mayors' accounts, Boll 118, [1327-8]. Account of necessary expenses. 

" He counts in 3 cartloads of stone from Swannington 1 brought for the 
North Bridge, Is. Cd. For carriage of same with three hired carts, 3s. 3d. 
In two cartloads of limestone brought for the same, 2s. 4d. In the wages of 

1 Swannington. Limestone is still quarried there, 1900. 

128 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

two Masons hired for one week for the same 3s. 4d. In the wages of a groom 
hired to serve them during that time, 9d. In the wages of a pavior on the 
bridge 3d. In the wages of a woman helping them to collect stones out of 
the water and this for one day, Id. Total, 13s. 6d." 

This last item is interesting shewing that much of the stone probably came from 
the stream-bed, and that few skilled Masons were required. 

" He accounts for 5s. paid to Master Peter of Bagworth, Mason, in payment 
of his whole wage on the west bridge." We are not told how long the work 
had lasted, but not much longer probably than a fortnight. In 1325 Master 
Peter's wage was 2s. 2d. per day. 

In 1335 the expenses at the North gate included the following for Masons work. 
" Wages, Masons Is. 8d. per week each. Grooms helping them by the week 
8|d. each and beer. Hire of cart for two days, 2s. Carriage of stone, 3 carts, 
3d. 12 carts of stone, 3s. Free stone, to wit corner stones and squared 
stones " [Coynes et Asshelers, the earliest use of this word, according to the 
New English Dictionary, is in 1370, here we find it in 1335]. 

In 1336 we have a Tallage Roll or list of those Burgesses taxed in a tenth of their 
goods. In this list we notice the name of Thomas le Masoun, taxed at 5s. also Sim. le 
Quarreour at 2s. 6d. 

In 1351 the account of Will 01 the Goldsmith, Mayor, shows heavy expenses over 
work done at the three gates of the town for wages in " Collecting stones 
for the north bridge 4 days, 3|d. each man per day, and Is. and 2d. given to 
two men for the same for two days." These men were doubtless experts or 
foremen. " Paid 2s. 6d. to Thos Wyngere for a frame stone (?) [lapid 
frm] bought from him for the same, also "8d. in expenses of two carters of 
the Abbot of Leycester carrying stone from Ibstock 1 . Given to Ralph 
Derlyng Mason, making the north gate for 3 weeks and mending defects at 
the Gild Hall, taking for each week 2s. 6d." 

In the Tallage Roll before mentioned, Rad Derlyng is taxed at 2s. 6d. He is 
entered in the Merchant Gild in 1343. In a tallage roll of 1354, he pays Is. as his tax. 

In this list of 1354, the following are taxed : Robert de Hatherne Mazoun, 6d ; 
Will de Barkeby Masoun, Is.; Mat Mazoun, Is. Id.; Magister Alanus Mazon, 3d. 
[This is a curious entry and looks as if Master Alan was only a sojourner on some special 
work]. Step le Mazoun, 6d. 

In some Gild entries belonging to the Mayor for 1354, the same year as the 
preceding tallage or tax roll, we notice the names of Job de Tyberton, Mason and 
Robert de Craft, Mason. John had paid in taxation 6d., but Robert de Craft's name is 
not found in the list ! Did he enter the borough as a "foreigner" and enrol himself at 
once in the Merchant Gild ? If so, was it of necessity ? 

By the end of the year 1358, the old Gild Hall was found to be getting sadly out 
of repair, it was a timber building, and a sum of 8s. 2d. was spent in underpinning, 
[ad supplantandum le mothalle]. 

The Merchant Gild entries for 1364, give the following additions to their 
members, who were Masons, viz., Roger de Hathern Masoun, Joh. de Thornham Masoun 
Thos de Chesham Masoun and Rob. de Swafham Masoun. In 1365-6 the following 
enter the Merchant Gild, Joh de Hupleskote, Mason, Ric Skempston, Mason, Ric 

1 Still a quarry for stone, 1900. 

Leicestershire Masonry. 129 

Braunston, Mason, John Swafham, Mason. — Here we have the admittance of Masons 
hailing from Norfolk, Buckinghamshire and elsewhere, doubtless because work at the 
west and north bridges was in progress and the Corporation contemplated rebuilding 
the Gild Hall. 

The Mayor's expenses for the years 1365-6-7 show that a considerable sum was 
spent on these works. From the accounts we take, " Wages 3 Masons hired for three 
weeks working on the west bridge, each taking by week 3s. 4d. by agreement at task 
[ad tascum] and 223 in wages of 4 men serving them there for 16| days during the said 
time, i.e. two in the quarry and two serving the said Masons, each taking 4d. a day at 
task." The Abbot of Leicester evidently was interested in the work of repairing the 
bridges, as certain sums are mentioned as gifts to labourers lent by the Abbot to help 
in the quarry. 

On the north bridge repairs were going on at the same time. The next year the 
Gild Hall was rebuilt, the work beginning on Monday next after the feast of S. 
Gregory the Pope. It was again mainly constructed by the carpenters, some Masons 
however, found work there from time to time. No mention is made of any help by the 
Abbot for this Municipal building. With regard to the Masons employed during this 
period, we may ask what benefit did they gain by joining the Merchant Gild, if they 
did so at their own wish ? None of them are mentioned again, and they appear to have 
left the borough on the completion of the works. 

Besides these Masons working at the bridges and Gild Hall, there were others 
known as " MuTators" or wall builders. They are accounted for when working on the 
garden wall behind the Gild Hall, their wages were 3|d. per day. 

To understand the value of the wages, it is necessary to glance at the cost of 
living. The prices given in these records are principally for the hospitality dispensed 
by the Corporation, but from the prices of the luxuries, it is possible to estimate the 
food of the working classes. In 1345 a pheasant cost Is. 6d. Two porkers [young 
pigs], 8d. A rabbit 4d. Two gallons of wine, Is. 4d. A goose cost 3d. Nine baked 
hens, Is. 10|d. Two Geese in a " hogge pott " 7d. Sauce, Vinegar and Ginger, 3d. 
Two Caprons 5d. Twenty-six gallons of beer 2s. 2d. One quarter of Oats, Is. Id. A 
quarter of Wheat, 4s. 

In the ordinance for the assize of bread and ale in 1335 it was ordained. . . . 
" That all bakers shall bake 4 loaves for a penny so long as the Quarter of Wheat is 
within the price of 4s. and that no breweress (ale wife) shall be so bold as to brew 
except at the rate of a gallon of the best for Id." 

Beef or Mutton is seldom mentioned, but when it is, it is by the carcase for 
example, 6 sheep 9s. 6d. : two carcases of beef 32s. 

In the record box E No. 291, is the counter-part lease from Thomas Clerk, 
Mayor of Leicester, and the community of the town to Ric Stevenson of Leicester 
Mason, of a cottage and garden annexed in the Parish of S* Nicholas in a place called 
" le Holy bones " .... for forty years at a rent of two shillings at the three usual 
terms (on six shillings per annum), dated Easter 1433. There is no mention of this 
Stevenson working on any of the town buildings during the time under review, and it 
is possible he was a local Master Mason employing Craftsmen and did not go out 
himself on a job. He is not mentioned as being a member of the Merchant Gild, and 
it is unfortunate that no Craft Gild records are preserved. 

Leicester, in common with other towns, found it necessary for its well-being to 
prevent gaming. In the Book of Acts, p. 27, 1488, there is an " Act for vnlawfull 

130 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

" At the same common hall [June 5, 1488] yt was enactyd that do man of the 
towne nor of the countrey play within the fraunchessys of this Towne for 
money at no vnlawful games that be defendyd by eny law, Statute or 
Parliament, that ys for to sey dyce, cardes, howles, half howles, hassardynge, 
tennys, pryckyng with arrowes, coytyng with stones, or cowtyng with 
horsessbone, pennypryk, fotehall, classhe, coylcs [closh and kayles described 
to be like ninepins] checker in the mjer, or shove grote, in payn of 
imprisonment, &c, &c. Accordynge to the Statute." 

One more extract hefore we close the hook strikes us as of some interest bearing 
on the Miracle Play. 

In the Hall Book p. 2, 2Gth March, 1477, is an ordinance concerning The Passion 
Play. "At a comon halle holden at Leycestre on tbe xxvi. day of Marche in the yere 
afore written [17 Ed. IV.] at the which comon halle the players the which pleed The 
Passion Play the yere next afore brought yne a byll the whiche was of serten devtes 
[debts] of mony, and wheder the passion shulbe put to Craft es to be bounden or nay 
and at y at tyme the seid pleyers gaff to the pacheutes [pageants] yer mony which that 
thei had getten yn playing of the seid play euer fore to that day, and all ye raymentts 
withal other mauer of stuff yat yey had at yat tyme ; and at the same comon halle, be 
the advyse of all the comons, was chosen these persones after named for to have the 
gydyng and rull of the seid play." A list of 19 persons and 2 bedalls follow. This 
is the only reference to the plays in the records. They doubtless were as popular in 
Leicester as in other places. 

Looking back on the Mayoral accounts, we notice that the long reign of 
Edward III. was one of considerable prosperity to the horough. Not only were the 
burgesses paying heavily in taxation during the early years of the French war, but 
large and costly building operations were undertaken at the same time; gates built, 
bridges repaired, and a new Gild Hall were all carried out within this period. Besides 
these expenses, heavy fees were obtained from the town by the Lord of the Manor for 
new and enlarged Charters. If the fourteenth century is remarkable for the increase 
of the town's prosperity, the fifteenth is equally so with regard to the activity in passing 
hye-laws on matters of sanitation and decency. In this respect there is at Leicester a 
very early notice of a public latrine. In 1344 arrangements were made and the building 
erected for " the easement of all the community " as a waste place near the Soar, and 
other matters relating to the public health received attention. There is, in fact, a 
general advance apparent in every generation up to the close of the records at the 
opening of the sixteenth century in 1509, at which date the volume ends. 

In conclusion we can heartily commend the perusal of these interesting and 

valuable records of Leicester, 1103-1509 — to the student of Gild life and Municipal 

custom, feeling sure that with the assistance of the excellent indices provided by Miss 

Bateman, much may be gained for careful comparison with other available records, and 

this is the only course by which we can hope to further our knowledge of tbe early 

history of our Craft. 

Edward Conder, Jun. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 131 


ISTORY of the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel). No. 1— 

Tercentenary Edition : By David Murray Lyon, Grand Sec- 
retary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 1 

A welcome reminder of the true grandeur of the Time 
Immemorial Lodges of Scotland, is afforded by the superb volume 
which it now becomes my privilege to review. The existence of many 
of these bodies at a period of time far remote from our own, may be 
clearly traced by the documentary evidence they still possess, but the actual origin of 
the old Lodges at Edinburgh, Kilwinning, Melrose, Aberdeen, " Scone and Perth," 
Glasgow, Stirling, Dundee, Kelso, and other centres of Masonic activity, is fairly lost 
in an abyss of antiquity which cannot be fathomed. 

The minutes, however, of " Mary's Chapel " are the most venerable of the entire 
series of these documents. They carry us back to 1599, and two years ago the 
celebration of a Tercentenary Festival of the Lodge, took place — the avant courriere of the 
work under review. 

It is indeed true, that our Brother Murray Lyon's most recent literary produc- 
d action is merely, in one sense, a revised edition of the famous "History" which he 
gave to the Masonic world in 1873. But on a close examination it will be seen, that 
only about a third of the letterpress in the old edition finds a place in the new one, and 
that consequently the most striking feature of the later edition, is the extraordinary 
amount of new matter which it contains. 

The interesting wood engravings in the old volume have been superseded, with 
hardly an exception, by carefully executed photographs in the new one. The 
portraits of Masonic celebrities in the former, it must be confessed, were in few 
instances faithful likenesses of the originals ; but the alteration will nevertheless be 
deplored by some classes of readers, and the same may be said with respect to the 
specimens of ancient records, the reproduction of which, in the new volume, will 
certainly leave unsatisfied the expectations of some of the lovers of old charters, who 
were subscribers for the original work. 

Upon the claims and charters of the St. Clair family, much additional light is 
thrown by Bro. Murray Lyon, and our author has greatly enlarged many of the " Short 
Studies" on subjects of Masonic interest, which constitute such a pleasing feature of 
his original " Masterpiece " of 1873. Among them is the sketch of " Mother 
Kilwinning," which is of particular value, as emenating not only from one of the most 
gifted Masonic writers of our time, but also from the only person to whom (as we have 
every reason to suppose) the ancient records of the Lodges of Edinburgh and Kilwinning 
are equally familiar. 

The respective claims of these famous Lodges to priority of rank, are not to be 
lightly entered upon ; but this much may be said without incurring the reproach 
of writing as a partisan, that a more unsatisfactory method of settling a disputed 
point, was never resorted to, than on the occasion of the placing by the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, of the Lodge of Kilwinning, at the head of the roll without a number, in 1807. 
Upon the merits of the controversy it is not my present purpose to dilate. The case, 

'The Gresham Publishing Co., London, Glasgow, and Dublin. Copies (from Sec. No. 1 ; 47 
Frederick Sbreat, Edinburgh) price 303. ; edition da luxe £5 5s. j or by instalments. 

132 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

from the point of view of the Lodge of Edinburgh, is argued with equal force and 
lucidity by Murray Lyon ; and to those who wish to learn what can be adduced on the 
other side, I commend a perusal of " Mother Lodge, Kilwinning, the Ancient Ludge of 
Scotland," by the Rev. W. Lee Ker (Minister of Kilwinning), a publication of singular 
interest, in which the phraseology of the Schaw Statutes, or at least that portion 
regulating the precedency of the " Head Lodges " of Scotland, is subjected to a close 
and searching criticism. 

The above " Statutes " are relied upon by Murray Lyon as affording distinct 
proof " That Masonic Initiation was formerly a ceremony of great simplicity " ; and in 
addition to his original argument on the subject, which will be found in both editions 
of the "History " (chap, iv.), the following supplementary matter which appears in the 
later one, may be cited as an example of the dexterity of the author in skilfully inter- 
weaving new facts with the old : — 

" In 1764, the Masonic secrets practised in the Ancient Lodge of Melrose are thus 
referred to : ' That the Mason Word be administered in a simple way and manner, free 
of everything sinful and superstitious, only word, sign, and grip, and some simple 
questions to distinguish a Mason from another man, and all under a promise not to 
reveal it, under no less a penalty than to forfeit all right and title to every benefit 
belonging to the Lodge, and to be held in abhorrence by every brother.' " 

In the same chapter there occurs : — 

" Since the publication, in 1873, of the first edition of this work, nothing has 
been advanced by any Masonic student to shake the author's opinion, that prior to the 
introduction of Speculative Masonry, there was only one degree known in Operative 

The choler of the much respected editor of our Transactions, might be very justly 
raised, were I to seize upon the foregoing as the text for a long homily on " degrees." 
So I shall content myself with observing, that the expression of our dear Bro. Murray 
Lyon's latest views with respect to the esoteric teaching of the Craft, lacks the element 
of precision — as while students of all shades of opinion might be able to agree with him 
in the conclusion, that the era of Speculative Masonry must have necessarily preceded 
the existence of a plurality of degreees ; on the other hand, there can be few (or any) 
who will concur in the supposition, that a part of the Symbolism handed down to us, 
may have had its origin, not during the splendour of Mediaeval Operative Masonry, but 
at (or after) the period of its decline. 

The remaining chapters of the work teem with Masonic interest, and while no 
features of abiding value in the original edition have been discarded from the pages of 
its successor, the details in numerous instances have been re-cast, and supplemented by 
the results of new discoveries. 

The Histories of the Lodge of Edinburgh, and of the Grand Lodge which it 
helped to found, in 1735, are traced by a master hand. The work, moreover, as I find 
already stated in one of the Press notices, "is a mine of wealth as respects the early 
history of other old Scottish Lodges." The biographies of national Masonic worthies 
are largely augmented. The statistics of all kinds are most elaborate, and besides 
referring to Lodges and Provincial Grand Lodges, extend even to Intrants (or 
Initiates), the annual number of whom is shown year by year from 1800. 

Full-page portraits are given of the Grand Masters from 1873 to the present 
date, and among the lesser illustrations are miniatures of Sir Patrick Hume, afterwards 
Earl of Marchmont, and Alexander Hamilton, General of Artillery, two of the early 
" Gentleman Masons," who were received into the Membership of No. 1. 

Review . 133 

Similar portraits of other and more modern members of the Lodge of Edinburgh 
and the Scottish Craft, are scattered in great profusion throughout the work. 

An admirable index to the contents has been prepared by Dr. George Dickson. 

A very few words are required, in which to sum up my estimate of the enduring 
value of the book which has been the subject of this review. No Masonic student — 
worthy of the name — it has hitherto been laid down by all the authorities, could afford 
to be without the earlier edition, and the same remark may be applied, with even 
greater significance, to the later one. 

In conclusion I may observe, that from either a literary or historical point of view 

the execution of the work leaves little or nothing to be desired. The talented author is 

widely known as one of the most successful administrators of our time, and his return 

to the field of Masonic labour in which he first made his mark, cannot fail to both revive 

and enhance, the equally high reputation whic long ago, was universally accorded him 

as a writer of the Craft. 

R. F. Gould. 

Philo Musicse et Architecture Societas, 1725-7. l — In order to 

rightly appreciate the value and importance of this manuscript of minutes of a Musical 
Society which assembled for two or three years early in the 18th century, it should be 
remembered that the earliest Records known of the Third Degree, or Master Mason, 
as conferred in a regular Lodge, are those I had the pleasure to publish in my Paper 
on " The Three Degrees of Freemasonry, especially in relation to the oldest known 
Records of the Master Mason's Ceremony," which was read before the members of the 
QuatuorCoronati Lodge on 24th June, 1897 (A.Q.G.x.). They bear date 1727 and 1729, 
and refer to brethren being " Admitted Masters " or " Passed Masters " ; whereas the 
volume herein noted contains evidence of the ceremony being worked early in the year 
1725, the term employed being " Regularly Pass'd Master." 

The MS. has long been familiar to Masonic students, for within two years 'of its 
presentation to the British Museum the late Bro. Matthew Cooke had reproduced a 
considerable portion of its contents in the "Freemasons' Magazine" (July, 1861, to 
January, 1862), and several of us later on also referred to its character and dwelt upon 
its importance. What, however, has long been needed, and has many times been asked 
for, is an exact reproduction of the whole of the volume, which happily has now been 
published, and besides, has the great advantage of an introduction and numerous 
critical notes by Bro. W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A., which not only add considerably to 
the usefulness of the work, but are a real boon for all who desire the assistance or 
guidance of a careful, intelligent, and fully informed Brother, who has made a 
particular study of tbe MS., and of whom it may be truly said there are few, if any, so 
competent to adequately describe and appreciate the numerous minutes of the Society 
in relation to Freemasonry, as well as respects early Musical Societies generally. 

This very interesting Minute Book, with the " Fundamental Constitution and 
Orders," runs to 410 pages (including some 114 which are left blank) ; the whole of 
the text being reproduced, which more or less covers some 296 pages, the first twelve 
being also given in facsimile. All autograph signatures' are printed in italic capital 
letters, and any additions to the original text are enclosed within square brackets. 

Bro. Rylands made an exact copy of the MS. some years ago, which I presume 

'Vol. ix., Antiquarian Reprints. "The Book of the Fundamental Constitutions of the Philo 
Masicae et Architecturse Societas, London, 1725-1727." Edited by W. H. Rylands, F.S.A. (Price 10/6.) 

134 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

was the basis of the present typographical reproduction ; but all the text has been 
carefully compared with the original prior to being printed, so that subscribers to this 
artistic volume have practically a verbatim et literatim transcript, the pages in actual 
facsimile answering the purpose admirably to exhibit the precise character of the 
unique original. 

Although this volume is the most important and valuable of all the reprints 
published by our Lodge — as a contribution to the study of early Freemasonry under the 
premier Grand Lodge — the subscription is only half-a-guinea per copy, as heretofore, 
so that a " word to the wise " should be enough. Assuredly if all the members of the 
Correspondence Circle were of the same opinion as the writer concerning its worth (not 
only because of the extraordinary character of its text, but also with respect to the 
invaluable introduction and the very interesting notes), a second edition would be 
called for almost immediately. I may point out the fact, however, that when the 
present edition is exhausted another is not at all likely to be issued, because of the very 
heavy cost of production, which will excite no surprise amongst those conversant with 
the preparation and publication of such a fine and massive work. 

The artistic illuminated title, painted by Bro. Stainer (Grand Steward in 1725), 
has been appropriately utilised in facsimile as frontispiece for the present edition, and 
an excellent portrait of Bro. Geminiani (the accomplished Musical Director of the 
Society) has been secured by Bro. Rylands for reproduction, from an engraving by 
James McArdell, the artist being Thomas Jenkins ; in addition to which an attractive 
feature of the reprint is the facsimile plates of the Thirteen Tokens of Distinction worm by 
the Founders, Officers, and Directors, all of which have disappeared, strange to say, 
and are now only known to us by these beautiful drawings. 

Bro. Rylands has so exhaustively treated the subject in his introduction, that it 
is only left for me to say how warmly I thank him, on behalf of Masonic students, 
wherever located, for this, another important contribution to the early History of the 
Craft. The choice work leaves nothing to be desired, and the Lodge itself may well be 
proud of this, the ninth volume of its reprints. 

Were it not for the necessity of this notice being brief, I should much have liked 
to refer at length to the curious and deeply interesting Minutes concerning Free- 
masonry. It has been far from an easy task to write thus and be silent as to these 
most suggestive Records, but possibly ere long there will be an opportunity for me to 
say a few words more on the subject, and meanwhile I shall often consult the work. 


Transactions of the Lodge of Research No. 2429, Leicester, for the Year 

1900-1. — The current volume is undoubtedly one of the best published of the valuable 
series, and, as with all the others, has been edited by Bro. John T. Thorp, F.R.Hist.S., 
in an able manner. It is still a mystery to me how such a perfectly printed book, 
lavishly illustrated, can be supplied to the members of the Correspondence Circle for 
5/- per annum, and be it remembered an artistic and most interesting brochure again 
accompanies the Transactions as a gift from the enthusiastic Secretary, being entitled 
"Masonic Papers," running to over sixty pages more. 

I am very sorry to report the decease of the esteemed W.M., the Rev. H. J. Mason, 
which sad event occurred on July 2nd, 1901 (" CO." of 2076 from 1891). The Obituary 
is devoted to our lamented Secretary, who was one of the honorary members of No. 
2429, was present at its Consecration and installed Bro. J. T. Thorp as the first Master. 
The Editor thus concludes his appreciative notice of our dear friend : 

Reviews. 135 

" Bro. Speth's name is known to Freemasons the whole world over, his 
splendid work for the Craft has laid the Fraternity under a deep and 
lasting obligation, and his loss to Freemasonry is a loss indeed." 

At the 41st Meeting Bro. Thorp delivered a Lecture on the " References to Free- 
masonry in Early Printed Books," which has not been excelled for its completeness, at 
the next Lodge, Bro. F. W. Billsar, LL.B. read a capital Paper on "The Landmarks 
of Freemasonry," followed in January last with a Paper by the Rev. H. D. Biggs, B.A., 
being "An Attempt to fix the Date of the Union of Speculative and Operative Masonry," 
and certainly deserving of a wide circulation. Bro. J. J. W. Knowles, the S.W., con- 
tributed another on " Some Papal Pronouncements against the Fraternity," &c, which 
cannot fail to enlighten many of the Brethren ; Bro. E. V. Greatbach concluding the 
present series with a Paper on " Freemasonry, its Traditions, Ritual and Teachings." 
All these addresses are given in full, or at considerable length, in the Volume, as well 
as particulars of the discussions thereon ; the Lists of Curios exhibited by the Secretary 
from his wonderful collection, or sent by Brethren, being carefully described and occa- 
sionally reproduced or illustrated, and much else, all adding their quota to the interest 
and importance of the publication. The Portraits of Elias Ashmole (not the usual one), 
John Aubrey and Dr. Plot, and a fine copy of a Certificate of a spurious Grand Lodge 
being especially noteworthy. 

The full membership, like with the " Quatuor Coronati " Lodge, will always be 
most rigidly select, but there is no reason why that of the " Correspondence Circle " 
should not considerably increase; the cost is only a crown per annum, and every 
addition thereto is an indication of the appreciation by the Brotherhood of one of the 
best organizations of its kind extant. 

The " Masonic Papers " kindly presented by the Author (Bro. Thorp) are devoted 
to Lord Rancliffe (the 2nd) ; the Masonic Benefit Society of 1799 ; Lord Rollo (the 5th) ; 
the Grand Lodge " Royal York of Friendship," and the Rev. Samuel Oliver. They are 
all most readable and of considerable value, the illustrations also being most acceptable, 
and together make me, at least, and doubtless many others, cherish a lively feeling of 
gratitude for still more similar favours to come. Bro. Thorp has a knack of thus pre- 
paring his gifts in the most quiet manner, and then unexpectedly favouring us with 
another valuable contribution to Masonic literature. 

W. J. Hughan. 


ioAqiScacitcs of Srtadfastntii' 

IV CC.Ul/5. 

136 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


HE Alnwick Lodge. — Many of us have studied these minutes without 

Bro. Ryland's penetration and acumen, and have therefore passed 

unnoticed the interesting points so lengthily discussed by Quatuor 

Coronati. Yet, after all that has been said, we return to " As you 

were." The Masonic Clerk of 1748 seems to have secured his record 

as a riddle insolveable, for we shall never be able to prove what he 

actually meant. 

1. — Is there any reason why we should change our ancient views that the 

Assembly was the Speculative version of the Operative Craft rank, and in all time ? 

If not, why should we suppose Alnwick to be different to other Lodges ? 

2. — Is it at all probable that the introduction of the new ritual of Grand Lodge 
would have been minuted in so peculiar a manner ? We know of no other case where 
this has been done. 

3. — The minute rather resembles the 1746 minute of a "Grand Lodge" ta 
Swalwell, led up to by other minutes from 1734 — i.e., the existence of an essentially 
Speculative degrees, with a ritual quoted from " Book M," printed at Newcastle in 
1736. Students of old Northern minutes are aware of the unfixed nature of Masonic 
terminology. Par example, a Darlington Royal Arch Chapter is designated in 1769 a 
" Hierarchal Lodge." 

But after all the most probable explanation is that the Lodge was dormant for 
thirteen years, and that the 1748 minute is simply a re-constitution. What more can 
be made of it ? 

I notice that Bro. Speth has expressed himself dubiously as to a Mason serving 
a period as journeyman before he could become a Master. How, then, does he explain 
the Schaw Statute of 1598, which requires an apprentice, after his seven years' employ- 
ment, to serve another seven years before he could be passed Fellow of Craft by the Six 

Men of ancient Memory ? 

John Yarker. 

Old Masonic Plate. — In the volume of A.Q.C. for 1895, you were good enough 
to print the particulars of an old Masonic plate, of which two copies are in my 
possessiou. A copy owned by Bro. Chas. F. Forshaw, has inscriptions in addition, 
which establish origin, but are erased from my copies, leaving slight traces of their 
having once been upon the copper-plate. On the left-hand side of Dr. Forshaw's copy 
is — in small letters at the bottom in a line with Dedicated to the Ancient & 
Honorable Fraternity of Free Masons — " Printed and published for B. A. Neely, 
41 Great Jackson St., Hulme " — and on the right-hand side, " By John Bradshaw, 6 
Church St., Manchester." 

Bradshaw was an engraver at the above address between the years 1845-8, but 
in 1843 he seems to have been resident in Salford. For one year, namely in 1845, 
Benjamin Neeley (spelled Neely in Street portion of Directory), described as traveller, 
was resident at 41 Great Jackson Street ; hence imprints were made in 1845. 

I rather think that the travelling brother who sold me my copy in 1855 was 
Bradshaw, and he informed me that it was an old plate retouched. It is a question, 
therefore, whether Neely in 1845 was in possession of an old plate, to which these 

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 


Belonging to Lodge Sanquhar, Kilwinning, No. 194. Dumfriesshire. 


Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 




Notes and Queries. 137 

inscriptions were added, or if it was a new design. The Symbolism is that of the 
" Ancients," and of a pre-1800 character ; but this might also be otherwise if Neely was 
an Irishman. I only know of one native of Manchester, capable of designing such an 
excellent symbolic plate, viz.: Bro. Jesse Lee, Pt.P.J.D., and P.Gd.Sec. of East 

The questions I desire now to put are these : Does Dr. Crawley know of the 
existence of such a plate in Ireland, or anything of a Bro. Benj. A. Neely ? Can Bro. 
Sadler give us any information, either as to Bradshaw or Neely ? 

Dr. Forshaw has had a photo made of his copy, and Bro. W. Townsend intends 
to reproduce it in his new Journal the " Masonic World," 235 Princess Road, Moss Side, 
Manchester. John Tarker. 

An Old Masonic Apron. — Enclosed is a photograph of an apron of some long 

date back. It is of white satin, with a narrow blue ribbon border, about three-sixteenths 

of an inch wide: home made. The emblems are hand painted. There is an "eye" 

within a scroll border on the flap : and the square, compasses, and the five-pointed star 

on the apron itself. The measurements are 14| inches deep, 15 inches wide, and the 

flap is slightly over 4f inches. 

R. H. Holme. 

Silver Masonic Jewel (Lodge No. 258.)— Some three or four years ago an old 
silver Masonic jewel came into my possession through an Irish widow named McMahon 
(nee Walsh), who received it from one of her ancestors but was unable to give me any 
particulars whatever regarding its history. A slip of paper was attached to the jewel 
bearing an inscription to the effect that it had been the property of Captain Cook, the 
famous navigator. Mrs. McMahon was unable to furnish any evidence corroborating 
the statement. 

I enclose herewith photographs showing each side of the jewel and a Lodge No. 
258. If without too much trouble you can ascertain for me if Captain Cook was a 
Mason and a member of Lodge No. 258, I shall be very much obliged. 

W. H. S. Wright, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 
[See Gould's " Military Lodges," pp. Ill, 112. Editor.'] 

Masonic Breastplate. — Under " Notes and Queries " in Part I. of this year's 
Transactions, reference is made to a Master's Breastplate belonging to Lodge" Sanquhar 
Kilwinning," No. 194, Dumfriesshire. Our lamented Bro. Speth asked for a drawing 
and description, and through the courtesy of Bro. James R. Wilson, the Secretary of the 
Lodge, I am able to supply a photograph and the information craved for. 

This unique jewel of hammered copper is convex in shape and measures 4 inches by 
6 inches. The various Masonic emblems and ornamentation are beautifully engraved. 
Fortunately its history is easily told, for the Lodge Minute of 13th January, 1757, is in 
these terms : " The Breastplate or Long Square Medell with all the Jewells belonging 
to a Lodge engraven upon with a manteling engraven about it and Silverized was made 
a present of by James Bogle, Sen., to the Lodge." 

This Lodge, originally called " The Lodge of Sanquhar," was in existence prior 
to 1719. It obtained a Charter from Kilwinning in 1738, and came under the juris- 
diction of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1778. It was dormant from 1822 until 1897, 
and it is gratifying that the old records from 1738 have been preserved, and that part 
of the old paraphernalia, and notably the Breastplate, has been recovered. 

James Smith, Shotts, Lanarkshire. 

138 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Drummond — EarlS Of Perth. — Is it possible to get some of our Scottish 
brethren to ascertain whether John Drummond's name appears as a Free Mason upon 
any of their minutes. He is supposed to have been initiated before 1670, and was 
created Earl of Melfort in 1685, and accompanied James II. to France in 1688. Much 
true Masonic knowledge depends upon the investigation, as there is an old brass tobacco 
box with the following symbolism, and though it is almost all found in the catechisms 
printed about 1723, it can scarcely be appropriated to the three degrees as existing from 
1722. The box is said to have been given to the great-grandmother of the present 
owner in 1745 by the Duke of Perth. The lid and the bottom are panelled with 
bead, fillet, and herring-bone work. We have : — 

I. — An Elizabethan scroll at top, from left-hand of which hangs a square, and 

2. — At left a Boric Pillar, over which is a sun; suspended at its centre is a 
shield with a square containing an obtuse angle, an acute angle, right angle, two right 
angles. (Possibly the Guttural, Pectoral, Manual, and Pedal Symbols given in a 1724 
printed Catechisms.) This pillar marked E. On the base is square, Bible, and compasses. 

3. — The centre is a Tuscan Pillar, surmounted by the moon, with seven stars to 
right, and three and a comet to left. On pillar is a face blowing to right and left, with 
letters E and W. Below, the letter S. In centre a dial, the fingers pointing to XII. 
(An old York 3° emblem.) On base, a mallet, square, and 24-inch guage. 

4. — Next, a Corinthian Pillar, with W. ; on the top of which is a man's bust, with 
a halo round the head. On centre hangs a similar badge to E pillar ; this shield has 
point, line, circle, cube. On base, scroll, square, rule. 

5. — Scroll to right, matching that on left, suspends compass, quadrant, and sun 
in centre, and from centre of scroll hangs cross-pens. 

6. — The columns are bound by a loose rope ; centrally, between E and S. hangs a 
circular pierced jewel, with ladder, gavel, square and compasses, and letter G. Motto 
round it (that of Harodim), Virtute et Silentia. On the ground below is an ashlar, with 
what looks like a gavel on it. 

7. — Suspended similarly from this rope between S and W is a circular jewel, 
having what is probably a tasselated pavement with G in the centre. On the ground 
below is a rough stone and a squared stone. Behind these, rough ground with a shrub 
growing on it. 

Lastly. — The bottom is engraved with the Arms of Drummond, the helmet (be it 
noted) being that of an Esquire, not of an Earl ; at each side of the Arms I and D, and 
below 1670. The scroll work to the Arms is Elizabethan. 

Possibly the minutes of Scoon and Perth might give some information upon this 
personage. John Yareer. 

The Miracle Play. — With respect to a statement in my paper that the sole 
relic of a lost cycle of York plays existed in an MS. of The Skryveners' Play, Miss Lucy 
Toulmin Smith writes : " It gives me much pleasure to find that my book is of use to 
students of this most interesting subject. May I point out that the Skryveners' Play 
at York, existing in the single MS., is the same, though with slight verbal differences, 
as the Scriveners (or ' Escriveners ') in the York cycle, No. 42, ' The Incredulity of 
Thomas^ It does not thus belong to a lost cycle. See my note in York Plays, p. 455. 
I believe the mistake may have arisen from a print of the single copy which was made 
before the publication of the whole set." I am glad to be able to thus correct my 
account of the York Plays. E. Conder, Jun. 

Notes and Queries. 139 

Masonic Pottery, — The following interesting specimens are exhibited in the 

Loan Collections, Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill : — 

Jug. Cream ware. Masonic emblems and inscriptions circa 1795. Made for an Orange 


Mug. Cream ware. Masonic emblems, a verse from Ent d App. Song, circa 1790. 

Jag. Earthenware with Masons Arms and emblems, circa 1790. 

Mug. With arms, etc., of Socy. of Bucks. Liverpool. 1760. 

Jug. Cream ware. Masons arms and emblems. Stafford. 1770. 

Jug. Cream ware. Masons arms and emblems, coloured. 1780. Inscribed James 

Morris, Master Builder, Lewis, Suffolk. 

F. Compton Pkice. 

Bro. Jesse Lee, Of Manchester. — In putting my house in order I came upon 

some MSS. of a Masonic character in the handwriting of Bro. Jesse Lee. The career of 

the Brother I think is worthy of preservation in permanent form, and I give below his 

own account verbatim. 

John Yarker. 

"E A Feb 11 : 1819 (Ancient way) by Rd. Horsfall in 545 Todmorden, White Hart. 

PC ) 

& [ April 28: 1819 (Modern way) Do. 

M M) 

G L Cert : Granted June 27—1820 Do. 

P. Master Deer. 27—1820 Aykroyd. 

Mark Master Feby. 10 — 1820. Utley, 87 Rising Sun, Queen St., Manchester. 

St. Lawrence Do. Do. Do. Do. 

Oddfellows Do. Do. Secrets disclosed by Greenlees Do. 

Appointed Examiner of Sojourners, Feby. 1826. Resigned April 1828. 

Appointed P.G.S.D. of the E.D. of Lancr. and Invested April 24, 1826 at the Empm. 

Rooms, Mancr. by J. Crossley, Esq. and had the whole 
order of his Installation, also painted his Banner. 

Registered in 87 March 27, 1824 as joining member and 2/6 paid for Registry. 

Do. in 77 Feby. 1839 and 2/6 paid for Regy. 
Ext. Oct. 22, 1826 Chapter of Trinity 63 held under 506 White Lion, Deansgate 

Manch. by J. Chew. 
Super Ext. Do. Do. 

H.R. Arch. Do. Do. 

Knt. Templars. Oct. 26, 1826, by J. Bent under a Regular Warrant granted by Thomas 

Dunckerley, Esqr. at the North Brit. Vol. — Deansgate, Manchr., J. 

Crossley, Esq. the P. CM. for the E.D. of Lancr. took this degree after 

me on the same day. 
Priestly Order Feby. 18, 1827 under the above warrant by J. McDougal 1st P. assd. by 

Bent at Bro. Thomas Ogden's the Commercial Tavern, Brown St., 

Manchester, immediately after the R.W. D.P.G.M. D 1 . Lynch Esq re . had 

received the same. 

Admitted an Honorary Member of 577 under the Irish Constitution held in the 6 
Dragoon Guards or Carbineers then at Hulme Barracks-, Manchester. 

Provincial Grand Secty, appointed April 23, 1828. 

Knight of Malta, Sunday, June 29, 1828, at the Comm 1 Tavern under the warrant of 
Conclave of Jer m No. 9, by McDougal, and Bent, and Chew. 

140 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Passed the Principal Z Chair, chap. Trinity, 506, at Manch r , March 1 st 1829 by Comp. 

Jn° Bent. 
Red Cross— 1831." 

The book from which I extract this contains much information touching on old 
Craft Ritual, also elaborate coloured drawings and ancient authorities upon the Arch 
banners, ephod, etc., and a letter from Dr. Geo. Oliver, and Bro. J. J. Moody, upon 
Cheshire Arch working ; the last was a member of the Manchester Templars and High- 
grades and died Town Clerk of Melbourne, Australia. J. M c Dougal whom Lee mentions 
settled in Canada and was known to the late Colonel Moore. 

The Manchester City Netvs in 1868 gave some information from the pen of Mr. 
Charles Hardwicke in regard to the MSS. of Mr. Jesse Lee which he had examined 
through the courtesy of Mrs. Ljthgoe and Miss Lee, his two daughters. He mentions 
a great number of loose scraps, an important MS. relating to John Collier (Tim Bobbin), 
a memoir read before the Literary and Philosophical Society in 1839, and Lee seems to 
have began the printing in 1840 of a complete edition of Tim Bobbin's Works ; Mr. 
Hardwicke found an old account book, once Tim's own property; also some of his 
letters, and generally much valuable information. Bro. Lee edited a "History of the 
House of Stanley," of which 3,000 copies were printed by W. Willis, Manchester, in 
1840 ; the publisher became bankrupt and Lee lost his anticipated profits upon the book. 
A circular issued in 1843 shews he was then Secretary of Lodge of Virtue, 177. The 
Manchester Guardian remarks, 30th December, 1873, That Bro. Lee was born in 
Rochdale and resided some time in Great Bridgewater Street, afterwards removing to 
Hulme, where he died at the age of 53, on the 17th February, 1844. I have heard it 
stated that he held some appointment upon the Bridgewater Canal. Lees Masonic MSS. 
were in the possession of the late Bro. Geo. Holt Noton, from whom I acquired this 
specimen. His name appears in our Directories from 1821. 


A few points in the foregoing are worthy of note. Todmorden in 1819, conferred 
the Apprentice Degree in the Ancient way, and the F.C. and M.M. at one sitting, 
Modern way. The Mark and St. Lawrence degrees were worked together at Manchester 
in 1820. The Past Master's degree in the same year, and the Excellent Super-excellent, 
Royal Arch, in 1826, but this form was continued at Eccles until 1858. 

John Yarker. 

"Wheeler's Lodge." — In the collection of Masons' Songs forming part of 

Dermott's Ahiman Rezon, first edition, London 1756, is a song (XI.) of which the 

following is the first verse : — 

As I at Wheelers Lodge one Night, 

Kept Bacchus Company ; 

For Bacchus is a Mason bright, 

And of all Lodges Free. 

The same song also appears in the second edition of the Ahiman Rezon, London, 

1764; in Spratt's New Book of Constitutions, Dublin, 1751; and in the Freemason's 

Pocket Companion, Edinburgh, 1761. I do not find it in any of the old editions of 

Anderson's Constitutions I have been able to consult. 

Can any Brother inform me where " Wheeler's Lodge " was held ? and may one 

infer from the song being given in the Ahiman Rezon, and not in Auderson that it was 

an Atholl Lodge r 1 

E. J. Barron. 

Transactions of the Quatuor C or onati Lodge. 141 


EGRETFULLY we announce the death of Brothers: — 

Solomon StraSSer. of Albany, New York, on the 18th March 
last. Our Brother was prominent in every branch of Freemasonry 
in his State, and a foremost member of the Hebrew Community, as 
well as a prominent citizen. Albany papers speak with great 
feeling of the loss he will prove to every class in that city. He 

was a Past Grand Officer of the Grand Lodge of New York, and joined our Circle in 

November, 1888. 

Louis Robert Weber, of Geneva, on the 25th March, after a long and painful 
illness. It is scarcely a year since our Brother had his tongue excised, but the respite 
proved a short one indeed. Bro. Weber was a most devoted Freemason and an 
intelligent and ardent Masonic Student, and even during his last painful illness 
projected a paper on a most interesting subject for our Transactions, which, however, 
he was unable to accomplish. Unfortunately he became acquainted with our Lodge too 
late for both his and our advantage, and only joined us in October, 1899, immediately 
inducing more than one of his friends to follow his example. 

William Thomas Sumner, Madras, on the 1st March, 1901. Our Brother who 
joined us in June, 1892, was a zealous and enthusiastic Mason, and will be sorely 
missed in Madras. 

William Henry Cowper, of Middlesbrough, on the 8th April, 1901. Our 
Brother, who was a Past Grand Standard Bearer of England, and highly appreciated 
for his many Masonic services in his Province of North and East Yorkshire, joined our 
Circle in March, 1888. 

Walter Slicer, of Bingley, Yorkshire, on the 13th of March, 1901, who joined us 
in June, 1894. 

Charles John Moore, of Devonport, on the 12th of March, 1901, who joined us 
in October, 1898. 

Frederick Samuel Schreiner, of Eastbourne, on the 7th of May, 1901. 
Bro. Schreiner, who was very well known in Eastbourne, was the founder of the New 
College School there ; and was an elder brother of the ex-Premier of the Cape. As 
W.M. of his Lodge he attended the meeting on the 7th. The Lodge had only been open 
a few minutes, when Bro. Schreiner stooped forward to pick up a piece of paper, and fell. 
Two doctors who were present, at once went to his assistance, but after a few minutes 
of painful suspense, life was pronounced to be extinct. He leaves a wife, but no family, 
his only son having died a few weeks previously. He joined our Circle in October, 1898. 

Commander George Henry Baynes Reed, R.N., J.P., of Falmouth, on the 

4th of May, 1901, who joined us in March, 1888. 

William R. Singleton, on the 23rd of February, 1901. Our Brother who was 
very well known and respected in the United States, has been the Grand Secretary for 
the District of Columbia for more than a quarter of a century. He was one of our very 
earliest Correspondence Circle members, having joined in September, 1887. 

142 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Herman H. Schwerin, of Ocala, Florida, U.S.A., in March, 1901, who joined 
us in June, 1900. 

The Hon. James Vincent Chataway, of Brisbane, Queensland, on the 11th of 
April, 1901. He was the State Minister of Agriculture for Queensland, and also a 
member of Parliament. He joined our Circle in May, 1892. 

Duncan Mark MacLaren, of Broken Hill, South Australia, on the 28th of 
March, 1901, who joined us in June, 1898. 

Edwin Baker, of Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A., on the 15th of May last. 
Our Brother who was prominent in every branch of Freemasonry in his State, has been 
for the last twenty-nine years the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island. 
He was a man of great intellectuality and masonic experience, and he will be greatly 
missed in his jurisdiction. He had not been in very good health for the last three or 
four years, but the end came very suddenly ; he had a paralytic stroke on the 13th, and 
died two days later. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 1890, and has been our 
local secretary for Providence since 1892. He was also the Grand Representative of 
England in Rhode Island. He was buried with full masonic honours by the Grand 
Lodge of Rhode Island. 

Lewis Christopher Haslip, of Maidstone, Kent, on the 2nd of April, 1901, who 
joined us in June, 1891. 

Charles Champney Powell, of Dixton, Monmouth, on the 5th of June. Our 
Brother was very well known ir. Masonry in his district, and was a Past Grand Super- 
intendent of Works for Monmouth. He joined our Circle in November, 1895. 

Richard Hooker, of Exeter, on the 20th of May, who joined us in June, 1899. 

W. GrierSOn Jackson, I.C.S., of Westcliff-on-Sea, on the 1st of May, 1901. 
For a good many years he resided at Allahabad, and was our local agent for the North- 
West Provinces. He was a P.D.G.W. and P. D.G.J, of Bengal, and joined us in June, 

Theodore Sutton Parvin, Grand Secretary of Iowa from the organization of 
the Grand Lodge of that State in 1844, until his death on June 28th, 1901, with the 
exception of the year 1852, when he served the office of Grand Master. Our Brother 
also presided over all the other Grand Bodies — Royal Arch, Cryptic, and Knight 
Templar — of his adopted State, and was a leading member of the A. and A.S.R., in 
which he attained the 33rd (or highest) degree, in 1858. 

But the office with which his name will be imperishably associated, is that of 
Grand Librarian, a position to which he was elected in 1844, and continued to fill until 
his decease. As the founder and builder of the Iowa Masonic Library and Museum, 
containing, it is believed, the most remarkable Masonic collection in the world, the life- 
work of Bro. Parvin demands a fuller notice than our present limit will permit, and we 
shall, therefore, hope to return to the subject in a future number of these Transactions. 
The Grand Lodge of Iowa (the earliest of the American Grand Lodges to accord us its 
support) joined our Circle in 1888. 



John James, of Haverfordwest, on the 23rd February, who joined us in 
March, 1891. 

Thomas MacNair, of Hazelton, Pennsylvania, on the 25th of July, 1901. Our 
Brother was one of the very first to place his name on the list of Correspondence Circle 
Members, he having joined us in May, 1887. 

Thomas Scott, our Local Secretary for Nelson, New Zealand, in his eightieth 
year, who was suddenly struck down while attending service in the Cathedral on 
Sunday, July 7th. Ero. Scott joined us in 1892. 

Rev. Henry J. Mason, of Wigston, near Leicester, on the 2nd of July, who 
joined us in January, 1891. 

( hlcuk wax.) 

C-W Jp.ftv. Del 


144 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



HE following requires no introduction : it finds a fitting place in our 
Transactions. As sons of the same Empire, and of the same Fellow- 
ship, our feelings are in unison. 


Cavendish Chambers, Grenfell Street, 

Adelaide, 29th July, 1901. 
Dear Sir and Brother, 

I have the honour to inform you that at the Regular Meeting of Lodge St. Alban 
No. 38, S.A.C., held on the 25th instant, the Brethren availed themselves of the first 
opportunity afforded them, in Regular Meeting assembled, to express their sorrow 
caused by the death of Worshipful Brother G. W. Speth, P.A.G.D.C. 

In addition to his great and invaluable services to the Craft of Freemasonry, our 
late Worshipful Brother Gr. W. Speth had laid this Lodge and its Members under 
grateful obligations to him, for a keen interest displayed in its formation and progress 
— valuable aid accorded in selecting and purchasing works to form the nucleus of a 
Library — and innumerable kindnesses shewn to Brethren of the Lodge when visiting 
England. In addition to the foregoing obligations, Brother Speth had by means of 
correspondence with some of the Brethren, who were debarred from the privilege of 
personal knowledge and acquaintanceship exemplified the generosity of his nature and 
his willingness at all times to respond to calls made on his time and rare knowledge. 

On the fly-leaf hereof I forward a signed copy of the Resolution adopted by the 
Brethren at the Regular Meeting above referred to, and within the envelope which 
encloses this letter I forward type- written copies of the remarks made by the Proposer 
and Seconder of the Resolution, which it is thought may be of interest, as indicating 
the high esteem in which our late Brother Speth was held by the Brethren of the 
Lodge, who were privileged to know him. 

I have further to enclose a Post Office Order (payable to your order) which 
represents a contribution the Brethren of this Lodge desire to make towards the 
memorial intended to be erected as set forth in the circular letter (undated), which 
reached me some weeks back. 

With renewed assurance of the sympathy of the Brethren with the family of the 
late Brother, and with your Lodge in the calamity which has befallen you, 

I remain, Dear Sir and Brother, 

Yours fraternally and faithfully, 

Secretary of Lodge St. Alban, No. 88 (South Australia). 

To Worshipful Brother E. J. Conder, 

W.M. of Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 2076 (B.C.), 
Conigree, Newent, (Glos.) 

Meeting of the Lodge of St. Alban, Adelaide. 145 

LODGE ST. ALBAN, No. 38 (S.A.C.) 

Copy of a Resolution adopted at a Regular Meeting of Lodge St. Alban, No. 38 
(S.A.C), held on the 25th day of July, 1901, on the motion of Very Worshipful Brother 
J. E. Thomas, P.Gr. Lecturer, seconded by Worshipful Brother W. Barlow, LL.D., 
Trinitj College. 

The Brethren of Lodge St. Alban, No. 38 (South Australia), desire to convey 
to the Worshipful Master and Brethren of Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 
2076, E.C., an expression of their profound sorrow at the loss sustained by 
that Lodge and the Craft generally by the death of Worshipful Brother 
G. W. Speth, P.A.G.D.C, the late Secretary of Lodge Quatuor Coronati 
and an Honorary Member of this Lodge, and assure them of their admira- 
tion for his abilities and enthusiasm as a Masonic writer and literateur and 
his sterling qualities and lovable nature as a man. 

They further request the Worshipful Master of Lodge Quatuor Coronati to 
convey to the relations of our late Brother Speth a message of respectful 
sympathy with them in the calamity which has befallen them. 

W. Herbert Phillipps, Master. 

J. Edwin Thomas, Secretary. 
Adelaide, July 29th, 1901. 

Brother J. Edwin Thomas : 

Worshipful Master. — So far as this Lodge has been concerned death, during the 
past twelve months, has brought about much sorrow by reason of his relentless harvest- 
ing. Brethren of repute as well as those possessing our esteem have been removed from 
the arena of companionship and good work to that great hereafter, which in the language 
of the Craft, we term The Grand Lodge Above. It is not my present intention to refer 
to those of our immediate numbers, whom meeting during years passed in constant and 
pleasureable intercourse, have now been called to fathom and realize the mysteries of life 
and with whom all human communication has ceased. Our losses have indeed been many 
and sad, for in more than one instance we have lost those who loved this Lodge and to 
whose hearts its prosperity was near and important. My present intention is to draw 
attention to the serious loss sustained by the Craft generally by the sudden and wholly 
unexpected death of Worshipful Brother G. W. Speth, P.A.G.D.C, of the Grand Lodge 
of England, but much more widely known and justly esteemed as the indefatigable 
Secretary of Lodge Quatuor Coronati No. 2076, E.C, and editor of those most valuable 
Masonic issues, which have given the members of the Craft in all parts of the world 
the full and complete benefit of the magnificent work done by that Lodge. To those 
who have been animated by a desire to study the history of the Craft and attempt to 
penetrate its mysteries, the labour of the Brethren who constituted and have since 
maintained that Lodge, have afforded rich and plenteous gratification — especially to 
those of us who by reason of being domiciled in new countries are shut out from the 
inestimable privileges of valuable libraries and priceless collections. To us in distant 
parts of the Empire, the work and researches of the Brethren of Lodge Quatuor 
Coronati have been of especial value, for without the privilege, now possessed by us, of 
participating in the happy results of their labour, our condition as Masonic students 

146 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

would be poor and our opportunities woefully circumscribed. There were leaders in 
Masonic research before the Brethren of that Lodge applied themselves to the high 
purposes set before them — Brethren held in high repute, and deservedly so, for their 
great devotion and great knowledge— but the foundation of Lodge Quatuor Coronati 
brought about a corporate and sustained effort in a field, in which previously but a few 
enthusiastic souls had deemed it worth while to explore. 

Without seeking in the least degree to derogate from the high repute of the 
learned Brethren who constituted, and have since maintained, the Lodge, I do not 
think that much exception can be taken to the opinion held by many, who have had the 
pleasure of watching its proceedings and progress, that to no one was greater praise 
due than to our Bro. Speth. As Secretary of Lodge Quatuor Coronati he appeared to 
occupy a position for the duties of which his abilities and attainments were peculiarly 
appropriate. Possessed of an active and energetic temperament, supported by rare 
enthusiasm, and fortified with an extensive range of knowledge in matters pertaining 
to the Craft, his work as Secretary and Editor was both prodigious and priceless. Nor 
did he confine the privileges of his labours to the celebrated Lodge of which he 
appeared to be the directing force ; for his correspondence with members of the Craft 
all the world over appears to have been of such magnitude that one wonders how, in the 
midst of so busy a life, he ever managed to satisfy a tithe of the voracious enquirers, 
who had recourse to him on all sorts of questions affecting the history and policy of our 
Craft. So far as this Lodge was concerned he took a keen and lively interest in its 
formation and fortunes, and to him were due our warmest thanks for the lively interest 
he took in acquiring the most valuable portion of our small library. The Honorary 
Membership conferred on him he accepted as a valuable token of esteem, and both 
during personal intercourse and by means of correspondence he availed himself 
repeatedly of such opportunities, to emphasize the value he placed upon his connection 
with this Lodge. To such of us as have been granted the privilege of meeting him, he 
proved himself a veritable friend and Brother, for no trouble was thought by him too 
great to ensure introductions into desired Masonic connections in the Old Country if his 
services in that direction were requisitioned. I shall hold as a very pleasing portion of 
my visit during 1895, the few delightful opportunities of which I availed myself to 
spend a few hours in his company — for in addition to his large Masonic knowledge Bro. 
Speth was an antiquarian and no mean authority on artistic subjects, and his con- 
versation could cover so wide and varied a range that his companionship was invariably 
entertaining and profitable. 

As an expression of our sorrow at his death I beg to move, Worshipful Master, 

" The Brethren of Lodge St. Alban No. 38 (South Australia) desire to 
" convey to the Worshipful Master and Brethren of Lodge Quatuor Coronati 
" No. 2076, B.C., an expression of their profound sorrow at the loss sustained 
" by that Lodge and the Craft generally by the death of Worshipful Brother 
" G. W. Speth, P.A.Gr.D.C, the late Secretary of Lodge Quatuor Coronati and 
" an Honorary Member of this Lodge, and assure them of their admiration for 
" his abilities and enthusiasm as a Masonic writer and literateur, and his 
" sterling qualities and lovable nature as a man. 

" They further request the Worshipful Master of Lodge Quatuor 

Coronati to convey to the relations of our late Bro. Speth a message of 

" respectful sympathy with them in the cslamity which has befallen them." 

Meeting of the Lodge of St. Alban, Adelaide 147 

Brother Dr. W. Barlow : 

Worshipful Master. — I have the honour to second the motion. 

Among the losses which daily befall an Order so numerous as ours none is 
comparable with the disaster — so sudden, so unexpected, and causing such wide-spread 
grief — constituted by the withdrawal from our Circle to the precincts of the Grand 
Lodge Above, of the great personality of our late Bro. George William Speth. But a 
few months have sped since our Nation mourned the death of a grand and good 
sovereign. As immense and as irreparable as was the loss to the Empire when our 
beloved Queen passed away, even so immense and so irreparable is the loss to the wider 
Empire of our Order of Bro. Speth, whose praise and whose fame are abiding glories of 
our world-wide Craft. In what country, which knows the English tongue, or holds 
any scion of the English race, had he not become an actual presence? A possession of 
our very own ? Even from far off Manitoba, the voice of her Grand Master has with 
natural pathos gTaphically told me the feelings of his heart. 

" We have sustained," he wrote, " an almost irreparable loss in the death of our 
Secretary, G. W. Speth. I had just received the current number of the Transactions" 
(Volume xiv., Part I.) " and was reading Bro. Speth 's criticism," pp. 30-31, " on the 
article on the 47th Prop, when the obituary notice fluttered out from between the leaves. 
The effect was as if he had died while speaking to me, and gave me a severe shock. 
For several years I have kept up an interesting correspondence with him and a strong 
friendship was forming- between us." 

That article itself contained a passage in the philanthropic cosmopolitanism of 
which our own distinguished Grand Lecturer will concur, because it is void of coldness 
and indifferency, suffused by a warm sympathy for all our erring race, and supplying 
us with the motive and reason for much of Bro. Speth's earnest life-work in Free- 
masonry. I quote from the article p. 29, Vol. xiv. 

" True Speculative Masonry teaches a man by the industrious application of the 
principles of Eternal Truth and Right to the untaught material of humanity, to shape 
its thoughts and actions so as to erect from it a spiritual building, on sure foundations, 
with intelligent purpose, and admirable to contemplate." 

Nobody can free himself from duty towards his fellows : no Order can selfishly 
shut itself up within our precincts, and fancy that, by mutual beneficence, as between 
its own members, it is discharged froni responsibility — at least, the responsibility of 
example towards the rest of mankind. The magnificent self forgetfulness of the 
Florentine Misericordis aided all who needed assistance; Dominican and Franciscan 
Friars, six centuries ago and later, ventured their lives for the lepers and the plague 
stricken, no matter what their race and faith. Unostentatious largeheartedness — 
unaffected nobleness of purpose — unselfish geniality — won without conscious effort Bro. 
Speth's way into all hearts. 

"It is not yet in the power of his friends to write of the man, George 
William Speth, as he shewed himself to them. Their hearts are too full to allow them 
to set down in wox-ds the measure of their grief. The man that is gone was a man 
among ten thousand. Wherever the English race is found, there is found esteem for 
the old-fashioned virtues of courage, truth and fidelity. Wherever the English-speaking 
Craft is found, there is found anxious desire to further the practice of those virtues by 
the teaching that underlies our old-fashioned symbolism. True and trusty are the 
watchwords of the Craft. True and trusty were the watchwords of George William 
Speth's life. No man ever heard him speak ill of his neighbour ; no man ever found 
in him an evil thought of his neighbour. The shadow of the grave weighs on us who 

148 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

lag behind him in the race that all men run. But for such as he there are no shadows 
beyond the grave. Sit anima mea cum anima illius." — The Masonic Illustrated, May, 
1901, p. 167. 

It was thus that Bro. J. W. Chefcwode Crawley, a Freemason not less illustrious 
or large-hearted than his theme, wrote with characteristic generosity of Bro. Speth 
even before the grave had hidden what remained of him. We, too, who dwell so far off 
from his home, and yet know something of the man whose face we have never enjoyed 
the happiness to see ; we, who share, perhaps in a less intense form, yet still share a 
like shock with that sustained by the Grand Master of Manitoba; we feel, with Bro. 
W. J. Chetwode Crawley, that we cannot yet trust ourselves to speak unrestrainedly of 
of our lost Brother and that the most we can do at present is to pull ourselves together, 
collect a few scattered thoughts, and paj to a revered memory a modest homage of 
affection and respect. 

Worshipful Master I envy you — I envy the eloquent proposer of the Motion, 
which engages now the attention of the Lodge, in that you have been privileged to 
meet Bro. Speth face to face. I had cherished a hope that, if ever I was permitted to 
revisit the Motherland, I might hold in mine the hand whose grasp was fidelity, and 
now my wish to travel thither is the poorer because I cannot hear the greeting of the 
man whom I longed to meet. From a treasured note with which Bro. Speth honoured 
me, may I cull a passage which illustrates his genial and sympathetic nature ? 

It was nearly six years ago when I applied to him for the honour of admission 
to the Correspondence Circle of his famous Lodge. I was never more surprised than 
when his reply arrived, for it contained not merely a formal acknowledgment of the 
request, but the following kindly lines : — 

" I am delighted," he added, " that at last you send in your name to join our 
Circle. I have felt for years that sooner or later you would do so. Your name is now 
on the list for election at our meeting in January, and those of us who are aware of the 
many opportunities which you have taken to say a good word for us, will share my 
pleasure in seeing you elected." 

The fraternal heartiness — so utterly unanticipated and so cheering — of this 
answer simply took away my breath. That the busy, learned and illustrious Secretary 
should have noted at all my remote existence and, for any small services I had rendered, 
should have bothered himself to single me out from the common herd, was an honour 
which I highly prize, but the incident serves to illustrate how he unconsciously attached 
men to himself by the interest in them personally and their affairs which he displayed. 

May I give you a peep at him in an earlier phase of existence before Lodge 
Quatuor Coronati was warranted ? Having occasion to write him on a sweltering night 
in February, 1897, I disengaged myself from coat and vest — collar and necktie, and 
apologised for my rudeness in addressing him while so unclothed. Here are a few 
sentences from his reply : — 

" I have this morning received your favour of the 8th February. Considering that 
we are now at this moment enjoying (?) the March winds of England and the rain of 
February fill-dyke combined, you will not wonder that I am envious of you with your 
coat off, and minus vest and collar. I am remimded of my five years residence in Cuba, 
when, for two nights before each outgoing mail, we sat in our office in pyjamas, and 
worked through the tropical night. At intervals there would be a discreet tap at the 
door leading to the dwelling rooms of the house, where one of my partners and his 
family resided, and after a hasty glance at our attire, to make sure we were decently 
covered, leave would be given to enter, and Mrs. Merry, my partner's wife, would come 

Meeting of the Lodge of St. Alban, Adelaide. 149 

in with cups of black coffee, newly roasted and ground, to cheer our weary toil. Those 
were merry days in spite of the Cuban revolution, which was then in full blast ; merry 
indeed : ' when the heart was young.' " 

It was truly a cheery lighthearted spirit which regarded as " Merry " such 
severe work in the tropics. 

Permit me yet one other quotation which aids to form a true conception of Bro. 
Speth's character. I had written him, in rather a doleful strain, upon a critique which 
I had read, exploiting A.sser's Life of Alfred the Great, and attempting to annihilate 
the traditional anecdote, which everybody loves, about Alfred negligently allowing 
cakes to be burnt on the fire, and getting well scolded accordingly. Bro. Speth's 
characteristic treatment of the attempt exhibits the delightful tenacity with which he 
clung, with all the strength of a strong nature, to the precious heritage of the 
picturesque old faith, even though that faith should prove to be but a baseless 

"I don't care a little bit whether Alfred ever burnt the cakes, or whether there 
was a neat-herd's wife or not. The tale is a true enough one for me, whether or no. 
What I mean is this, it is an old tradition, and at the time it first obtained currency it 
evidently pictured the popular idea of the personal character of Alfred. As such it is 
practically true, archaeologists notwithstanding. If it did not happen it might have 
happened. Alfred's behaviour was such as would have happened had such a circum- 
stance occurred, and as such it forms part of his history to the end of time. Therefore 
it's true enough for me. Wellington never said ' Up Guards, and at them ; ' but it is 
just the sort of thing he would have said had there been any occasion for it. The 
anecdote therefore depicts his character, just as much as if it were true. If it were an 
unlikely thing for him to have said, it would not have been invented. Cambronne 
never said ' Le vieil garde meurt, mais ne se rends pas,' what he really said was 
'Foutre,' but that, looked at closely, meant the same thing. I shall continue to teach 
my children the old tale about Alfred, no matter what the dry-as-dusts say. Bad 
archaeology of course, but sound philosophy I trow." 

What more can I add ? To speak of his deep and comprehensive learning is to 
say that each of us wears only a thread from the outer edge of the phylactery bordering 
the resplendent robe of knowledge, which so appropriately draped the whole of his 
commanding figure. To attempt any memoir, worthy of himself and his Masonic 
career, would need a retrospect of the whole of his literary work as published in the 
Transactions and Reprints, and such an essay would occupy a long time in the prepara- 
tion of it. But sympathy deferred grows cold and stale, and Lodge St. Alban dearly 
wishes that its words of sympathy with Lodge Quatuor Coronati shall be spoken at this, 
its earliest meeting since it became aware of the dread calamity which has afflicted the 
Craft. Let us who survive do all that is possible to honour him whose mortal remains 
only the grave has clasped in her cold embrace : let us close up our ranks to guard our 
fallen brave, and by living the life which George William Speth lived perpetuate his 
high renown. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 




WING to the death of the dearly loved Queen Victoria, on the 22nd 
January last, it was felt that the M.W. Grand Master would not 
continue in that office, the precedent of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 
resigning as Grand Master, on becoming Prince Regent (and subse- 
quently George IV.) being likely to be followed. At the special 
Grand Lodge held at the Queen's Hall, Langharn Place, on the loth 
February last, a communication was read from His Majesty as follows : 

" The King very much regrets that he ceases to be Grand Master of the 
Freemasons of England ; and thinks it would be convenient that he 
should follow the example of George IV. when he became King, and 
resigned the same office and became Protector." 

King Edward VII. was, however, M.W. Grand Master until his resignation, and 
so, unlike his illustrious predecessor who resigned when Prince Regent, His Majesty was 
for a time — brief but eventful — the Ruler of the English Craft, and is now Protector of 
the Grand Lodge over which the King presided for some twenty-six years to the 
immense advantage of the Fraternity, locally and generally. 

A loyal and dutiful Address to His Majesty of sympathy on the decease of Queen 
Victoria, as well as congratulation on the King's accession to the Throne, was carried 
amid every manifestation of Loyalty ; and H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, K.G. (Past 
Grand Master), Prov. G.M. of Sussex and Dist. G.M. of Bombay, was nominated as 
M.W.G. Master, the election taking place on the 6th March, and the actual Installation 
being on the 17th July in the Royal Albert Hall, South Kensington, where several 
important Masonic functions have already been observed, beginning with the Installa- 
tion of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales in 1875. The Right Hon. the Earl Amherst, 
M.W. Pro G.M., made a most efficient Installing Master. 

At the regular Festival held in April, six members of the " C.C. " were appointed 
to office in Grand Lodge, viz : — Bros. F. W. Braine, S.G.D. ; Thomas Taylor, J.G.D. ; 
Lieut. -Col. G. W. Dixon, Dep. G. Sword Br. ; James W. Burgess, G. Std. Br. ; George 
F. Lancaster, G.P. ; and William Kipps, A.G.P. At the Installation in July, one 
member of the Lodge, two of the " C.C. " were promoted, and ten of the " C.C. " were 
appointed to Past Rank as follows: — Bros, (a) Dr. Belgrave-Ninnis, P.J.G.D.; 
(b) Robert C. Sudlow, P.A.G.D.C., and Charles J. R. Tijou, P.G. Std. Br. ; (c) John 
Tate (Dep. Dist. M., Bombay), P.S.G.D. ; Henry J. Sparks, P. J.G.D. ; Dr. Walter 
Gripper, P.D.G.D.C.; Ivan H. Haarburger, P.A.G.D.C., Daniel J. Haarhoff, P.A.G.D.C. 
(both of South Africa) ; H. C. Luck (Queensland), P.A.G.D.C. ; James Williams, P.D.G. 
Swd. Br. ; Joseph Russell, P.G. Std. Br. ; John L. Barrett, P.G. Std. Br., and Henry 
J. Lardner, P.G. Std. Br. 

The Grand Lodge of Western Australia, was formed in a constitutional manner, 
on Oct. llth, 1899, when Sir Gerard Smith, K.C.M.G. (Dist. G.M. under the G.L. of 
England), was elected G.M. and duly Installed Feb. 27th, 1900, all but one of the 34 
Lodges (E.C.) joining the new organization. One or two on the Irish and Scottish 
Register also united, so that some 40 Lodges and 2,000 brethren were on the Roll. 

Chronicle. 151 

Since then a joint Committee has been appointed by the Grand Lodge and the Prov. 
G.M. of the Scottish Constitution, which reported to the former, the resolutions, with 
slight alterations, heing unanimously adopted as follows : 


" Your Committee have pleasure in reporting that altogether Four Meetings have 
been held, and they can testify to the spirit of moderation and conciliation evinced by 
their Scottish Brethren throughout the whole of the discussion. 

" Your Committee submits a list of resolutions carried at the various meetings 
of the Joint Committee, and these they now recommend Grand Lodge to adopt. 

"1. That the Officers and Brethren of Scottish Lodges be empowered to 
wear the distinctive regalia of their Lodges at present in use for a period 
of Five Years. 

" 2. That a Candidate for the Master's Chair must be Three Years a 
Master Mason, during one of which he shall have served the Office of 
Warden, providing that this rule shall not apply to any Brother who is 
already an Installed Master. 

" 3. That the Lodges be numbered according to date of Consecration. 

" 4. That all Scottish Lodges joining shall retain their existing right of 
electing Officers if they so desire 

" 5. That all Past and Present Officers of the Scottish Constitution at the 
time of the Union shall be entitled to corresponding Past Rank in the New 
Constitution (if Masters or Past Masters), such rank to be determined 
according to the Offices held under the Scottish Constitution while working 
as a District Grand Lodge, subject to following Rule. 

" 6. That the S.C. Committee be empowered to draw up a list of names, 
not to exceed 54 in number, who shall be entitled to hold Past Grand Rank 
—all such Brethren to be Masters or Past Masters at the time of Union. 

" 7. That a Ritual Committee be formed by the united body to consist of 
an equal number of Brethren from this Grand Lodge (as at present 
constituted) and an equal number from the other Constitutions, with the 
Grand Master of the W.A. Constitution as Chairman, with the right of 
a casting vote. 

" 8. That this basis of Union be conditional upon 24 out of the 28 Scottish 
holding Lodges joining. 

" 9. That these Conditions of Union remain open until the 31st August 
We entirely share the opinion expressed by Bro. W. Walworth Knight, of our 
" C C. " (of Albany, W.A. ), that "no one can question the generosity of the Grand 
Lodge of Western Australia in this movement towards the consolidation of the Craft 
within its Territory," and it is to be hoped that such efforts will be crowned with 
success. This Grand Lodge has been recognised by the Grand Lodge of England on tho 
usual conditions. (See also A.Q.G. vol. xiii. pp. 68 & 136). 

At the Grand Lodge held on the 5th of June last, two additions or alterations to 
the "Book of Constitutions" were made, which will be of value in relation to the 
Provinces especially, one concerning Past Provincial Grand Rank, with due safeguards, 
being a boon for some of the very large Provincial Grand Lodges. 


152 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Another attempt is being made to induce the members of the three Lodges at 
Montreal, which are still on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of England, to join the Grand 
Lodge of Quebec. We cannot but wish the blessed " Peace Makers " every success, but 
the transference of allegiance must be entirely voluntary on the part of the Lodges, 
St. Paul No. 374, " St. George " No. 440, and " St. Lawrence " No. 640. 

It must be always remembered that no Lodge has ever been removed from the 
English Register, save for disobedience of the Regulations ; and hence any idea of 
forcing brethren to leave our Jurisdiction and making them join their local Grand 
Lodge, would be wholly repugnant to our traditions and usages for very many years. 
We should, however, rejoice if the brethren of the trio of English Lodges in the 
Province saw their way clear to cast in their lot with the Grand Lodge legally formed 
in Quebec, and thus strengthen the hands, as well as cheer the hearts of the members 
of that ably managed institution. 

It is impossible, much as we desire such a consummation, for proceedings to be 
taken at this end to bring about the much needed union. All such efforts must begin 
and end at Montreal, but the brethren of both Jurisdictions may be assured that for the 
Grand Lodge of Quebec to become wholly Sovereign as a Masonic body in the Province, 
would be hailed with great satisfaction by the Craft in England, as well as in Ireland 
and Scotland. 

The " Freemason" of February 16th, 1901, has some very sensible and opportune 
words on this subject, especially as the Rule 218 a is not considered to apply to the three 
Lodges in Montreal, or the " Royal Standard " No. 398, Halifax, which, however, dwells 
most happily in the very heart of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. 

The date of the formation of the Grand Lodge of Ireland will have to be altered 
from 1729-30, to a.d. 1725. The latter is fixed, by experts, as the very latest that can 
be used in respect to the origin of that vigorous organization, for it is quite likely that 
ere long a still earlier year will have to be substituted. 

Bro. Gould's condensed " History of Freemasonry " is in the Press, but though 
the author is well in advance of the printers with his MS., it is not likely the volume 
will be ready until early in 1902. It will be a most valuable work, and has been 
entirely re- written, brought down to date, and will be published by the eminent firm of 
Gale & Polden, Ltd., of 2, Amen Corner, E.C., and Aldershot, the publishers of Bro. 
Gould's " Military Lodges : The Apron and the Sword," which has been so well received. 

Though Bro. Hughan has been unable to leave his home in Torquay for a night, 
he has been lecturing in the neighbourhood on one of his favourite studies, viz., " The 
Old Charges of British Freemasons." At Newton Abbot on the 2nd May Bro. Hughan 
delivered a lecture in the Masonic Hall on " The Old Charges of the Cathedral Builders 
in relation to the Free and Accepted Masons of Great Britain and Ireland, 1300-1900," 
before a very large audience of ladies and gentlemen, and members of the Devon Lodge 
No. 1138, as well as brethren of neighbouring Lodges also attended. 

On the 7th September he sent a paper on the same subject to be read before the 
members of the " Prudence " Lodge No. 1550, Plymouth, as he could not attend ; the 
meeting being most successful as respects attendance and interest in the subject. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 





T the request of my esteemed friend Bro. W. J. Hughan I intended 
to write only a few remarks on the two MSS. named above, that 
had not yet made their appearance, when Bro. Hughan wrote the 
second edition of his " Old Charges " in 1895. But in examining 
these two documents, for the reprints of which I am indebted to 
Bro. Hughan and Bro. John T. Thorp, I soon discovered that I had 
to enter into an exact comparison of all the copies of the Sloane 
Family, in order to get to a reliable verdict on the new manuscripts. Bro. Hughan is 
quite right in stating that the Thorp MS. is of special importance as being the 
oldest of the Family, and I agree with him that it would have given its name to the 
Family, if in 1888, when I made up my Clasification of the Old Charges, it had then 
been traced. By comparing the text with the other copies of the Family, however, I 
must say that it is not of the Sloane Branch, but forms a group together with the 
Alnwick and the new Strachan MSS. These three offer a trio of a sundry critical 
value leading us back to an older prototype, which, if discovered by a future lucky 
hand, would provide us with a version very similar to the Grand Lodge MS., No. 1 of 
a.d. 1583, and make it most probable that the text of the Sloane Family is as old as 
that of the Grand Lodge Family, if not older and more original in some particulars. 
The MSS. belonging to the Sloane Family are now sixteen altogether, forming three 
trios, one group of six and one sundry form, as follows : 

1-3. Thorp (TA), Alnwick (A), Strachan (St) ; 
4-6. Embleton (E), Crane No. 1 {Gr), Wren (Wr) ; 
7-9. Hope (Ho), Waistell (17a), York No. 4 (Y) ; 
10-15. Sloane No. 3848 (SI 1 ), Harleian No. 2054 (Ha), Sloane No. 3323 (SP), 
Lechmere (L), Briscoe (Br), Tunnah (T) ; 
16. Scarborough (Sc). 

As I shall be obliged to mention the single copies very often, I think it more 
convenient for my present purpose to make use of the abbreviations added in brackets, 
which are so easily to be understood, that the reader may at once see which copy is 
meant. When I made up my classification, I coupled Gr and Wr with A, and put L to 
the sundry forms because of its being so incomplete, but the new finds that have been 
made since 1888, induce me, after comparing all the copies once more, to separate A 
from Cr and Wr and to add L to the Sloane Branch, so that Sc is now the only sundry 
form. Of all copies Th is undoubtedly the oldest, but though A and St agree with it 
in all main points, they cannot have been taken from Th, but are copied from other 
originals. This is easily to be shown by some particular evidences, all of which I 
give in modern orthography, it seeming to me, on the whole, more suitable to my 
critical aims. In the beginning prayer Th reads through the goodness of the Holy Ghost 
and so to govern in our living, while A adds the words arace and before goodness, and us 

154 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

here after govern. Now, as the words added by A are found already in the Grand 
Lodge MS., No. 1 of A..D., 1583, they prove to be old and original and were, no doubt, 
in the MS. from which A was transcribed, so that in this case A appears to be more 
original than Th and cannot have been taken from it. Then both of them read : for 
there be seven liberal sciences of the which it is one of them, just as G.L. (Grand Lodge MS. 
No. 1), but now Th goes on : that be these following, while A has : and the names of the seven 
sciences be these, again agreeing exactly with G.L. Further on, lines 32-34 in Bro. 
Hughan's reprint, in dealing "with the merits of Geometry Th says : for it teacheth mete 
and measure ponderation and weight of all manner of hind of earth, which proves to be a 
peculiar reading of the Sloane Family and a few other copies, the G.L. text running: 
of all manner of things on earth, as we read in A as well as in G.L. and all other good 
old copies. In line 69 Th writes : this Greek Hermermes, another peculiar misreading of 
the Sloane Family while A offers the right word, great, as G.L. and its Family do. 

These instances, which could be multiplied, will do to show that A has been 
transcribed from a MS. more original and probably older than Th. In spite of these 
coincidences of A with G.L. we must not be tempted to think that A, perhaps, might 
belong to the G.L. Family, for there are some distinguishing features in A that prove it 
belongs to the Sloane Family. In the story of Lamech's children A reads : and their 
sister Naamah found out the art of weaving, while G.L. and its Family have the daughter 
instead of sister, the latter word being more original, as we learn from the William Watson 
and Tew MSS., this one reading : and their sister Naamah found the craft of weaving, just 
as A does, and the former having : and his sister Madmah (Naamah, Cooke MS.) ivas [the~\ 
first founder (finder, Cooke MS.) of weaver's craft. Therefore this is a case where the 
Sloane Family has preserved a better text than the Grand Lodge Family, except the 
Wood MS. which also has : 7m sister Naamah. Another distinguishing feature of the 
Sloane Family is the absence of a charge in the second series of charges styled : Charges 
singular for Masters and Fellows. In G.L. this charge runs as follows : 

Also that no Mason take any prentice unless he have sufficient occupation for to 
set him on, or to set three of his fellows or two at the least on work. 

There is not a single copy of the Sloane Family that has this charge, nor is it to be 
found in the William Watson and Tew MSS., these two seeming to prove that it was 
not contained in the original stock of charges, but has been added in the very prototype 
of the Grand Lodge Family, G.L. itself being already a transcript of an older original. 
Now as to St, the third of the first trio, it was not transcribed either from Th or from 
A, though there are striking agreements with both of them. So the introductory prayer 
runs almost word for word with Th, St. omitting just the same words as Th. In the first 
paragraph of the text itself the address Good Brethren and Fellows, St has Emperours 
and Princes, agreeing with A, instead of Kings and Princes, in Th. Then before giving 
the seven sciences St has : they be these following, just as Th (of above), but in dealing 
with Arithmetic St says that it teacheth to number and reckon all manner of numbers, 
agreeing with A, which has reckon and number, whilst Th has account and reckon. 
Further on St reads : and the sister Naamah found out the art of weaving, just as A, 
while Th gives the passage : and their sister found the craft of weaving. In St, Hermes is 
called the father of wisdom, as in A, while in Th he is the father of wise men. Before 
reciting the Charges Th has the usual Latin instruction about administering the oath : 
Tunc unus e senioribus teneat librum, etc., whilst A and St agree in replacing the Latin by 
an English translation, which is identical in both copies, except that the verbiage shows 
a few trifling differences. The concluding phrase begins in Th : These Charges that we 
have declared, where A and St agree in having reckoned instead of declared, while the 

Remarks on the "Shane Family " of the Old Charges of British Freemasons. 155 

usual word is rehearsed. On the other side the very conclusion in Th and St is exactly 
the same : So help you God and Holidom and by this book to your power, where A reads : So 
help you God and Holidom and this book to the uttermost of your power. There are so many 
discrepancies between Th and St, though, on the whole, they are the same version, that 
it is impossible to lead St back to Th ; and notwithstanding many striking agreements 
between A and St the latter cannot have come from the former, because there are 
several genuine passages in St that are missing in A, wherefrom it is evident that St 
cannot have been copied from A. For instance, at the end of the Nimrod legend there 
is the original remark : And this was the first time that any Mason had any charge of his 
Craft, which is to be found in St as well as in Th but has been omitted in A. Besides 
there is one passage in St, which is quite peculiar to the Sloane and the Roberts 
Families, but not yet introduced in Th and A as copied from very old manuscripts. The 
definition of Astronomy in the two Families runs as follows : 

The seventh is called Astronomy, that teacheth a man the course of the sun and 
moon and other ornaments of the heavens. 

The same passage is to be found in St, E, Ho, Y, SI 1 , Ha, SI 2 , Br and Sc, while T has 
orbits instead of ornaments ; Cr, Wr, Wa, L are lacking the first part, so that we do not 
know their readings, but we may conclude, with some certainty, from their next 
relations, that they agreed with them in that peculiar verbiage. Only Th and A agree 
with G.L. in offering the words : the course of the sun and moon and (other) Th. stars. 
The Colne Branch has a form of its own : the judgment of the stars and of the skies and 
planets, as we read in Colne No. 1 itself and Clapham, while Stanley and Carson condense 
the words to the judgement of the Stars and the Planets. In my opinion the G. L. reading in 
this case as in many others is the original one, the more because Tew, Atcheson Haven, 
Buchanan and Beaumont also agree with G.L. 

The result is, that neither A nor St have come from Th, and that neither St was 
transcribed from A, nor A from St. Nevertheless, they form a group of their own, 
which may be called the Thorp Branch. Furthermore, I dare to say that each of the trio 
was taken from a sundry older copy, the differences being in many cases of such im- 
portance that it is most improbable they could have had the same prototype. On the 
whole St agrees more with Th than with A, and therefore I think Th and St may go 
back to one and the same original though not immediately, but through one or two 
intermediaries each. On the other hand St, as agreeing in many cases with A, occupies 
an intermediate position between Th and A. It would be very difficult to give an exact 
genealogy of this branch, for there is a possibility that one copy or other was not 
transcribed by a scribe simply from one single type, but that an author of self- 
dependence compiled a new form from two or more types, or if making use of only one 
type, altered the verbiage or made additions from his own mind or knowledge. Such 
self-dependent forms no doubt are the original Colne form, the original Harris form, the 
original Roberts form, the original Hope form, the Scarborough form, the Wood form, the 
Cama form, and so on. It is true, there is, in my opinion, no great probability that a 
self-dependent transcriber used his ability in this very branch, nevertheless, I do not feel 
inclined to try and make up a genealogy. Certainly the author of A had a very good old 
copy before him which he transcribed with laudable accuracy, but that a few times his 
eye erred over a line or two, omitting them; if not, perhaps these lines were already 
missing in the copy he was transcribing. One of these omissions at the end of the 
Nimrod legend, was given above, there is another in the paragraph about the seven 
sciences, where Th (lines 31-32) and St say : Thus may a man prove that all [the . Th] 
sciences in (of . St) the world be found [out . Sf] by Geometry. A third original passage at 

156 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

the end of the Edwin legend is preserved only in Th (lines 242-243) : and commanded a 
book thereof to be made and how the craft was first made and found, both A and St being 
without these words, while the other members of the Family show them up, with 
only some trifling differences in the verbiage. Just before this passage all members 
of the Family, Sc only excepted, have the words: and the intent thereof {of them, Th) was 
found, omitting the two words all one, without which the phrase has no sense at all ; 8c 
reads : the intent of them were all one. This trifling omission is another distinguishing 
feature of the Sloane Family. 

Now I add some peculiarities of the three copies. Th (lines 52 and 57) confounds 
the two brothers Jabell and Tuball, naming the latter as finder of Geometry and the 
former as finder of Music. Line 98 in Th, Egypt is styled whole layed instead of hot land, 
A reading whole layd and St having whole land. Line 117 in Th, Euclid makes the 
Lords' sons work in stories instead of stones, as we read in A and St. Line 129 Th 
mentions a great language instead of the right lineage in A, while St and other copies 
have living or livings. Line 139 Th says : that they should come and assemble all their 
other, which is mere nonsense ; A and St have : assemble themselves together. Probably 
the original reading was assemble all together or altogether or simply assemble together, as 
in G.L. and its Family. But it is another feature of the Sloane Family, that some 
words are missing which give only the full sense, namely every year once. These words 
are preserved in Sc, where the passage is : that they should corns and assemble together 
every year once. 

As to Charles Martell, the whole trio tells: and when he was in his stall, 
instead of state. It is true, the editors of the facsimile reprint of A (Newcastle upon 
Tyne, 1895) have statt in their transcript, but in the facsimile itself it is stall quite 
distinctly, though the 11 have a line through their heads ; the reader may only com- 
pare the word shillings on page 9 and the many tt of the MS., to see that the scribe 
meant stall and not statt. Line 215 in Th is the word descried instead of destroyed, in A 
and St as well as G.L. and most other copies. Line 298-299 in Th the charge runs : 
you shall not put him out if he be unable of cunning to end the work, where A and St read : 
if he be able, as many other copies ; Th ought to have except or unless he be unable, as 
G.L. and others. Line 305-308 in Th it is said that he that shall be made mason be able 
over all sciences that is to say that he be freeborn and of good kindred and no bondman and 
that he have his right limbs as a man ought to have, and the same reading is in A and /S'Z 2 , 
while St breaks off with overall and then goes on : (vizt) if he be freeborn, etc. The words 
over all sciences are without any sense, and it is difficult to decide which was the original 
reading of the Family. In the two words over all, SI 1 , Ha, L and Br agree with Th, A 
and SI 2 (also St), but instead of sciences we find Syers in SI 1 and Br, Syres in Ha, Lyer 
in L, and Sc has able over shires, where all, no doubt, has been omitted. I am not sure 
how to solve the puzzle ; perhaps, Sc has the right reading, the word shire having 
also the obsolete meaning of part, so that over all shires would mean in all parts or 
qualities. G.L. and many copies of its Family say in all manner (of) degrees or in all 
degrees, which is quite the same, and William Watson has anena within all sides, the first 
word being underlined or disfigured, probably from able or enabled, i.e., able in all direc- 
tions or the like. The last charge of the usual series runs thus in Th: And also you shall 
and every Mason [_shalV] serve truly the workes and truly make an end of your work be it task 
or journey if you may have your pay as you ought to have, while A and Sc have workers 
instead of workes, and St changes the passage as follows : And also you and every mason 
shall serve truly and the workers truly work and end the work etc. The original sentence 
must have been : And also you shall and every mason shall serve truly the Lord [for your 
pay\ and [every master] truly make an end of his work etc., the word Lord or Lords having 

Remarks on the " Shane Family*' of the Old Charges of British Freemasons. 157 

become works or workers, and the words within brackets having been omitted in the 
Sloane Family, whilst they have been preserved in G.L. and many copies of its family. 
The concluding portion of Th, as Bro. Hughan has already pointed out, shows a 
peculiar addition to the usual admonition, inserted between the two parts of the 
address to the new mason or masons. It runs thus : These charges that we have declared 
and all other that belongeth to Masonry you shall keep — There shall not any mason take 
any prentice except the same mason hath been prentice vij years before, nor the said 
mason shall take no prentice but with the consent of iiij or vj of his said brethren — So 
help you God and Holidom and by this book to your power. No doubt the transcriber had 
a copy in which the piece inserted by him in the text had been written on the margin, 
and he inserted it in a wrong place. 

There are some peculiarities of A that have not yet been mentioned. Line 43-44 
we read in Th : I think that science is most worthy that findeth all other, as it is said in G.L. 
and most copies of the Old Charges, while A or its prototype has altered the verbiage : 
I think the science of geometry is to be accounted above any of the seven sciences. St shortens 
the beginning, but then agrees with Th : I think that a worthy science that findeth all 
others. In the Nirarod legend most copies of this Family have the city of Nineveh and 
other cities of East Asia, only A and Sc read of the East, as G.L. and its Family ; Ho, Wa 
and Y break off with other cities. In A the name of Solomon's master mason is Anion, 
in St it is Anion, and Aynon in Th. Towards the end of the Edwin legend the usual 
reading is : he made a cry that all masons both old and young that had any writing or 
understanding of the charges . . . should show them forth, as given in Th and G.L. as 
well as most other copies, while A and St have any knowledge or understanding. 

The second half of the first general charge is in Th and most copies of this family : 
and that you use no heresy nor error by your understanding or by the teaching of discreet men 
but that St and Sc have indiscreet instead of discreet, and Ho, Wa, Y, break off with your 
understanding ; A has to your understanding or to desert discreet and wise mens teachinq, 
the terra to desert being a peculiarity of its own, but the words discreet and wise mens 
teaching are also to be found in the Dowland, York No. 1 and No. 2, Papworth, and other 

Quite a strange reading of A is in the fifth of the general charges : no man shall 
be a thief nor thief s see, where see is an error, probably already of a former transcriber 
who could not decipher or did not understand what he had before his eyes, namely the 
obsolete word peer or wheer or fere, i.e., fellow, so that the original meaning was nor 
thief s peer ; Dauntesey has or Thief e Peere and Crane No. 2 or thief es phere, and in 
William Watson thieves for is meant to be thieves' fere (cf. my remarks A. Q. G. iv.,p. 114). 
St has thief in company nor otherwise ; Th, E, Wr have thief neither in company ; Sl x and 
Ha have thief in company, SI 2 has chief in company, L and Br have chief neither in 
company; Sc reads : thieves nor in thievish company; T is incomplete; Ho, Wa and Y 
omit the whole charge. In my opinion it is evident that Sc offers the original form for 
Th, E, Wr, SI 1 , Ha, St 2 , L, Br and T, this form so proving to be the proper one of the 
Sloane Family, while A continues an older form, which is to be restored also I think 
from the reading of St, the word otherwise having been misread and miswritten for a 
thief's fere, just as we find a thief or otherwise in G.L., this otherwise being pure nonsense. 
Further A and St agree in the ninth of the singular charges: that no fellow within the 
lodge nor without misanswer [one, St,'] another neither ungodly nor irreverently (unreverently 
St,) without reasonable cause ; Th has misanswer another ungodily w. r. c, thus aoreeino- in 
using the word misanswer, but omitting the second adverb ; the verb misanswer is 
original, it occurring also in G.L. and its Family, while the other copies of the Sloane 
Family use may answer (Ho, Wa, Y,) or only answer SI 1 , Ha, SI 2 , L, Br, T,) or offer 

158 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

some phrase with the substantive answer (E. Wr, 8c), having in the meantime only one 
adverb or adjective. In the following charge A and St read : no mason shall play at 
hazard or any other unlawful game, here agreeing with SI 1 , Ha, SI 2 , T, while Th, E, Wr, 
Ho, Wa, Y, L, Br, Sc, have the shorter form at hazard nor (or) \_any~] other play (game, 
Br). In the next charge A has a common rebell in lechery, where Th writes ryball ; Ho, 
E, and Wr have riball, and Wa has rebell as A, while St, SI 1 , Ha, SI 2 , L, Br, and Sc 
the right ribald or ribbald, and Tdoes commit ribaldry or letchery. In the thirteenth and 
fourteenth general charges A has twice the right word award, here agreeing only 
with SI 2 , Br, and T, while Th, E, Wr, Ho, Wa, Y, Sl l , Ha, and Sc have a senseless 
reward in both cases ; L has reward in the first place, but the right award in the second; 
St has a blank in the first place, and the word in the second. 

Now I go once more through the whole text in order to point out several pecu- 
liarities of St, that have not yet been dealt with. Towards the end of the paragraph on 
the seven sciences there is a passage which has been corrupted and mutilated in all 
manuscripts extant, so that it is very difficult, or perhaps, impossible to restore the 
original wording. Here St differs from Th and i in a most remarkable manner by 
introducing the word ground, which we find also in some other good documents, so that 
it requires attention. The passage in St runs thus : and craftsmen and merchants find no 
other of the seven sciences, and especially ploughmen and tillers of the ground and all manners 
of grain, both corn and vines, seeds, plants and setters of other fruits. The words tillers of 
\the~\ ground occur also in Ho, Wa and Sc, while Ha has tillers of all manner of ground, as 
some copies of the Grand Lodge Family (Dowland, Harris, Wood, Aberdeen) have, 
Melrose, Buchanan and Beaumont agreeing also with St in omitting the words all 

The passage in St, as well as in all copies is by no way to be explained, so that 
we are obliged to combine from the different readings a form which might have been 
the original one. At first we are helped by a continuation of the passage, which is only 
to be found in the Tew and Atcheson Haven MSS., the former after fruits going on: 
cannot plough, till or set without Geometry, the latter in a still more detailed manner: 
cannot plough, till, plant or set or sow without Geometry, by which continuation the passage 
becomes somewhat intelligible in the second part, the verbs plough, till and set supplying 
the missing predicates for the subjects ploughmen, tiller and setter, which are contained 
in almost all copies, except that in a number of them the sellers is wrongly put in the place 
of setters. But Atcheson Haven offers two more predicates, namely plant and sow, and 
because some good old copies, for instance G.L. itself, have planters instead of plants, 
there cannot remain any doubt that the former was the original reading, and because 
furthermore the Aberdeen MS. has sowers of all manner of seeds, and Melrose has setters, 
sowers and planters, the predicate sow in Atcheson Haven is also very likely to be right, 
so that sowers would perhaps, have to be restored in the passage, instead of the senseless 
both. Besides the arrangement of the words is different, in most copies seeds or seed 
standing before vines or vine, so also in Th and A as well as in G.L., and in other copies 
of both Families, G.L. especially writing Vyne planters ; and as Aberdeen reads: and 
planters of all manner of vynes, I do not hesitate to say that G.L. means indeed vine- 
planters or planters of vines, whereby the words other fruits would gain a clear sense,. 
Furthermore, because tillers of all manner of ground, as given in several copies, does not 
seem to be very correct, I should prefer tillers of the ground, and add for all manner 
of grain as in the Melrose MS. Then I should like to put sowers of corn-seeds or perhaps 
sowers of corn and all other manner of seeds. Thus we should obtain the following 
passage : 

Remarks on the " Shane Family " of the Old Charges of British Freemasons. 159 

and especially ploughman and tillers of the ground for all manners of grain, 
sowers of corn [and all other manners of] seeds, vine-planters and setters of all 
other fruits cannot plough, till, plant or set or sow without Geometry. 

The former part of the passage in question seems to be quite nonsensical, but by making 
use of the words these or this, that are extant in some copies, for instance, G.L. and 
Atcheson Haven, in the beginning of the phrase we may gain a way to make up a 
reasonable sense. In the foregoing passage it is said, that all men that work some 
craft or buy or sell, do work or buy or sell by some measure or some weight, and the 
conclusion is: and all this is by Geometry, as we read in St. Now by adding by in the 
right place we get to a good sense, as follows : 

and [all] this craftsmen and merchants find BY no other of the seven sciences, and 
especially ploughmen, etc., as given above. 

At the end of the story of Lamech's children St reads : Our intent is to tell you truly 
and in what manner these stones were found that the craftsmen writt in Greek. Hermerius, 
etc. The original reading was : that the crafts were written in. The Great Hermermes, etc. 
A scribe misread the word Great and wrote Greek for it, and so we find in several copies 
of the Sloane Family: the or this Greek Hermermes (Th, Br, T). Then another scribe 
omitted the article and combined Greek with the foregoing phrase, so producing the 
words: were written in Greek (St, E, Ha, SI 1 ), and at last the transcriber of St, or 
another before him, fabricated the reading of St, which is the worst of all. In the 
Euclid legend St has the passage : and the king of the land assembled a great council at a 
parliament to know how he might find out to maintain their children, which is a peculiar 
reading in the second half of the phrase, where A reads : how they might find their 
children with maintain written over the word find, probably by a later hand, like several 
other corrections in the same MS. Th has : how he might find their children, and so read 
E, Ho, Wa, L, Br, but that there is they instead of he, as in A. Ha and| SP, to make 
sense, add the word means, and T writes : how they might find them these means, so 
proving itself to belong to the same group. Sc has a different reading: how they might 
relieve their children honestly as gentlemen. The words honestly as gentlemen being also 
found in G.L. and its family, we may suppose that they were in the original, that the 
word means in SI 1 , Ha and T, as well as maintain in St, were added to complete the sense. 
No doubt there is a very old mistake in the word find, for which I am inclined to put 
the verb provide, that is in the Melrose MS., the original of which is said to have been 
of a.d. 1581. Therefore the very original reading seems to have been : how they might 
provide their children honestly as gentlemen. After the Euclid legend St has : long 
after the children of Israel were come into the Land of the East, where the right reading is 
Land of Behest, as it is in Th and was originally in A, but here the later corrector has 
made Bliss out of Behest, and on the margin is written Bless. In the singular charge 
about taking apprentices the usual reading is : and that the apprentice be able of his birth 
and his limbs, as in Th and A, but St has able of his birth and line. In the charge about 
attending the assembly most copies read : if he have any warning, as Th, while A has 
reasonable instead of any, and St, with some verbosity, writes : if he have any knowledge 
or reasonable (cf . A) understanding or warning. 

The second trio of the Sloane Family are E, Cr, and Wr, of which only E is 
complete, while we know only an extract from Cr, beginning with the children of Israel 
and ending with the Edwin legend, so that all the charges are missing. Wr has been 
mutilated ; the first portion up to the end of the Euclid legend is missing. Cr is better 
than Wr, which sometimes goes its own way. It is important for critical purposes that 

160 Transactions of the Quatnor Goronati Lodge. 

E has been discovered, as we have now a complete copy of this trio, which ought 
to be called Embleton Branch. The text is very similar to the former trio, but has 
several peculiarities that justify me in separating this trio from the former. The usual 
beginning of the introductory prayer is : The might of the Father of heaven, but E has : 
The mighty God, Father of heaven. In the first address to the good brethren and fellows 
the craft of masonry in E has become the Ghost of Masonry. Arithmetic teacheth 
to account or to reckon (cf Th, 8c, Ho,) all manner of numbers, with the peculiar addition : 
whatsoever they be. In the passage on Geometry E has all manner of kind of earth, as Th 
and other copies of the Family. A few lines farther on we find sellers of other fruits 
instead of setters, the same mistake as in SI 1 , Ha, T, and several copies of the Grand 
Lodge Family. In the beginning of the Nimrod legend the usual reading is: at the 
making of the Tower of Babilon there was the craft of masonry first found and made much of, 
the concluding words being in E : and great account was made thereof. The king of 
Babilon is styled Hembroth or Nembroth, as in Ha, Br, and T: in SI 1 , Hembroth or 
Membroth. In the Euclid legend the words of this worthy in Th, A, L, and Br, are : If 
you will take me your children to govern and teach them, as in G.L. and other old copies of 
its Family, but E has : If you will make me governor of your children and to teach them. 
Towards the end of the Euclid legend, where Wr begins, in E and Wr that worthy 
ordained for them reasonable maintenance, where the other copies have pay or payment or 
wages. A few lines farther on, where also Gr has entered the scene, the whole trio tells 
of king David that he gave the same charge which they were charged withall in Egypt by 
Euclid, which verbiage is peculiar to this branch. The most striking peculiarity of 
the trio is the following passage : And thus was the worthy craft of masonry confirmed in 
the country of Jerusalem and in many other GLORIOUS kingdomes. Right renowned workmen 
walked abroad into divers countries, etc.; the usual reading of the Sloane Family being : 
and {in) many other kingdoms, glorious craftsmen walking abroad {about, Th, A, St,) etc., 
while the Hope Branch begins a new phrase after kingdoms, saying : Glorious craftsmen 
(workmen, Y,) vialked abroad, etc. Now there is a strange coincidence here with the 
Atcheson Haven MS., in which the passage runs as follows : and this (for thus) ivas this 
worthy craft of Masonry confirmed in the country of Jerusalem and many other GLORIOUS king- 
doms by famous craftsmen walking about full wide in divers countries, etc. These glorious 
craftsmen are a peculiarity of the Sloane Family, only St has curious craftsmen as G.L. and 

its family. 

Now, it is clear that some scribe by negligence had put the adjective glorious 
before kingdoms, and then later transcribers added a new adjective to the substantive 
craftsman one chose the word famous, another preferred right renowned, and the trans- 
script of the latter became the prototype of the Embleton Branch. These specimens 
will suffice to show that this trio forms a sundry branch : and it remains to say that, in 
spite of several coincidences between E and Gr, where Wr differs, Gr and Wr are nearer 
of kin to each other than to E. It is true, for instance, that E and Gr agree in reading : 
King David loved well masons and cherished them and gave them good payment, while Wr 
has authorised instead of cherished, and the said instead of them good ; and a few lines 
farther on E and Gr again agree in having masters and governors, while Wr has masters 
and overlookers ; but on the other side there are more striking coincidences between Gr 
and Wr, where E differs. In the Solomon legend Gr and Wr say that Solomon ordained 
three thousand of his masons to be masters, which is the original number, while E has 
only three hundred. Immediately after this passage Gr and Wr speak of a king of another 
region, as Th and most copies, while E has another land. In E the curious Mason who 
came into France taught the craft of masonry to them in France, which has been misread 
for the men in France, as it is said in Th and most other copies, while Cr has the 

Remarks on the " Sloane Family " of the Old Charges of British Freemasons. 161 

Frenchmen, who in Wr have been changed into Brenithmen. In E Charles Martell was 
in his slate, while in Gr and Wr he was in his stall. In Cr and Wr the same worthy was one 
of the royal line of France, in E of the royal blood, as in T. In E Solomon's master mason 
was a choice master, and St. Alban a choice steward, Cr and Wr style them chief master 
and chief steward. In Cr and PFr St. Alban walled the town that now is called St. Albans, 
hot E condenses this by saying : walled the town of St. Albans. In the Edwin legend E 
has the following passage : and to them he gave the charter and commission for to keep and 
made ordinance that they should upon all occasions be ruled from the king, while Cr and Wr 
agree in reading betook instead of gave, and in omitting the words upon all occasions; 
the word ruled, as being a mistake of the Sloane Family, is to be corrected into renewed, 
as G.L. and its Family read here, while J. has observed and Sc has preserved, and instead 
of the words from the king in the whole trio we have to restore from king to king, which 
is the usual and correct reading. Now, to come to an end, we are to state that none of 
the three copies of this trio can have been transcribed from one of the other two ; Cr 
and Wr may have been taken from one and the same original, but E must have had 
a sundry prototype, so that this branch must be supposed to have contained five copies 
at least. Finally there is to be said that both sets of charges that are not preserved in 
the reproduction of Cr, are without numbers in E and Wr, as they are also in the 
former trio as well as in Sc, while the Hope and Sloane Branches have added numbers in 
both sets, except only Y, that numbers only the general charges, but not the singular 

Before the Latin phrase about the manner of administering the oath, E and Wr 
have these words : Here followeth the worthy and godly oath of (as, E,) such as are made 
masons; then comes the Latin phrase followed by the usual exhortation, then the two 
sets of charges, and the conclusion is this : These charges (charge, Wr,) that you (we, Wr,) 
have reckoned and all other (after, Wr,) that belong eth (belongs, Wr,) to masonry (masons, 
Wr,) you shall be bound to keep [ faithfully, E~\. So help you God and holidom and by (you, 
Wr,) this book to your power. Lastly E and Wr have a set of apprentices charges, to 
which in Wr some Latin lines have been added, which are both of them beyond my 
present purpose, wherefore I leave them. 

The third trio, composed of Ho, Wa, and Y (properly Y 4 ), proves to form a 
sundry group by several distinguishing features, wherein they agree one with each 
other. It is a pity that the beginning of Wa is lacking, as we do not know whether 
it had the same superscription which is found in Ho : The Constitutions Articles which 
are to be observed and fulfilled by all those who are made free by the Bight Worshipful 
Masters Fellows and Brethren of Free Masons at any Lodge or Assembly. Y begins with the 
usual invocation, in which there is the first characteristic of this branch : be with us at 
the (our, Y,) beginning and give us grace so to govern our lives that we may come to eternal 
joy (joys, Y). In the paragraph ou the seven sciences the arrangement differs from the 
usual order in Ho and Y as well as in Wa, the fragments of which show that it had the 
same distinguishing manner of arrangement, so that this appears to be a peculiar feature 
of the branch. The sciences are arranged as follows : 1 — Grammer, 2 — Logic, 
o — Rhetoric, 4 — Music, 5 — Arithmetic, 6 — Geometry, 7 — Astronomy, while the usual 
order is : 1 — Grammer, 2 — Rhetoric, 3 — Logic, 4 — Arithmetic, 5 — Geometry, 6 — Music, 
/--Astronomy. In Ho the seventh is called Astrology or Astronomy, but the fragments 
of Wa do not show whether the same double name was in Wa ; Y has only the usual 
Astronomy. All three copies agree in reading : craftsmen and merchants depend upon this 
science, i.e. Geometry, and then Ho and Wa go on : and especially ploughmen and tillers 
of [the, Wa,'] ground both for corn and seed and vines and plants flowers and other fruits of the 
earth, where Y omits tillers of the ground, and puts etc. after the word plants. The 

162 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

genealogy of the fabulous Hermerinus or the like introduces Ham instead of Shem in 
the whole trio. Tn the Euclid legend all three have the peculiar phrase : they were sore 
troubled in mind in what sort to provide for them, where the rest of the family have only : 
they made much sorrow. These evidences are sufficient to show the sundry position of 
this branch, though they might be multiplied. On the whole, Ho and Wa show a 
nearer relationship to each other than to Y, which often goes its own way. After the 
so-called history of masonry Ho and Wa have the Latin sentence, just as Th has, and 
then the usual exhortation; Y replaces the Latin words by an English translation and 
lets the exhortation follow with some differences in the verbiage. The English phrase 
Here followeth etc., as given above in the Embleton Branch, is not in the Hope Branch. 

The general charges are numbered 1-7 in Ho and Wa, in Y 1-6, they begin in all 
three copies: The first Article of your charge is, etc., which is another peculiarity of this 
branch. One charge of the original stock has been omitted in all copies of the trio, viz., 
that no mason shall be a thief or thief's companion ; and in Y besides the last charge is 
missing: that you do no villany in that house whereby the craft may be slandered, as it runs 
in Ho and Wa. The singular charges are numbered 1-18 in Ho, and 1-19 in Wa, 18 in 
Hope beingthe same as 18 + 19 in Wa. In Y these charges are not numbered, and the 
arrangement does not always agree with Ho and Wa, No. 11 of these two being omitted 
in Y, No. 14 coming after those in Y, which correspond with 1-9 in Ho and Wa, then 
No. 12 and No. 10, then No. 13, at last No. 15-18 (15-19 in Wa). Y agrees in its 
arrangement better with Th, and the other copies of the Sloane Family, except that the 
first half of No. 12 in SI 1 has been omitted in Y, and then No. 11 and No. 12 b have 
changed their places. After the usual charges the Hope Branch has also the Appren- 
tice Charge, but omits the concluding obligation. 

The next group is the Sloane Branch comprising six copies : /SZ 1 , Ha, SI 2 , L, Br, 
T. SI 2 has always been incomplete, it beginning the historical part with the children 
of Israel after having dealt with the seven liberal sciences, so that there is a great lack. 
L has once been a complete copy, but the beginning up to the end of the Nimrod legend 
and the first part of the Charles Martell legend have been destroyed. There are a 
number of peculiarities by which these six copies are joined to one group, though there 
are other peculiarities that might divide them into different groups. In several passages 
we meet with omissions more or less large, sometimes together with changes in one or 
more words. In the Euclid legend, where the King of Egypt makes a cry for a man 
that could inform their children, Th has as follows : that he should come unto him, and he 
should be rewarded for his travail, and that he should hold himself well pleased. All five 
copies of the Sloane Branch, in which this passage is to be found, shorten it by writing: 
that he should come to him and be well rewarded and hold himself well paid. At the end of 
the same legend Th has : and thus was the craft of Geometry grounded there, and so have 
A, St, E, Wr and Sc, while the Sloane Branch has governed instead of grounded. In Th 
King David gave his masons the charges and manners as they had it out of Egypt given by 
Euclid and other charges that you shall hear afterwards, but the Sloane Branch has 
only the charges that you shall hear afterwards, by the inattentiveness of some scribe, 
whose eye erred from the word charges in the first place over to the second place, 
so omitting that important passage. At the end of the Charles Martell legend this 
worthy gave his masons a charter to hold their assembly and cherished them much, as 
the three trios assert, while these words are missing in the Sloane Branch and also in Sc. 

After finishing the history, all copies of the Sloane Branch have the words: Here 
followeth the worthy and godly oath of Masons, but that SI 2 omits the words and godly and 
puts Masonry for Masons. Sc agrees here word for word with the majority, while the 

Remarks on the " Shane Family " of the Old Charges of British Freemasons. 163 

Embleton Branch differs a little in the concluding words, as we saw before. Only two 
copies of the Sloane Branch have preserved the Latin sentence, L placing it immediately 
after the words just mentioned, while Ha introduces it before the concluding formula at 
the end of the charges. L has the exhortation after the Latin sentence, the other five 
put it immediately after the superscription, Here followeth, etc. 8c has the exhortation 
in the same place and inserts the Latin sentence after it. I will not fail to point out, 
that the words, Here followeth, etc., occur also in the Colne, the Clapham, and the 
Phillipps No. 3, MSS. Now it appears from the coincidence of the Thorp and Hope 
Branches with the Grand Lodge Family, that the true original form of both Families 
must have had first the Latin sentence and then the exhortation. Later on a transcriber 
added the superscription, Here followeth, etc., but left the Latin sentence in its place. 
Still later another transcriber omitted it, while others replaced it by a translation, or 
kept it and added a translation. In the general charges all the six copies are short 
of two charges, that are in the three trios as well as in 8c, though the reading is not 
always the same. These two charges run in the Thorp Branch as follows : 

Also you shall call masons your fellows and brethren and by (A and St) no 
other (neither, Th) foul name, nor you shall take your fellow's wife in villany 
nor desire ungodlily (ungodly, A and St) his daughter or his servant to villany. 
Also you shall pay truly for your table and your meat and drink where you 
go to board. 
Originally, in my opinion, the first of these two formed two separate charges, as they 
are indicated in the Grand Lodge Family by a new And also (you shall not take, etc.) 
instead of nor (you shall take, etc.), so that we should have three charges here. The two, 
as they are now, have been omitted between No. 6 and 7 in Sl\ Ha, Si 2 and T, between 
No. 7 and 8 iu L and Br, these latter two copies dividing No. 2 of the other four into 
No. 2 and 3, so that in L and Br these charges are numbered 1-8 instead of 1-7 in the 
other group. The singular charges are numbered 1-18 in Sl l and Ha, 1-17 in SI 2 , here 
17 being L7 and 18 in the former two, and there is a new No. 18 in SI 2 , which has no 
equal anywhere, it running thus : That no fellow shall take upon, him to call a lodge to make 
any fellow or fellows without the consent of Master or Wardens, if they be within fifteen 7niles. 
To this new charge there is immediately annexed the concluding obligation in a 
peculiar form : these things and all other matters that shall be discoursed to which belongeth 
the free masonry you shall faithfully keep, so help you God and by the contents of that book. That 
Ha inserts the Latin instruction after No. 18, has already been said, the concluding 
obligation there as well as in SI 1 is the following : These charges that we have rehearsed 
and all other that belongeth to masonry you shall keep to the uttermost of your knowledge, so 
help you God and by the contents of this book. In T the singular charges are numbered 
1-18, but the division differs from the foregoing three, No. 1-4 being equal on both sides, 
but No. 5 of those three forming No. 5 and 6 in T ; then No. 7-17 in T are equal to No. 
6-16 of the three, and No. 18 in T is equal to No. 17 + 18 in SI 1 and Ha, just as No. 17 
in SI 2 . 

The concluding obligation in T is : These charges that are here rehearsed and all 
other that belong to masonry you shall truly keep to the utmost of your knowledge, so help you 
God and by the contents of this book. The very last formula, so help you God, etc., being 
identical in these four copies, and from several more coincidences, we may see that they 
together form a closer group within the Sloane Branch, and from a number of discre- 
pancies between SI 1 and Ha on one side and SI 2 and T on the other side, while SI 1 and 
Ha, as well as 81* and T, resemble each other in as many cases ; it appears that there 
is still a closer relationship between Ha and SI 1 as also between SI 2 and T, though the 
latter two are not so closely coupled as the former two. Now there remain L and Br 

164 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

that form a third pair of copies within this branch, as may be seen from a few most 
striking agreements. In the Euclid legend we are told that he taught the children 
the science of Geometry in practice to work misteries, where SV-, Ha and T have 
masonry, SP lacking this legend. At the end of the St. Alban legend both copies say, 
that after the death of St. Alban there came great wars into England through divers 
commotions instead of nations in the other four. Besides the division of the two sets 
of charges is the same in L and T, both of them numbering the first section 1-8, and 
the second set 1-19; the first set has been dealt with before, in the second set No. 
1-11 are equal to the same numbers in SI 1 , Ha and Si 2 , No. 12 of these three has been 
divided into No. 12 and 13 in L and Br, so that No. 14-19, become equal to No. 13-18 
in SI 1 and Ha. The concluding obligation in L runs thus : These charges which I have 
rehearsed and all other that belongs to masons you shall keep, so help you God and by this book 
to your power, while Br mutilating the first part, and being more complete in the second, 
offers the following reading : So these are that we have rehearsed and all other you shall keep. 
So help you God and Holidom and by this book to the utmost of your power. 

Lastly we have Sc as a single and sundry copy because of so very many peculiari- 
ties in dealing with the original text, that it cannot well be coupled with one of the 
foregoing groups. It resembles in many details the Thorp Branch, but is different in 
others, so that it does not seem reasonable to me to add it there. As in Th the brothers 
Jabell and Juball have been exchanged, so that Juball has become the eldest son and has 
found Geometry, while Jabell has become his younger brother and found Music, though 
in the beginning of the story both are in their right places. As in Th and Ho the 
name of Lamech's second wife is Sella, which is the older form, kept only in old copies, 
while all younger copies have Zillah. While on one side Sc has the peculiar Sloane 
definition of Astronomy, it teaching the course of the Sun and Moon and other Ornaments 
of the Heavens, there are on the other side Curious Craftsmen that travelled into divers 
countries, so that Sc is the only copy of the Family that has kept the adjective curious, 
while all other copies have glorious craftsmen. This peculiarity together with other 
original readings prove Sc to be a transcript or at least an offspring from a good old 
copy, but that was dealt with in a most free manner. As pointed out already Sc is the 
only copy of the Family, that in the Edwin legend, where the old writings are said to 
have been brought forth, has preserved the correct phrase : the intents of them were all 
one, the words all one being omitted in all other copies. These notes would be too long, 
if I gave all particulars of this sundry form, wherefore I now conclude my present 




• Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 165 



Mr 1 


NE of the most interesting portions of the Glasgow Exhibition of 1901, 
was perhaps that section devoted to Scottish History and Archeology. 
Among the objects of antiquity illustrative of times "Lang Syne" 
miffht be seen a small but valuable collection of Masonic treasures 
gathered together in one of the glass cases in Room No. 16 of the 
Glasgow Art Galleries. 

A list of these Craft Memorials, taken from the Official Catalogue, I feel sure 
will interest our Scottish brethren as well as the students of the Craft's history to 
whom authenticated relics are of the first importance. Some of them are of course well 
known, of others a more extended description might well find a place in our 


The numbers prefixed to the objects described are those of the catalogue and 
arranged by the sub-committee. 

No. 2565. Oldest Minute Book extant of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel, 

holding of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, No. I., containing 

(a) The Schaw Statutes for the whole Craft in Scotland, dated " At Edin- 
burgh the xxviij day of December, the ^eir of God l m V c four scoir 
awchtene yeiris," [28th December, 1598.] 

(b) The oldest known Masonic Minute, dated "ultimo Julij 1599." 

[concerning Gowans.~\ 

(c) The holding of a Lodge at Newcastle for the purpose of admitting " M r 
the Right Honerable M 1 ' R. Moray, Generall quarter M r to the Armie off 
Scotlan," the occasion being the occupation of Newcastle by the Scottish 
army after defeating the Royalists at Newburn. The Master of the 
Lodge, John Mylln, in addition to being King Charles's Master Mason, 
was also Master Gunner for the whole of Scotland which accounts for 
his presence with the Army and also for the holding of a Lodge. 

The Minute is dated "Newcastell thie 20 day off May, 1641." 

No. 2577. St. Clair Charter, 1600-01. Lent by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

No. 2578. St. Clair Charter, 1628. Lent by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

Relates to the Freemen Masons and Hammermen of Scotland. 

No. 2528. The Hammermen Chair. 

(J) " Ane Cheer given by Laurence Mercer *' for the use of the Trade, 

(Inventory of 1696). It bears no date, but Mercer was Deacon of the 
Trade in 1572. 

166 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

No. 2528. Ane Cheer, " gifted by Patrick Whyt, hook maker, Deacon Conveener 

(b) with his pictur 1690" (Inventory of 1696). Bearing his name and 

designation in full, with a shield, charged with the Hammermen Arms 

and also two fish hooks in saltire, and one in pale with the initials 

P.W. in monogram. 

Lent by the Incorporated Trades of Aberdeen. 
[Both these Chairs are in excellent preservation.] 

No. 2587. Minute Book Of Lodge 1642-1758. Lent by Lodge Mother Kilwinning. 

No. 2588. Minute Book Of Lodge 1758-1807. Lent by Lodge Mother Kilwinning. 

No. 2589. Seal Of the Lodge. Lent by Lodge Mother Kilwinning. 

No. 2568. Minute Book of the old Lodge of Falkirk. Now Lodge of St. John No. 16. 

Lent by Lodge of St. John No. 16, Falkirk. 

No. 2569. Charter, dated 1793, with Jewels and Seals of Operative Lodge of Falkirk. 

Lent by Lodge of St. John No. 16, Falkirk. 

No. 2570. Portrait Of William Boyd, fourth Earl of Kilmarnock. Beheaded 18th 
May, 1746. Elected R.W.M. of the Lodge of Falkirk, now Lodge of St. 
John No. 16. Elected Grand Master Mason of Scotland 30th Nov., 
1742. From an engraving. 

Lent by Lodge of St. John No. 16, Falkirk. 

No. 2572. Master's Mallet of Lodge Ganongate Kilwinning, used at the building of 
Roslin Chapel 1446. 

Lent by Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, Edinburgh. 

No. 2573. Deed Of Election of Bro. William St. Clair of Rosslyn, a Grand Master, 
and of the other office bearers of Grand Lodge. Dated 30th November, 
1736. Presented by Professor W. E. Aytoun, a Past Master of Lodge 
Canongate Kilwinuing, 

Lent by Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, Edinburgh. 

No. 2574. Second Minute Book of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, 1735-1760, contain- 
ing the first records of the Master Mason's Degree in Scotland, details 
of the purchase of the Lodge Organ, the oldest in use in Scotland, and 
many interesting signatures, including those of Lord Kilmarnock, 
Murray of Broughton — erased by order of the Lodge for his treachery 
to Prince Charles Edward — and others concerned in the '45 rising. 

Lent by Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, Edinburgh. 

No. 2575. William St. Clair of Rosslyn, Master of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, 
and first Grand Master of Scotland, by Allan Ramsay, who was a 
member of the Lodge. 

Lent by Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, Edinburgh. 

No. 2576. Old Tylers Coat and Vest, worn during the eighteenth century and last 

used in the Cleikum Inn, Innerleithen, when James Hogg, the Ettrick 

Shepherd, was admitted a member of the Lodge Canongate Kilwinning. 

Lent by Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, Edinburgh. 

Masonic Antiquities at the Glasgoiv Exhibition. 167 

No. 2579. Minute-Book of the Roman Lodge, 1735-1737. 

Lent by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

No. 2580. Minute-Book of Lodge St. Andrew, Dumfries, 1788. 

Lent by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

No. 2581. The Master's Mallet and Apron of St. Andrew's Lodge, Dumfries. 
Used by the poet Burns. Lent by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

No. 2582. Benevolent Fund BOX, made of relics preserved from old college and 
cathedral. Lent by the Lodge of Glasgow St. John No. 3 bis. 

No. 2583. Masonic Mallet. Lent by the Lodge of Glasgow St. John No. 3 bis. 

No. 2584. Chisel found at the foundations of Stockwell Bridge. 

Lent by the Lodge of Glasgow St. John No. 3 bis. 

No. 2-";85. Masonic Snuff BOX, made of oak from foundations of Stockwell Bridge. 

Lent by the Lodge of Glasgow St. John No. 3 bis. 

No. 2586. Masonic Chest with carved front and the following : "GOD SAVE THE 

Lent by the Lodge of Glasgow St John No. 3 bis. 

No. 2590. Minute Book of Lodge Glasgow St. Mungo No. 27, 1762-93. 

Lent by Lodge Glasgow St. Mungo No. 27. 

No. 2591. Box in use in Lodge Glasgow St. Mungo No. 27. 

Lent by the Lodge. 

No. 2592. Silk Banner of Lodge Glasgow St. Mungo No. 27. 

Lent by the Lodge. 
No. 2593. Old Masonic Apron. Lent by William Wright. 

No. 2594. Minute Book Of the Ayr Squaremen. Lent by D. Murray Lyon. 

No. 2595. Masonic Punch Bowl. Lent by John Denholm. 

No. 2595a. Bible in use in Lodge Glasgow St. Mungo No. 27. Lent by the Lodge. 

No. 2595b. Masonic Mallet. Lent by Lodge Glasgow St, Mungo No. 27. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



BEG to supply -what has been said by Bro. S. Russell Forbes (vol. xiv., 
part i., p. 54), by the following particulars which, perhaps, may be of 
interest for the readers of our Transactions. To begin with, I beg to 
state that Bro. S. Russell Forbes is quite right in maintaining that the 
Order of the Knights of Malta never ceased to exist, but I beg to add 
that besides Italy the Order still exists in Austria, especially in 
Bohemia, at different places of Germany, in Spain, and, of course in 
England also, where His Majesty is now the sovereign head and patron of the Grand 
Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, having been 
Grand Prior when Prince of Wales. By-the-way, our revered Bro. General Sir Charles 
Warren is, so far as I know, a Knight of Justice of the Order. 

For the instruction of brethren visiting Vienna, I beg to mention there is a small 
Chapel of St. John at Vienna (Karntner Strasse, near St. Stephen's Place) belonging to 
the Order, adorned with the coat-of-arms of the Knights of the Vienna Commandery. 
Adjoining there was an old building, the former convent, which, however, was destroyed 
in the 'eighties and replaced by a modern structure. The Knights have a modern out- 
of-door uniform, but besides that they wear, on festival occasions, the full costume of 
the Order : Mantles of black velvet adorned with a large white eight-pointed Maltese 
cross on left shoulder, white crossed red tunics, hats with a white and a black ostrich 
plume, knightly swords and golden spurred boots. When I lived at Vienna, in the 
'seventies, I had occasion to see the Knights in full costume attending the funeral of 
their brother Knights, and I may say it was a very noble and imposing view. By-the- 
way, in Austria there exists also a branch of the Teutonic Knights and in virtue of a 
compact between the Crown and the Order, the Grand Master is always one Archduke 
of Austria. Now Archduke Eugene is " Hoch-and-Deutschmeister." Their chapel and 
house is in the Singer Strasse, Vienna, likewise near St. Stephen's Place, and worth 
inspecting by visitors. 

Now to return to the Order of Malta, its history since 1798, is briefly the 
following : 

After the occupation of Malta by the French, 1798, the Grand Master Hompesch 
left the island and resigned office next year, 1799. A fraction of the Knights elected 
Paul I., Emperor of Russia (a married man and not even a Roman Catholic), Grand 
Master. The election was most irregular (besides that a great political mistake), never 
ratified by the Pope, but recognised by the Powers with exception of Bavaria, where the 
short-lived " langue of Anglo-Bavaria," created but a short while before, was again 
abolished. The Emperor Paul desired to re-occupy Malta in the name of the Order, and 
thereby to set foot in the Mediterranean, but, fortunately, was outwitted by Great 
Britain occupying the island, 1800. On the death of Paul, 1801, the homeless knights 
repaired to Messina, and the next year Pope Pius VII. appointed — by delegation of the 
Grand Priors— a Grand Master to the Order in the person of Fra. Bartholomew of the 

Knights of Malta. 169 

princely house of Ruspoli, who, however, declined to accept the dignity. Thereafter 
Fra. Giovanni de Tommasi was appointed Grand Master by the Pope, in like manner, 1803. 
He transferred the seat of the Order to Catania (Sicily). On his death, 1805, the Pope 
refused to appoint another Grand Master, but he empowered the Council of Order to 
elect a Lieutenant of the Grand Mastership, to be ratified by the Pope, until circum- 
stances would allow to restore the dignity of Grand Master. Thus the Order was 
governed by "Lieutenants of Grand Mastership " from 1805-1879. The fourth Lieu- 
tenant in office, Fra. Carlo Candida (1831-45) transferred headquarters to Borne, where 
they remain until now. 

Meanwhile, at the beginning of the xixth century, the Order was abolished nearly 
in all countries and its estates confiscated. In Spain the estates fell to the crown, the 
King declared himself Sovereign of the Order (1803), and Knights were appointed by 
the Crown until 18*37. The Order ceased to exist in upper Italy, the Ecclesiastical 
State and in the Kingdom of Naples (1808). In Prussia the " bailliwick of Branden- 
burg" was likewise abolished and its estates confiscated, 1810-11. In commemoration 
of it, however, the King of Prussia established, 1812, the Protestant Order of Johannite 
Knights, a Royal Prussian Order of Chivalry of a quite new institution, which historically 
has no connection with the ancient Order. Nor makes it a difference that the ancient 
bailliwick of Brandenburg was, in principal, restored 1852. The Prussian Johannite 
Knights therefore cannot be considered a branch of the old Order, at any rate. 

Beforehand, only the Grand Priory of Bohemia remained in existence. In 1813 
two imperial edicts were issued, by which it was decreed that the Order was to cease 
to exist and its estates were to devolve to the Military Order of Maria Theresa. 
Fortunately for the Order, these two edicts, however, were not carried into effect. On 
the contrary, the Emperor of Austria in course of time became a great protector of the 
Order and the Priory of Bohemia was maintained. As soon as 1815, even a congress of 
the Order was held at Vieuna, and an Extraordinary Envoy was accredited at the 
Imperial Court, which practice has been maintained ever since until now. Thus the 
position of the Order was again strengthened, and in 1839 the Emperor Ferdinand 
authorised the establishment of a new Grand Priory for Lombardy-Yenice, with the 
seat at Venice, which is still in existence. The King of Naples, likewise, re-established 
the Order, quite as others of the then numerous Italian Sovereigns. During the 
Lieutenancy of Fra. Philippe Colloredo-Mannsfeld (1845-69) the Order re-entered 
England, founding a hospital, church and convent at London. This was particularly 
due to the good services of Sir George Bowyer. The 'sixties mark the beginning of a 
flourishing period of the Grand Priory of Bohemia. The voluntary service of sanity in 
the case of war was organized just on the eves of the war of 1866. It was the merit of 
the three successive Grand Priors : Fra. Francis de Khevenhiiller-Metsch (1817-67), 
Fra. Francis de Kollowrat-Krakowsky (1867-74), and Fra. Othenio de Lichnowsky 
(1874- 18S7). One may say it has done signal services to humanity during the warfares 
since 1866. The Order succeeded also in re-entering the Holy Land, where Count 
Caboga-Cerva (afterwards made a Knight of Justice), purchased land between Jerusalem 
and Bethlehem, 1869, on which, later on, a convent, church, and especially a hospital, 
were built, 1876. The latter is known by the name of the " Hospice of Tantur," stand- 
ing under protection of the Emperor of Austria. 

To return to Italy, there the " Venerable Bailiff Fra. Giovanni Ceschi de Santa 
Croce " was elected to the Lieutenancy in 1872. He was the seventh Lieutenant to 
Grand Mastership. In 1879, however, the dignity of " Grand Master of the Sovereign 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem" was re-established by a Papal Bref and conferred 

170 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

upon Fra. Ceschi, together with the dignity of Cardinal of the Roman Church, and, 
1880, the Emperor Francis Joseph conferred the rank of a Prince of the Austrian Empire 
upon Fra. Ceschi and all his successors in the office of Grand Master. Next year the 
same rank was conferred upon the Grand Prior of Bohemia, then Fra. Othenio 
Lichnowsky, and his successors in office also. Fra. Othenio having died, 1887, he was 
succeeded by the venerable Bailiff Fra. Guido de Thun and Hohenstein, the present 
Prince-Grand-Prior of Bohemia- Austria (as the Grand Priory is now styled). The aged 
Cardinal Prince Grand Master Fra. Giovanni Ceschi de Santa Croce, however, is yet 
alive, and continues to rule the Order. 

Before proceeding further on, it may be mentioned that the former two langues 
of Castilia and Arragon were restored and united into one by the Crown of Spain, 1885, 
and the Knights appointed by the King till that date were recognised by the Grand 
Master and the Order. 

To sum up : There exist at present under the headship of the Grand Master 
residing at Rome the following " Langues," Grand Priories and " Associations of 
Knights," viz. : I. — The Langue of Italy, comprising three Grand Priories ; (1) at 
Rome, (2) Venice, and (3) Naples. II. — The Langue of Germany, comprising: (1) The 
Grand Priory of Bohemia-Austria ; (2) The Association of Knights of the Rhine and 
Westphalia ; (3) The Association of the Silesian Knights. III. — The Langue of 
England, comprising " the Association of the British Knights," which, I believe, is 
identical with the " Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem 
in England." IV. — The Langue of Castilia-Aragon. Besides that there are individual 
Knights received " in gremio religionis " without belonging to any of the Grand Priories 
or Associations. 

The full members of the Order consist of the Grand Master, the Grand Digni- 
taries of the Order, the Grand Priors, the Bailiffs or Grand Crosses, Commanders, the 
professed Knights (chevaliers profes), and the Knights of Justice. All these must be 
of Roman Catholic Religion, must prove their descent from sixteen noble-born ancestors 
(eight paternal and 8 maternal), and are bachelors. Candidates received into the Order 
take first the so-called "simple" vows and are thereupon called "Knights of Justice." 
They retain their inherited titles of nobility. (For instance, one would say: Guido, 
Count de Thun and Hohenstein, or, Alfred, Prince de Lichtenstein, Knights of Justice). 

The Knights of Justice renew their vows every year on the day of their reception 
into the Order or the day of their first taking the vows. If, however, they prefer, they 
may obtain dispensation and retire to the world. A Knight of Justice of ten years 
standing, and who is determined to devote all his life to the Order, takes, on the tenth 
anniversary of his reception, the "soZewm" vows which are binding for his life-time. 
Thereby he becomes a " professed Knight." Now he drops his title of nobility, obtain- 
ing the prefix " frater " (fra), marking fraternity and perfect equality which prevails 
among the members of the Order. (For instance, the above-named Knights of Justice 
are as professed Knights styled : Fra. Guido de Thun and Hohenstein, Fra. Alfred de 

Needless to say, only the professed Knights enjoy all the prerogatives and privi- 
leges of the Order. 

Besides the full members there exists yet : 

(1) Honorary Bailiffs and Grand Crosses (Baillis et grand' croix d'honneur et de 
devotion), and " Dames grand' croix, etc., etc.," which dignities are conferred upon 
Sovereigns and distinguished members of high nobility, both male and female. 

Knights of Malta. 


(2) Honorary Knights (Chevaliers d'honneur et de devotion) and "Dames 
decorees de la croix d'honneur et de devotion." 

All these are liable to produce fall proofs of nobility and ancestry, quite as the 
Knights of Justice, but, of course, may be married, and there are cases of these crosses 
to have been conferred upon Protestant noblemen and ladies also. 

(3) Knights of Grace (not being able to produce full proofs of ancestry). 

(4) Donats. (a) Donats of first class, or Donats of Justice, (b) Donats of 
second class. 

Finally there are priests or chaplains of the Order. 

If some one of the readers of our Transactions desires to obtain further explana- 
tions concerning the Order, I shall be very pleased to communicate some more 
particulars on the matter in question. 


of th Strict Observance "Jhrcc Jkutlti'fadfc of 
Aaye,?icc£- JiamfyM;Jbun6tea//6f, amalyamcUu/ 
wiflithtfiankAnf Union' vn. //Si. 


FRIDAY, 4th OCTOBER, 1901. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present : — Bros. E. Conder, jun., 
W.M. ; G. Greiner, S.W. ; J. T. Thorp, as J.W. ; W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C, Sec. ; 
Admiral A. H. Markham, P.D.G.M., Malta, S.D., as I.P.M. ; Rev. J. W. Horsley, 
J.D. ; G. L. Shackles, I.G., and Dr. Wynn Westcott, P.M. 

Also the following 31 members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. J. P. 
Richards, J. J. Thomas, G. P. Gordon Hills, H. White, W. Vernon, G. A. Nock, M. 
Montesole, A. C. Mead, G. Norman, F. W. Levander, H. Eaborn, J. R. Brough, 

E. A. Ebblewhite, H. Tipper, P.A.G.P.; Dr. S. Walsh Owen, W. C Hobbs, T. C Edmonds, L. Danielsson, 
J. Coote, W. Curry, A. Carpenter, Hugh James, W. F. Stuttaford, W. Busbridge, J. Proctor Watson, 

F. J. Allan, W. Hammond, Dr. B. T. Hutchinson, R. Orttewell, J. N. Noakes, and J. Hands. 

Also the following three Visitors: — Bros. E. R. Bury, Emulation Lodge No. 7; H.H.White, 
St. Stephen's Lodge No. 2424 ; and W. P. Broad, Pythagorean Lodge No. 79. 

Five Lodges and forty-six Brethren were admitted to the membership of the Correspondence 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. Hamon le Strange, Prov.G-M., 
Norfolk; E. Armitage, F. H. Goldney, P.G.D. ; T. B. Whytehead, E. J. Castle, C. Kupferschmidt, 
A.G.S.F.C. ; R. F. Gould, P.G.D. ; W. M. Bywater, P.G.Swd.B.; W. J. HughaD, P.G.D. ; E. Macbean, 
S. T. Klein, and L. A. de Malczovich. 

Bro. G. Greiner was unanimously elected W.M. for the ensuing year, Bro. Hamon le Strange, 
Treasurer, and Bro. J. W. Freeman, Tyler. 

The Secretary called attention to the following exhibits, for which the thanks of the Lodge 
were returned : — 

By Bro. J. M. McLeod, a cream ware transfer mug, bearing the arms used by the Atholl Grand 
Lodge, and the number 225, now the Lodge of Temperance No. 169. After being exhibited this evening, 
Bro. H. A. Steer, the owner, intended presenting it to the Museum of the Grand Lodge. 

By Bro. Dr. Wynn Westcott, on behalf of Bro. F. E. Hamel, exhibited a Certificate granted to 
Alexander Cockburn on his leaving the country, by Lodge No. 218 on the Registry of Ireland, held in 
the Forty-eighth Regiment of Foot ; dated 3rd May, 1763, from Havanna. 

In the absence of the writers the Secretary read the following papers : — 



BY THE REV. W. E. WINDLE, P.P.G.C. Devon. 

NY writings calculated to throw light upon the sayings and doings of 
our Grand Master King Solomon have more than a passing interest 
for Freemasons. On this account, perhaps, many will be glad to scan 
these brief notes on a very curious work which has excited some 
attention of late. 

The Testament of Solomon would seem to be originally a Jewish 
work re-edited by a Christian. Its approximate date is the third or 
fourth century of our era. F. F. Fleck published it in 1837 from a MS. at Paris, and it 
is reprinted in Migne, Patrologice Gursus Gompletus, series Grseca, Tom. 122. It is cited 
as a genuine writing of Solomon in the (Greek) Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila, a 
Christian composition of uncertain date, based, it is said, upon an earlier writing, 

The Testament of Solomon. 173 

possibly the lost dialogue of Jason and Papiscus. A translation of the Testament by 
F. C. Conybeare has recently appeared in the "Jewish Quarterly," whence the passages 
hereunder quoted are mostly taken, and the references are to the sections into which it 
is divided. 

The treatise is profoundly interesting to the student of Semitic folklore or of the 
magical papyri. The many charms, incantations and spells contained in it seem to be 
excerpts from a larger work — possibly the collection referred to by Josephus (Antiq. 
VIII., 2, 5) as compiled by the Royal Solomon for the benefit of mankind. Traces of 
the teaching of the Essenes, the Ophiani and other Gnostics are apparent, but the 
Masonic myth is nowhere to be found, though the treatise has for background the 
building of the Temple. Evidently the writer is one of the uninstructed and popular 
world who are not Masons, and yet there are sundry coincidences, verbal and otherwise, 
which are undoubtedly suggestive, if nothing more. 

The Greek title of the book is as follows : — ■ 

" Testament of Solomon, son of David, who was king in Jerusalem, and mastered 
and controlled all spirits of the air, on the earth and under the earth. By means of 
them also he wrought all the transcendent works of the Temple." § 1. (The italics are 

The manner in which Solomon gained his power over them is then told by him, 
and as the subjoined extract gives a very fair idea of the style of the Testament, it is 
quoted in full. 

§ 2. " And behold, when the Temple of the city of Jerusalem was being builded, 
and the artificers were working thereat, Ornias the demon came among them toward 
sunset ; and he took away the half of the pay of the chief-deviser's little boy, as well as 
half his food. He also continued to suck the thumb of his right hand every day. And 
the child grew thin, although he was very much loved by the king. 

" § 3. So king Solomon called the boy one day and questioned him, saying : 
' Do I not love thee more than all the artisans who are working in the Temple of God ? 
Do I not give thee double wages and a double supply of food ? How is it that day by 
day and hour by hour thou growest thinner ? ' 

" § 4. But the child said to the king : ' I pray thee, king, listen to what has 
befallen all that thy child hath. After we are all released from our work on the 
Temple of God, after sunset, when I lie down to rest, one of the evil demons comes and 
takes away from me the half of my pay and half of my food. Then he also takes hold 
of my right hand and sucks my thumb. And lo, my soul is oppressed, and so my body 
waxes thinner every day.' 

" § 5. Now when I Solomon heard this, I entered the Temple of God, and 
prayed with all my soul, night and day, that the demon might be delivered into my 
hands, and that I might gain authority over him. And it came about through my 
prayer that grace was given to me from the Lord Sabaoth by Michael His Archangel. 
He brought me a little ring, having a seal consisting of an engraved stone, and said to 
me : ' Take, Solomon, king, son of David, the gift which the Lord God has sent thee 
the highest Sabaoth. With it thou shalt lock up all the demons of the earth male and 
female; and with their help thou shalt build up Jerusalem. But thou must wear this 
seal of God. And this engraving of the seal of the ring sent thee is a Pentalpha." 

Notice here the incidental picture of the artificers of the Temple working under 
the direction of the chief-deviser or clerk of the works — protomagister, Greek 
7T/3WTo/xatcrTopos — and the daily custom by which they received their wages, partly in 
money, partly in kind, when the hour of sunset brought release from work. 

174 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Here too arises the inevitable conjecture: This child, who had won the king's 
regard, and daily carried home a double wage and double rations — was he the son of 
either Hiram or Adoniram — both men whom the king delighted to honour? Wiser 
heads than mine must determine this. 

Thus far it would seem that human agency was responsible for the collection and 
preparation of the materials used in the building of the Temple ; but on acquiring the 
Pentalpha (Solomon's Seal) the king adopted Michael's suggestion of laying a spell 
upon the demons and then setting them to work at some menial business or to help 
in building the Temple. Thus Solomon says of the vampire-spirit Ornias : " And I 
sealed the demon, and set him to work at stonecutting, so that he might cut the stones 
in the Temple, which, lying along the shore had been brought by the sea of Arabia" 
(§ 11). Presently a female demon, Onoskelis, is brought by Beelzeboul into the king's 
presence — "and she tossed her head" (§ 16). " So I commanded her to spin the hemp 
for the ropes used in the building of the house of God ; and accordingly when I had 
sealed and bound her, she was so overcome and brought to nought as to stand night and 
day spinning the hemp" (§ 20). Asmodeus next meets his fate: "Thou shalt also 
make the clay for the entire construction of the Temple, treading it down with thy feet " 
(§ 25). Then came the turn of Beelzeboul : " I Solomon ordered him to saw up Theban 
marbles. And when he began to saw the marbles, the other demons cried out with a 
loud voice, howling because of their king Beelzeboul" (§ 30). A demon named Tephras 
(Spirit of the ashes) is " commanded to seize great stones, and toss them up to the 
workmen on the higher parts of the Temple. And being compelled, the demon began 
to do what he was bidden to do " (§ 33). Immediately afterwards appear the Pleiades, 
lovely in aspect but of most unlovely habits. " And there came seven spirits, females, 
bound and woven together, fair in appearance and comely. And I Solomon, seeing 
them, questioned them and said : ' Who are ye ? ' But they with one accord said with 
one voice : ' We are of the 33 elements of the cosmic ruler of the darkness.' And the 
first said, 'I am Deception.' The second, 'I am Strife.' The third, 'I am Klothod, 
which is battle.' The fourth, 'lam Jealousy.' The fifth, 'I am Power.' The sixth, 
' I am Error.' The seventh, ' I am the worst of all ' " — no idle boast, as afterward 
appeared, on the part of this "lost" Pleiad. "Our stars are in heaven; seven stars 
humble in sheen and all together, and we are called goddesses. We change our place 
all together, and together we live, sometimes in Lydia, sometimes in Olympus, some- 
times on a great mountain " (§ 34). " So I Solomon, having heard and wondered, 
sealed them with my ring ; and since they were so considerable, I bade them dig the 
foundations of the Temple of God. For the length of it was 250 cubits. And I bade 
them be industrious, and with one murmur of joint protest they began to perform the 
tasks enjoined" (§ 42). A headless spirit follows, with a fiery flame issuing from his 
neck, who declares that he emits it " from the Orient" (§ 45) ; also a hound-like spirit 
who reveals to Solomon a mine of green stone for the adornment of the Temple. Both 
of them are ultimately sealed, the "light from the Orient " finding a most appropriate 
use. " And I bade the hound keep safe the fiery spirit, so that lamps as it were might 
by day and night cast their light through its maw on the artisans at work. And I 
Solomon took from the mine of that stone 200 shekels for the supports of the table of 
incense which was similar in appearance. And I Solomon glorified the Lord God, and 
then closed round the treasure of that stone. And I ordered afresh the demons to cut 
marble for the construction of the house of God" (§§ 49, 50). A lion-shaped demon 
with his attendant legion are then condemned ; the legion to carry wood from the 
thicket, and " the lion-shaped one himself to saw up the wood small with his teeth, for 

The Testament of Solomon. 175 

burning in the unquenchable furnace for the Temple of God " (§ 53). A dragon " with 
human hands" comes and tells of hidden treasure at the entrance of the Temple, which 
Solomon duly finds and (perhaps in requital for this good turn) merely orders him to 
make bricks in the Temple (§ 56). Another dragon, "the so-called winged dragon " 
more than justifies his wide renown by kindling with his breath the wood which the 
legion had amassed. "I saw the spirit going forth from his mouth, and it consumed 
the wood of the frankincense-tree, and burned up all the logs which we had placed in 
the Temple of God" (§ 62). " And I condemned him to saw up marbles for the build- 
ing of the Temple of God" (§ 63). Finally there enter a band of 36 Spirits with 
heads like various animals, who announce themselves as the elements (o-tolxuo.), the 
rulers of this darkuess (ol Koo-fJLoxpdTopes tov o-kotous tovtov), the decani of the 12 
zodiacal signs. Many will remember in this connection certain passages in St. Paul's 
Epistles where these very expressions occur (Gal. iv., 3, 9, 10; Eph. vi., 12). All of 
the 36 are presently doomed. " I commanded them to fetch water in the Temple of 
God. And I furthermore prayed to the Lord God to cause the demons without, that 
hamper humanity, to be bound and made to approach the Temple of God. Some of 
these demons I condemned to do the heavy work of the construction of the Temple of 
God. Others I shut up in prisons. Others I ordered to wrestle with fire in the making 
of gold and silver, sitting down by lead and spoon. And to make ready places for the 
other demons in which they should be confined" (§ 107). 

A period of profound peace and prosperity followed this subjugation of the 
demons. " I Solomon had much quiet in all the earth, and spent my life in profound 
peace, honoured by all men and by all under heaven. And I built the entire Temple 
of the Lord God. And my kingdom was prosperous, and my army was with me. And 
for the rest the city of Jerusalem had repose, rejoicing and delighted. And all the 
kings of the earth came to me from the ends of the earth to behold the Temple which I 
builded to the Lord God. And having heard of the wisdom given to me, they did 
homage to me in the Temple, bringing gold and silver and precious stones, many and 
divers, and bronze, and iron, and lead, and cedar logs. And woods that decay not they 
brought me, for the equipment of the Temple of God " (§ 108). 

Next comes the visit of the Queen of Sheba. "Among them also the queen of 
the south, being a witch (yo»?s), came in great concern and bowed low before me to the 
earth. And having heard my wisdom, she glorified the God of Israel, and she made 
formal trial of all my wisdom, of all the love in which I instructed her, according to the 
wisdom imparted to me" (§ 109). "And she beheld the Temple of the Lord being 
builded. And she gave a shekel (criVyos) of gold and one hundred myriads of silver and 
choice bronze, and she went into the Temple. And she beheld the altar of incense and 
the brazen supports (dva^opous) of this altar, and the gems of the lamps flashing forth 
of different colours, and of the lamp stand of stone, and of emerald, and hyacinth, and 
sapphire ; and she beheld the vessels of gold, and silver, and bronze, and wood, and the 
folds of skins dyed red with madder. And she saw the bases of the pillars of the 
Temple of the Lord. All were of one gold" (§ 116). 

The following legend of the corner-stone will be new to Masonic readers. " And 
Jerusalem was built, and the Temple was being completed. And there was a stone, the 
end stone of the corner lying there, great, chosen out, one which I desired to lay in the 
head of the corner of the completion of the Temple. And all the workmen, and all the 
demons helping them, came to the same place to bring up the stone, and lay it on the 
pinnacle of the holy Temple, and were not strong enough to stir it, and lay it upon the 
corner allotted to it. For that stone was exceedingly great and useful for the corner of 

176 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

the Temple" (§ 118). Seven days later an Arabian demon of Titanic strength is 
caught through the magic ring, and imprisoned in a leather flask is brought into the 
Temple. " And on the next day, I king Solomon went into the Temple of God, and sat 
in deep distress about the stone of the end of the corner. And when 1 entered the 
Temple, the flask stood up and walked around some seven steps, and then fell on its 
mouth and did homage to me. And I marvelled that even along with the bottle the 
demon still had power and could walk about ; and I commanded it to stand up " (§ 121). 
" And I said to him : ' What canst thou do ? ' And he answered, ' T am able to remove 
mountains, to overthrow the oaths of kings. I wither trees and make their leaves to 
fall off.' And I said to him : ' Canst thou raise this stone, and lay it for the beginning 
of this corner which exists in the fair plan of the Temple ?' And he said, 'Not only 
raise this, king; but also, with the help of the demon who presides over the Red Sea, 
I will bring up the pillar of air (tw aepio-r^v) and will stand it where thou wilt in 
Jerusalem'" (§ 122). In a trice the stone was placed in position. "And I Solomon, 
beholding the stone raised aloft and placed on a foundation, said : ' Truly the scripture 
is fulfilled, which says, The stone which the builders rejected on trial, that same is 
become the head of the corner ' " (§ 123). 

Then the pair of demons return from the Red Sea with the enormous column. 
" And they both took the column and raised it aloft from the earth. And I sealed 
round with my ring on this side and that, and said, 'Watch.' And the spirits have 
remained upholding it until this day, for proof of the wisdom vouchsafed to me. And 
there the pillar was hanging, of enormous size, in mid air, supported by the winds. 
And thus the spirits appeared underneath, like air, supporting it. And if one looks 
fixedly, the pillar is a little oblique, being supported by the spirits ; and it is so to this 
day" (§ 124). "I therefore adjured the demons not to disobey me, but to remain 
supporting the pillar. And they both aware, saying: 'The Lord thy God liveth, we 
will not let go this pillar until the world's end. But on whatever day this stone fall, 
then shall be the end of the world ' " (§ 127). 

It has been conjectured that this aerial column refers to some constellation, very 
possibly the milky way; but with all diffidence I would suggest that it may be one of 
the famous triad — forming, together with Jachin and Boaz, the prototype of the three 
great pillars that support a Freemason's Lodge. 

The materials and furniture employed in the Temple (according to the writer of 
the Testament), differ in many respects from those enumerated elsewhere. Thus 
mention is made of "stones which, lying along the shore, bad been brought by the Sea 
of Arabia" (§ 11), i.e., to Ezion-Geber, the harbour of Elath. The "clay for the entire 
construction of the Temple" (§ 25), evidently refers to the clay soil of the Jordan 
valley, between Succoth and Zarthan, used for moulds for casting bronze. " Theban 
marbles " (§ 30) probably came from Thebes in Egypt. The " table of incense," similar 
in appearance to its supports made of green stone (§ 50), must be identical with the 
" altar of incense with its brazen (bronze) supports " (§ 116). This, together with the 
"lamp-stand of stone, and of emerald, and hyacinth, and sapphire" (§ 116), probably 
stood, not in the Temple, but in Solomon's house. The sapphires, it would seem, could 
have come only from Babylonia. 

The Testament ends with the falling away of Solomon. There is deep psycho- 
logical truth in the manner in which this is said to have come about; sensuality leading 
to hardness, cruelty, and consequent weakness. A gifted " brother of the mystic tie," 
who himself had travelled the same thorny road, has left us his experience in the well- 
known lines : — 

The Testament of Solomon. 177 

" I waive the quantum of the sin, 

The hazard of concealing, 
But oh ! it hardens a' within, 

And petrifies the feeling." 
The seventh Pleiad had warned Solomon that " the locust would set her free " 
(§ 41). The manner of her freedom and his fall was as follows: — He had taken to 
himself wives without number from every land, when he fell violently in love with a 
Jebusite woman, "the Shulamiie " (§ 128, cf. Cant, vi., 12). But the priests of Moloch 
were inflexible on one point. Before he could have her, he must sacrifice to Moloch and 
Remphan. Solomon refused ; but at last they brought him five locustn, saying, " Crush 
these upon the altar of Moloch, and it will suffice." The rest may be told in the king's 
own words : — " And this I actually did. And at once the Spirit of God departed from 
me, and I became weak as well as foolish in my words. And after that I was obliged 
by her to build a temple of idols to Baal, and to Remphan, and to the other idols. I 
then, wretch that I am, followed her advice, and the glory of God quite departed from 
me ; and my spirit was darkened, and I became the sport of idols and demons. Where- 
fore I wrote out this Testament, that ye who get possession of it may pray, and attend 
to the last things and not to the first, that ye may find grace perfectly for ever and 
ever. Amen." (§§ 129, 130). 

These, the last words of the " Testament," have an edifying ring. Whatever 
conclusions we may arrive at in respect of this remarkable document, we can all at 
least subscribe to its closing sentiment, 

So mote it be. 

The Rev. J. W. Horslet said : 

1. — The writer of the paper will no doubt have noticed that in every case there is 
some printer's error of letter or accent in the Greek that he quotes. I cannot discover 
any such word as depia-Trjv. It may be very late Greek, or it may be a misprint. 
The same remark applies to Trpcorojucuo-Topos — possibly a late mongrel. 

2. — I am glad of the quotation as to the Pentalpha being the Seal of Solomon or 
the symbol engraved on his thaumaturgic ring, especially as I have a short paper in 
preparation for the Lodge on Solomon's Seal and David's Shield. The Pentalpha and 
the Hexapla are very commonly confused by Masonic and other writers. The former is 
the real Seal of Solomon, the latter the shield of David. Most however of the virtues 
and operations of the Pentalpha have been ascribed later to the Hexapla, which has 
therefore been adopted as a Masonic symbol. To a student of the hidden mysteries of 
nature, it is of peculiar interest to note that all flowers belonging to the huge family of 
Rosacea? are based on the Pentalphic plan, while all those of the Liliacea? are formed on 
the Hexaplic plan, the three petals forming one, and the three sepals the other, of the 
interlaced equilateral triangles. The Grand Geometrician has a reason for this, and I 
presume the earliest mystics had a reason for adopting for special significance the 
signatures they found so well marked and so widely distributed in the flowers of the 
field. Hence also the adoption of " the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the Vallies," as 
names of highest import in religious expression. 

3. — Bro. Windle refers to " the daily custom " by which the artificers received 
their pay. It was more than a custom, and long anterior to the building of the Temple. 
It was the Levitical Law. See Lev. xix., 13, " The wages of an hired servant shall not 
abide with thee until the morning." Compare also, of course for a much later instance 
of the law, the parable of the labourers in the vineyard, 

178 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

4. — When the Testament makes Solomon say " Truly the Scripture is fulfilled 
which says, ' The stone which the builders rejected on trial, that same is become the 
head of the corner,' " the hand of a Christian editor or improver of the Jewish text is 
evident. Such an one would naturally, almost inevitably, follow St. Luke and St. Peter 
in quoting Psalm cxviii., but for Solomon to do so would be remarkable, inasmuch as 
this Psalm is certainly one of the post-captivity series, and probably composed for the 
dedication of the Second Temple (Ezra vi., 15, 18), or for the first great Feast of 
Tabernacles held in the new Temple and recorded in Nehem. viii., 13. 

5. — What does our Brother mean by " the famous triad of pillars ? " There is 
no instance of three pillars mentioned in reference to the Temple ; one might almost 
say no reference to any pillars at all, though the roof must have been somehow 
supported, since wooden beams would not have reached across the width. And I think 
all Masonic students who have studied this special point would consider Jachin and 
Boaz to have been obelisks and not supporting pillars any more than those with which 
Hiram was familiar in Tyrian temples, 1 or than the Pillars of Hercules on either side to 
the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea which the Phoenician mariners saluted as they 
sailed from civilization to visit even Britain in the way of trade. But granted that 
Jachin and Boaz were pillars, what was that one which makes up the triad P 

W. H. Rylands said the very interesting legend brought before the Lodge by 
Brother the Reverend W. E. Windle, is well worthy of a careful study. Very curious 
in itself, from many points of view, it is one of the long series of legends that have 
grown up around the character called our Grand Master Solomon. If all these legends 
could be collected together, they would rival in number those stories a portion of which 
have been named the Thousand and One Nights. I have at a former time already 
referred to some of them, for example the legend of that extraordinary object called 
Schamir, explained as being sometimes a stone and at other times a worm or insect, but 
in all cases having a complicated history, and playing a most important part in the 
construction of the Temple. It seems to me that the word is a perversion, conversion, or 
whatever one pleases to call it, of the word schema, or the carefully considered system or 
plan on which the Temple was arranged and constructed. This wonderful structure, 
with its wealth of ornament, became in the Oriental mind more or less magical : and it is 
worthy of note that most of the let/endw of Solomon are very naturally deeply steeped in 
magic. .Solomon was not. only the King, but he was greater even than that, for he was 
a powerful Magician, and by his "wisdom" had command of the spirits of air and 

It was by the aid of his magic ring bearing the pentalpha, of which something 
will be said in a future paper by Bro. Horsley, or according to another legend, from 
the possession of the four stones given to him by the angels, that he overcame all diffi- 
culties. The ring gave him power to command the service of the whole world of spirits, 
both good and evil : all created beasts, the earth, the wind and the sea. The manner 
of controlling the spirits according to some legends was by pressing the signet ring upon 
the nape of the neck. From the references in the " Testament " to the magical power 
of the ring, it would appear that the touch was sufficient. 

A superior magical power is acknowledged in one of the legends : Solomon 
commands a Jinn to bring the throne of the Queen of Sheba ; the Jinn replies that he 
will bring it before noon. The Vizir Asaph who knows the ineffable name of God, 
brought it in a moment. 

1 See Trans., vol. v., 1892, p. 139. 



According to the " Testament," Solomon appears to have lost his power after 
the completion of the Temple. Anothor legend relates that Solomon knew that 
if he died before the work was finished the Jinns would leave off building it, and it was 
only when the whole was complete that the staff supporting the body of Solomon broke. 
He died one year before the work was ended, but his body remained standing as if in 
adoration, in order that the Jinns might suppose he was alive. 

It may be remarked that in the " Testament," the building operations carried on 
at the Temple play a minor part : and appear to be used for the purpose of introducing 
the names of the demons, the stories connected with them, and the magical power of 
the king. 

In the legends that extraordinary wisdom and learning with which Solomon has 
been credited is put aside and never used. So far the Oriental legends. 

It is particularly to be noted that in the legend, the origin of which has so far 
baffled every enquirer, there is no magic: it is a plain straight-sailing tale, which in 
my opinion cannot be classed with the Oriental fables just referred to. 

The skill displayed by Solomon in the building of the Temple, was according to 
Josephus, the fitting together without the use of any builder's tool, or mechanical means, 
the rough un-hewn stones of which it was constructed. 

It must by no means be concluded that I undervalue Bro. Windle's paper, or any 
of the other legends of Solomon, bearing on the building of the Temple. They are all 
of very great interest : and it is probably only from a study of them that the key 
searched for so long will ever be found. 

The following notes from the pen of a valued personal friend, who signed himself 
F. L., appeared in the Pall Mall Gazette of March the 9th, under the head of Literary 
Notes. They may well find a place in our Transactions as they help in removing a 
difficulty which must have presented itself to others besides myself. 

",.... I should like to point out that no well-concocted literary 
imposture ever dies. I am confirmed in this by the sight of Gerard de Nerval's ' Voyage 
en Orient,' which I have just re-read in a well re-printed edition (I think it is the ninth or 
tenth)with a preface by Theophile Gautier. De Nerval was, in the stirring times round '48, 
a Parisian man of letters, for whom the very highest literary honours had been predicted 
by, among others, Goethe. He had long been given to Oriental mysticism, and projected 
with Alexandre Dumas a grand opera on the subject of Solomon's Temple, for which 
Meyerbeer was to write the music. For this De Nerval had composed a magnificent 
story setting forth the loves of the Queen of Sheba with Hiram, the mysterious architect, 
the interference of Solomon therewith, and the assassination of the unfortunate craftsman. 
For some reason or other the scheme fell through, and De Nerval, driven from Paris by 
the conduct of the object of his affections, took to wandering in Turkey, Egypt and 
Syria, among the cosmopolitan Levantines whom Lord Beaconsfield has drawn so 
admirably in ' Tancred.' The result was his ' Voyage en Orient,' generally considered 
to be his masterpiece, which made its first appearance in a serial in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes. Being one day short of copy, he sandwiched into it the plot of his projected 
opera, calling it the ' History of the Queen of the Morning, and Soliman, Prince of 
Djinns,' and declaring that he had heard it recited by an Arab improvisatore in a cafe at 
Stamboul. So the story, which had somehow failed to appear in a regular way, was 
introduced to the public by what may be called a literary artifice. 

" Now mark the sequel. Poor De Nerval, not at all set up by his Eastern travels, 

loses first his reason, then his money, and finally his life, dying by his own hand in one 

of the worst streets of his favourite Paris in 1855. Some seven years later MM. Catte 

and Bar bier take up his original scheme, and with the help of the ' Voyage en Orient,' 

180 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

produce their opera ' La Reine de Saba,' which was revived the other day with much 
success. In 1875 comes Mr. Heckethorn, who imports a condensed form of De Nerval's 
story into his ' Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries,' where it figures as ' The 
Legend of the Temple,' and is described as ' based on mythical tradition,' without any 
of the critics (so far as I can recollect) finding out the source of his inspiration. Some 
ten years later, the egregious M. Leo Taxi], being in want of material for the campaign 
which he was then waging under clerical colours against the ancient and respectable 
Order of Freemasons, ' lifts,' whether from the Revue des Deux Mondes or from Mr. 
Heckethorn's book I have no means of knowing, Gerard de Nerval's story, and declares 
it to be the original legend recited to every brother upon his initiation into the order. 
As the Ultramontanes, for some reasons best known to themselves, have always been 
desperately afraid of Freemasonry, and De Nerval's story contained, as did most French 
writing of his time, some anti-Christian stuff of the kind familiar to the readers of 
Baudelaire and Victor Hugo, the result was that M. Taxil's publishers netted the 
comfortable sum of £12,000 pounds out of the sale of his books, and a pother was 
commenced which culminated in an anti-Masonic Congress of some eight hundred 
persons at Trent, and the confession of M. Taxil that he had throughout been playing 
on his patrons' credulity. And all this came from poor De Nerval's venial little 
literary artifice." 

Bro. J. Ramsden "Riley writes : 

I suppose we have all our individual opinion regarding King Solomon as Masonic 
Grand Master, but our Rev. Bro. Windle's paper contains curious matter that will 
no doubt be welcomed by all. As he says, at the conclusion of his most interesting and 
able summary of " The Testament of Solomon," it is a most remarkable document. 

As a contribution to the legendary lore of the Temple, which is the title very 
appropriately given to it, I cannot conceive anything either more to the point or more 
interesting, but I doubt if the document — supposing the original to be of third or 
fourth century — contains much for Masons to build upon. It is more likely to concern 
the Jewish Church, so far as I am capable of judging. However, I have found our Rev. 
Brother's paper most engrossing reading, while regretting also that the subject is one 
on which my Biblical knowledge is about all I can claim to know about it. So I hope 
that better qualified Brethren will criticise and bring out the merits of so extraordinary 
a document. I am very curious to know if the original ends with " So mote it be," and 
I think the account generally will be a valuable addition to the many reference articles 
already garnered in our Transactions. 

I regret that, being away from home and without means of getting at my note- 
books, I am unable to reply in detail to the points raised by Bro. Horsley. 

In reference to the third pillar of "the triad," I may mention that in preparing 
this paper I met with several allusions in various books to a mystic pillar or column in 
the Temple. The language used implied that this was an object well known in legend. 
Certainly the writer of " The Testament," who does not err on the side of incredulity, 
adopts the belief current in his day ; and no less certainly he would not omit to reckon 
this famous legendary pillar along with the other two, whether obelisks or pillars, that 
in his day belonged equally to the legendary past. From his standpoint, so far as one 
can ascertain it, I venture to think the expression, though conjectural, is justifiable. 

In reply to Bro. Riley, the last word of the original Greek of " The Testament," 
is actually 'Ajx^v, i.e., verily, of a truth, so be it, or as we prefer to say, so mote it be. 

W. E. Windlb. 

Ars Quatuor Coronvtorum. 

I l/t/////t// ^Sa//S;r C/S/// CrRATCD '.\Lisr£/< f>/f//r M.1SOXS 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 
The following communication was read by the Secretary : 




Old King's Arms Lodge No. 28. 

NE of the most shadowy and mysterious characters of early Masonic 
history is Bro. Antony Sayer (or Sawyer as he is sometimes styled) 
who, as the first ' ; Grand Master of Masons," elected to that august 
office upon the revival of Grand Lodge in 1717, must be regarded as a 
person of the highest importance in the Craft. It is safe to say that 
less is known about Antony Sayer than about any Mason who has ever 
held this distinguished position, yet many Masonic writers during the 
past hundred and fifty years have vainly endeavoured to penetrate the mystery that 
surrounds his life. He came, no one knows whence, to occupy the Master's chair in the 
chief Masonic Assembly in the world, and, after a meteoric career in Grand Lodge, he 
vanished as suddenly as he appeared, into hitherto impenetrable obscurity. 

Who he was, and whence he came, save that he was a member of the Lodge at the 
Apple Tree Tavern, has never been known ; what became of him after 1730 is another 
question that has hitherto remained unanswered. The solution of this conundrum, 
which has defied the efforts of Masonic writers for years past, has lain hidden all the 
while in the records of the Old King's Arms Lodge. 

Early copies of " The Free-masons' Calendar " contain the name of Antony Sayer, 
Esq., as Grand Master in 1717, but make no mention of the fact that he acted as Grand 
Warden in 1719. The 3rd edition of " The Constitutions of the Antient and Honourable 
Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons," published by order of the Grand Lodge in 
1756, contains some few particulars, reprinted with slight alterations in verbiage from 
the 2nd edition of 1738, of Sayer's connection with Grand Lodge. In the list of the 
Grand Masters, " from the coming in of the Anglo Saxons to the year of our Lord 1756," 
which appears in this volume, Antony Sayer is referred to as follows : — 

" Sir Christopher Wren again, till he finished St. PauVs Cathedral, A.D. 1710. 
After which, no ©rani* $$las>tev till the Lodges met and chose one among 
themselves, viz : 

Antony Sayer, in the Third Year of King George I., A.D., 1717." 
The particulars of Antony Sayer's appointment as Grand Master are given on 
pp. 188 and 189 of the Constitutions as follows : — 

" King George I. entered London most magnificently on September 20th, 1714 • 
and after the Rebellion, A.D., 1716, the few Lodges at London, wanting an active Grand 
Master, by reason of Sir Christopher Wren's Disability, thought fit to cement under a 
new Grand Master, as the center of Union and Harmony. For this purpose the Lodges, 

1. At the Goose and Gridiron, in St. PauVs Churchyard, 

2. At the Crown, in Parker s-Lane, near Drury Lane, 

3. At the Apple-Tree Tavern, in Charles Street, Covent Garden, 

4. At the Bummer and Grapes Tavern, in Channel Row, Westminster, 

And some old Brothers met at the said Apple Tree; and having put into the chair the 
oldest Master Mason (being the Master of a Lodge), they constituted themselves a Grand 
Lodge pro Tempore in due Form, and forthwith revived the Quarterly Communication of 

182 Transactions of the Quatnor Coronati Lodge. 

the Officers of Lodges (called the ($tr txtxh Sobge) resolved to hold the Annual Assembly 
and Feast, and then to chuse a Grand MA6TER from among themselves, till they should 
have the Honour of a Noble Brother at their Head. 


"On St. John Baptist's Day, in the 3d year of King George I, A.D., 1717, the 
ASSEMBLY and Feast of the Free and Accepted Masons was held at the foresaid Goose 
and Gridiron ; now removed to the Queen's Arms Tavern in St. Paul's Churchyard. 

Before Dinner, the oldest Master Mason (being the Master of a Lodge) in the 
Chair, proposed a list of proper Candidates ; and the Brethren, by a Majority of Hands, 

Mr. Antony Sayer, Gentleman, ©rattfr |M aster of Masons, who being forth- 
with invested with the Badges of Office and Power by the said oldest Master, and 
installed, was duly congratulated by the Assembly, who paid him the Homage. 

Mr. Jacob Lamball, Carpenter, ") 

Grand Wardens. 

>enter, } 

Capt. Joseph Elliot, 

Sayer, Grand Master, commanded the Masters and Wardens of Lodges to meet the 
Grand Officers every Quarter in Communication, at the Place that he should appoint in 
his summons sent by the Tyler. 

" The ASSEMBLY and Feast was held at the said Place, June 24, 1718, where 
Brother Sayer, having gathered the Votes after Dinner, proclaimed aloud our Brother, 

George Payne, Esq.; (j^vcmfc l$ta«tev of Masons, etc." 

In 1749 George Payne, who in 1723 was W.M. of the Lodge at the Rummer and 
Grapes, was Worshipful Master of the Old King's Arms Lodge, and on this account 
I make no apology for quoting here a paragraph from these " Constitutions," which 
shows the estimation in which Bro. Payne was regarded by his contemporaries in 
Grand Lodge. The extract, which was added by the editor, Dr. Entick, to the record 
of his year of office, runs as follows : — 

" By the Fervency and Zeal of Grand Master Payne, the Freedom of this Society 
has been fixed upon the noble and solid Basis of those Noblemen and Princes, who have 
done Honour to the Craft, by their constant Attendance and laudable Example ; a Series 
of such noble Personages as no Age, Society, or Nation could ever boast of to have ruled 
over them ; and who, in a continued Succession will, in all Probability, govern them and 
lift them up for ever." 

At the Assembly and Feast held at " the said Place " on June 24th, 1719, the 
' ; Reverend Brother John Theophilus Desaguliers, LL.D. and F.R.S." was installed 
Grand Master, and at the same time " Mr. Antony Sayer, foresaid," was appointed a 
Grand Warden. 

From this time he almost disappears from the scene. We know that he was a 
Warden in his private Lodge, the Apple-Tree, in 1723, and that the Lodge list at the 
end of the same year, or in 1725, does not show him as holding any office, although 
remaining a member until at least 1730, from which date we have no register of mem- 
bers until some 20 years later: and the Book of Constitutions informs us that on the 
29th January, 1729-30, at the installation as Grand Master of the Duke of Norfolk, he 
walked in the procession, — blunging up the rear, therefore the post of honour, — of nine 
Past (or former) Grand Masters. This appears to have been his last appearance as a 
dignitary of Grand Lodge. 

Previously to this, as the minutes of Grand Lodge show, he was on the 21st 
November, 1724, a petitioner, presumably for charity; but whether he was relieved or 
not by the General Fund, the minutes do not record. 

Antony Sayer. 183 

On the 21st April, 1730, he was again a petitioner. "Then the Petition of 
Brother Anthony Sayer, formerly Grand Master, was read, setting forth his misfortunes 
and o-reat poverty, and praying Relief. The Grand Lodge took the same into con- 
sideration, and it was proposed that he should have £20 out of the money received on 
acct of the general charity; others proposed £10, and others £15. The Question being 
put, it was agreed that he should have £15, on acct of his having been Grand Master." 

From the minutes of Grand Lodge we gather that at the Quarterly Communica- 
tion of the 28th August, 1730, — only a few months after Bro. Sayer had been relieved — 
" A paper, signed by the Master and Wardens of the Lodge at the Queen's Head in 
Knave's Acre, was presented and read, complaining of great irregularities having been 
committed by Bro. Anthony Sayer, notwithstanding the great favours he hath lately 
received by order of the Grand Lodge." The sequel is told in the minutes of the 15th 
December, 1730, — "Bro. Sayer attended to answer the complaint made against him, and 
after hearing both parties, and some of the Brethren being of opinion that what he had 
done was clandestine, and others that it was irregular, the question was put whether what 
was done was clandestine, or irregular only, and the Lodge was of opinion that it was 
irregular only — whereupon the Deputy Grand Master told Bro. Sayer that he was 
acquitted of the charge against him, and recommended it to him to do nothing so 
irregular for the future." 

The last notice we have of him in the proceedings of Grand Lodge is the state- 
ment that on the 17th April, 1741, he was further relieved to the amount of two 
guineas from the General Charity. 

I have been lately enabled to fill up the above blank of 11 years, — 1730-1741 — in 
the life of Bro. Antony Sayer. His name appeal's in the first list of members of the 
Old King's Arms Lodge in 1733. It is quite certain that he was admitted to the Lodge 
before August 6th of that year, at which date our Minute Book opens, and it is highly 
probable, as no subsequent mention appears of his appointment, that he was made Tyler 
of the Lodge on the death of Bro. Johnson, the late Tyler, prior to August 1733. 

No reference is made to the Tyler by name until February 2nd, 1736, when the 
following item appears in the minutes. 

" Ordered Bro. Sayer the Tyler 42/- out of the Box of this Society for his present 
support and to mend his circumstances." 

On March 3rd, 1740, another Minute refers to Antony Sayer, again in connection 
with charity, as follows : — 

" Twas proposed by Brother Adams in consideration of the late hard weather, 
that Bro. Sayer might receive half a guinea Charity, twas seconded by Bro. Austin and 
being debated 'twas by a majority ordered him and he received it accordingly of the 
Right Worshipful Master." 

The last mention of Bro. Sayer fixes within a month the time of his death, which 
must have occurred between December, 1741, and January 6th, 1742, as the Minutes of 
the Lodge of the latter date contain the following item : — 

" It was moved and seconded that our Bro. Anthony Storer be appointed Tvler 
of this Lodge in the room of our late Tyler Bro. Antony Sayer, deceased. This was 
likewise unanimously agreed to " 

It is evident from these brief but conclusive references to Antony Sayer that the 
one-time Grand Master of England acted for several years as Tyler of the Old King's 
Arms Lodge, and died at the end of 174L in straitened circumstances. There is nothing 
in the Minutes to lead us to think that the Brethren were aware that their Tyler was a 
Mason of quality or distinction, but the connection between Grand Lodge and the Old 

184 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

King's Arms Lodge was so intimate in those days, that I am inclined to believe that 
the silence they preserve on this point is the fruit of good feeling rather than an omission 
due to ignorance of the facts. 

But what would have been current gossip in 1740 is ancient history in 1900, and 
I am glad to clear up an important point of Masonic Biography that has hitherto baffled 
both conjecture and research. The picture of Antony Sayer, which is reproduced with 
this article, is from a copy of an old print, which was purchased by an American 
Masonic Lodge. 

From Bro. J. Bamsden Biley : 

Our Bro. P. M. Calvert is to be congratulated on his success as wel as the merit 
of this communication. Biography is perhaps the most neglected branch of our modern 
Masonic studies, and this appears to me to be a fragment not only of interest as con- 
nected with the first Grand Master, but also of value as evidence of success in research. 
It is certain that there exists in old Lodges, like the Old King's Arms and others, a good 
deal of still unknown fact regarding the working which only needs exercise of similar 
zeal to bring it out, and this actual encouragement is just what is wanted to get these 
old Minutes carefully examined. Even if they reveal very little, the work should be 
done. There is of course nothing to criticise, but one naturally regrets the incongruity 
of a Past Grand Master tyling the door of a private Lodge, besides the sad state of his 
circumstances during the later years of Anthony Sajer's life. 

In the Review of Brother Calvert's History of the " Old King's Arms Lodge, 
No. 28," which appeared in our Transactions in 1899 (vol. xii., pp. 179-181), soon after 
its publication, only a very slight reference was made to the subject of the above paper. 
Although all the notes it contains have already appeared in the History, they are 
conveniently placed together here in our Transactions for reference. 

A slight slip in the Paper may be noticed. The name of ' Anthony Sajer, Esq." 
occurs as the S. Grand Warden in the year 1719, in the "Freemasons' Calendar" for 
1781, and later: unfortunately I do not possess those of an earlier date. 

In the MS. List of Members of Lodges, usually spoken of as that of 1730, 
Mr. Anthony Sayer appears under the Queen' Head, Knaves Acre. As the late Brother 
Lane pointed out, these lists were not made up until 1731-1732: so at least one more 
year may be added to Sayer's membership of his old Lodge. It may also be noticed 
that in the list of the members of the Lodge now represented by the Old King's Arms, 
No. 28, in the same list, Sayer's name does not occur. 

As has been often stated, very little is known about "Mr. Anthony Sayer, 
Gentleman," and yet it is only natural to suppose that he must have been an interesting 
character, or he would not have been chosen in 1717 to occupy the position of the 
Grand Master. 

Should the suggestion made by Bro. Calvert, that Anthony Sayer the G.M. was the 
same person as the Tyler of the Lodge now represented by No. 28, prove to be correct, 
it will be a most interesting addition to our knowledge of the Masonic life of the first 
Grand Master.— [Editor.] 

Transactions of the Quatunr Coronati Lodge. 



Ifg^T" \ 3 f 


HE following is a preliminary list of the Subscribers prepared by the 
Worslnpful Master, and includes the names of all those who have 
contributed to the Fund, up to December the 1st. 


In the order of their Seniority. 

Warren, Sir Charles, G.C.M.G., k.c.b., f.r.s., Lieut.-General 

Rylands, William Harry, F.s.A. 

Pratt, Sisson Cooper, Lieut.-General, Royal Artillery 

Hughan, William James 

Bywater, Witham Matthew 

Whytehead, Thomas Bowman 

Riley, John Ramsden 

Westcott, William Wynn, M.B., London 

Castle, Edward James, late Royal Engineers, Barrister-at-Law, K.C. 

Macbean, Edward 

Goldney, Frederick Hastings 

Clarke, Caspar Purdon, c.i.e., F.s.A. 

Klein, Sydney Turner, f.l.s., f.e.a.s. 

Markham, Albert Hastings, Admiral, F.r.g.s. 

Ninnis, Belgrave, M.P., Inspector General, R.N., f.R.g.s., f.s.A. 

Malczovich, Ladislas Aurele de 

Conder, Edward, jun., F.s.A., J.p. 

Greiner, Gotthelf 

Horsley, Rev. John William, m.a., Oxon., Clerk in Holy Orders, j.p. 

Shackles, George Lawrence 

Le Strange, Hamon 

Armitage, Edward, m.a. 

Thorp, John Thomas 

Hovenden, Robert, F.s.A. 



Provincial Grand Chapter of Staffordshire 

Grand Lodge of the Netherlands 

Supreme Council, A. and a.s.r., S. Jur., U.S.A. 






















Farnham, Surrey 




The Hague 


Phoenix Lodge of Honour and Prudence Truro, Cornwall 

Hayle, Cornivall 


393 St. David's Lodge 

450 Cornubian Lodge 

508 Lodge Zetland in the East 

510 St. Martin's Lodge 

542 Lodge of Philanthropy 

566 Lodge St. Germain 

711 Goodwill Lodge 

828 St. John's Lodge 

Liskeard, Cornwall 
Moulmein, Burma 
Selby, Yorks 
Port Elizabeth, S.A. 
Qrahamstown, Cape 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


1022 Rising Star Lodge 

1415 Campbell Lodge 

1665 Natalia Lodge 

1747 Transvaal Lodge 

2074 St. Clair Lodge 

2208 Horsa Lodge 

2356 Lodge Pandyan 

2433 Minerva Lodge 

2439 Lodge Mount Everest 

2678 Lodge Manica 

Hampton Court 
Pretoria, V.R.C. 
Landport, Hants 
Madura, India 
Darjeeling, Bengal 
Umtali, Rhodesia 



Southern Cross Lodge No. 398 (S.C.) 
Lodge Pretoria Celtic No. 770 (S.C.) 
Lodge Gympie No. 863 (S.C.) 
Lodge Temperance No. 897 (S.C.) 
Crescent Lodge No. 109 (Washington C.) 
Lodge St. Alban No. 38 (S.A.C.) 
Lodge Level No. 702 (S.C.) 
Mount Morgan Lodge No. 763 (S.C.) 

Pretoria, V.R.C. 
Gympie, Queensland 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Enumclan,Washington, U.S. A 
Adelaide, S. Australia 
Kirlcee, Bombay 
Mount Morgan, Queensland 


Masonic Library and Historical Society 
Rodesia Lodge of Instruction 

Angel, Robert Parsons 

Armstrong, John 

Aspland, W. G., f.r.g.s. 

Atherton, Jeremiah Leech 

Atkinson, Rev. Christie 
Chetwynde, m.a. 

Baildon, James Owen 

Bain, J. Wilson 

Ballantyne, Thomas J. 

Barlow, William, ll.d. 

Barron, Ed ward Jackson, r.s. A 

Baskett, Samuel Russell 

Bear, G. A. 

Becker, Pitt 

Bell, James Richard 

Bell, Seymour 

Berry, Henry F., m.a. 

Bestow, Charles Horton 

Bevan, Paul 

Binney, Joseph 

Bird, Francis 

Blaker, Walter C. 

Blinkhorn, Edward 

Blood, John Neptune, 
M.A., B.C.L. 

Bodenham, John 

Bomeisler, Louis Edwin 

Boor, Leonard George 

Boswell, Arthur George 

Newton Abbot 
Bingley, Yorks 

Ashton-on- Mersey 



Illinois, U.S.A. 












Maiden, Essex 



Newport, Salop 
New York 
Bromley, Kent 

Society Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.A. 


Boteler, William Stewart 


Boulton, James 


Bowser, Wilfred Arthur 


Braine, Woodhonse 


Braithwaite, Edward A. 


Breed, Edward Aries Thomas Brighton 

Briers, Frank Ellis 


Brooking, William 


Brown, Albert 


Brown, J. 

Punja b 


■ London 

Brown, William Peter 


Browning, A. G., f.s.a. 


Bruennich, Johannes 



Bruce, Alexander 


Bruce, J. McPhail 

Neivcastle-on- Tyne 

Bryant, R. R. 


Buchanan, J. 


Buchanan, James Isaac 


Buck, Edward H. 


Buckeridge, Edward Henry 


Buckham, George Milward 

Battle, Sussex 

Burnand, Alphonse A. 


Burtchaell, George Dames, 

M.A., L.L.B., B.L., Sec. R.S.A., 



Busbridge, Walter 


Butler, Charles 


Speth ^Memorial Fund. 


Cama, Dorabjee Pestonjee 
Campkin, H. H. 
Cart, Rev. Henry Thomas 
Carter, Elmer Josiah 

Montana, U.S.A. 

Carus-Wilson, Ed. Willyams Truro, Cornwall 
Cassal, Marcel Victor London 

Caster, F. Peterborough 

Cheesman, William Norwood Selby, York 
Clay, Robert Keating Eilliney, Dublin 

Clifford, Henry John New Zealand 

Clift, W. E. Port Elizabeth 

Cobham, Charles, f.s.i. Gravesend 

Cockson,W.VincentShepstoneTe?nbwZand, S. Africa 

Cohu, Thomas 

Collens, William James 

Collins, Howard J. 

Conder, Edward 

Cook, Thomas 

Corsham, Reuben 

Costello, F. 

Cranswick, William F. 

Crossle, Francis C, M.B. 

Crundall, Arthur William 

Cunliffe, William Joseph 

Cunningham, Rev. William 

Danielsson, Leonard 

Dansie, Brandon 

Darling, Alexander 

Davies, J- Hudson 

Davis, F. R. 

Davy, F D. 

Day, Edward Harry 

D'Amer-Drew, J. 

Deacon, Rev. E. W. 

Deats, Hiram Edmund 

Dickinson, William 

Digby- Green, Arthur 

Dodds, William 

Doe, H. W. 

Dorman, Thomas Phipps 

Drummond, the Hon. Josiah 

Dumolo, William 

Eaborn, H. 

Ebblewhite, Ernest A., f.s.A. 

Bromley, Kent 




Durban, Natal 



Kimberley, S. Africa 

Newry, Ireland 





Bexley Heath 





Assiout, Upper Egypt 

West Melbourne 


New Jersey, U.S.A. 






Maine, U.S.A. 

Edwards, Charles Lewis, r.s.s. Buenos Ayres 

Eisenmann, J. 

Ellis, Richard Sydney 

Everingham, Edward 

Eversley, William Pinder 

Fawcett, John E. 

Fenwick, R. 

Fern, Edmund Watkins 

Ferry, C. E. 

Foley, Thomson 

Forbes, Samuel Russell, ph.d. Rome 

Foster, Frank Oswald Queensland 









Beverley Yorks 

Fox, Walter Caughey 

Francis, Thomas 

Francis, Wesley 

Frost, Fred Cornish, f.s.i. 

Fuerst, H. 

Fulford, F. H., f.r.hist.s. 

Fuller, Rev. A. S., d.d. 

Garden, John 

Gardner, J. G. 

Ghislain, Louis 

Ghosh, Dr. Rakhaldas 

Gibbs, Capt. James Alec C. 

Gieve, John William 

Gill, Henry Frederick 

Giraud, Francis Frederick 

Glaeser, Edward Nicholas 

Glaeser, F. A. 

Glaister, George J. 

Goblet, D'Alviella, Le Comte, 
Membre de 1' Acadamie 

Gorgas, William Luther 

Gouhl, Joseph 

Grant, Donald John 

Green, Edwavd Thaddeus 

Greenwood, Thomas 

Greery, Robert 

Greiner, Ernest 

Griffiths, C. J. W. 

Griffiths, Harold 

Haarbuiger, Ivan H. 

Hall, H. Foljambe, f.r.hist.s. 

Hall, James J. 

Hallows, Frederick 

Hamm, Johannes M. 

Hammond, William 

Hanify, Gerald Page 

Hansard, Luke 

Harben, Henry Andrade 

Hardy, Andrew Allen 

Hare, Sholto H.,f.r.HIST.s.,&c 

Harrer, Dr. C. 

Harris, Henry 

Haworth, Wallace Ellwood, 

M.B., CM. 

Hazzledine, F. A. 

Henderson, William, J. p. 

Hertslet, Godfrey Edward 
Proctor, f.r.G.s. 

Hide, G. J. 

Hills, Gordon, P.G., a.r.i.b A. 

Hobbs, Thomas H. 

Hodson, James 

Holland, Job 

Horwill, Hughes 

Houndle, Henry Charles 
Herman Hawker 

Hudson, Robert 








Winburgh, R.C. 

Oraaf Reinet, Cape 

Mons, Belgium 




Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 





Brabant, Belgium 

Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 







New Zealand 

Sutton, Surrey 

Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 


llfvrd, Essex 








Clifton, Bristol 





Klipdam, S. Africa 


Buenos Ayres 



Robertsbridge, Sussex 





Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Hughes, Robert 
Hughes, William 
Hunter, Colonel Charles, 

F.R.8. EDIN., F.S.A. SCOT. 

Isebree-Moens, Joost 

Isler, C. 

Jackson, W. Grierson, i.c.s. 

James, Hugh 

Johnston, Professor Swift 
Paine, M.A. 

Jones, Thomas 

Jones, Thomas 

Keble, Harman, j.p. 

Keighley, Lt.-Col., cm., c.b. 

Kemmis, H. W. S. 

Kemp, William David 

Kerr, Robert England 

Knight, Arthur 

Knobel, Alfred 

Lake, Richard, f.r.c.s. 

Lake, William 

Lambert on, J. McCormick 

Lamonby, W. Farquharson 

Lange, Paul 

Langton, John Gordon 

Lavery, Hugh 

Lea, Edwin, j.p. 

Le Peuvre, Major John 
Emilius, j.p. 

Leslie, Major John H., r.a. 

Letts, Alfred Woodley 

Levander, Fredk.Wm. f.r.A.S. 

Lewis, Rayner Blount 

Lindsay, Thomas 

Littleton, J. 

Lockwood, Joseph 

Loewy, Benno 

Logan, William 

Lovegrove, H., f.s.i., a.r.i.b.a. 

Lowe, P. J. 

MacDonald,John Christopher 

MacLeod, James Morrison 

Macpherson-Grant, John 

Malcolm, John Cooper 

Marriott, H. P. Fitzgerald, 

Marrs, H. J. 

Martin, George 

Masson, David Parkes 

Mathews, Robert Humphrys 

Matthews, H. J. 

Maunsell, Major G. W. 

McLean, W. 

Mead, Arthur Charles 

Mendelssohn, Sidney 

Meredith, Sir J. Creed, ll.d. 

Metcalf, George Reuben, m.d. 

Sandgate, Kent 











Alberta, Canada 




Mackay, Queensland 





Senekel, O.R.C. 


Bendigo, Victoria 

Churchdown, near 



New Barnet, Herts 






New York, U.S.A. 






Kingussie, N.B. 



Buenos Ayres 


Lahore, Punjab 

New South Wales 


South Africa 

Middle Brighton, Vict. 




Minnesota, U.S.A. 

Metcalfe, W. 

Mickley, George, m.a., m.b. 

Mold, Charles Trevor 

Mold, R. 

Molly, Harry J. 

Moore,Lieut.-Col.,W. F.,a.s.c. 

Morecroft, Arthur Hubert 

Morphy, Ferdinand Jamison 

Mulligan, J. 

Nairne, Perceval Alleyn 

Naoroji, Dadabhai 

Nickel, Dr. August Ferdinand 

Noehmer, C. W. 

O'Duffy, John 

Oram, William Adams 

Osman, Constant Edward 

Page, Alfred 

Paine, Charles C. 

Palmer, Edward Joseph 

Palmer, Rev. James Nelson 

Palmer-Thomas, R. 

Paramore, David Lewis 

Patton, Thomas R. 

Peck, Michael Charles 

Pepper, J. F. 

Perceval, John 

Peters, Herbert William 

Phillips, Ebenezer S. 

Philon, Nicholas 

Pickering, George Alfred 

Pickett, Jacob, m.d. 

Pike, H. W. 

Pinckard, George Josiah 

Pollard, Joseph 

Powell, F. A., f.r.i.b.a. 

Powley, George Henry 

Preston, R. A. Berthon, M.A. 

Probyn, Lieut. -Col. Clifford 

Pryce, Thomas Lawrence 

Pulvermann, Martin 

Purvis, Rev. A. E. 

Pym, Edward Ferriter Lucas 

Rainey, James Jarvis 

Railing, Thomas John 

Raymond, Percy Miles 

Rebman, Francis Joseph 

Reed.W. H. 

Reep, John Robertson 

Reid, John 

Richards, George 

Richards, J. Peeke 

Rider, Rev. W. Wilkinson 

Riley, Thomas 

Robbins, Alfred Farthing 

Robbins, John 

Robertson, J. Ross 

Waltham Cross 

Saffron Walden, Essex 

Buenos Ayres 

Buenos Ayres 

Mysore, India 



Buenos Ayres 

Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 



Perleberg, Germany 

Ryde, Isle-of. Wight 

Washington, U.S.A. 
Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
Wexford, Ireland 
Kimberley, S. Africa 
Connecticut, U.S.A. 
Piraeus, Greece 
New Orleans, U.S.A. 

Auckland, New Zealand 

Johannesburg, V.R.C. 
Spilsby, Lincolnshire 
Colchester, Essex 
California, U.S.A. 

Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 

Port Elizabeth, Cape 
Harrogate, Yorkshire 
Toronto, Canada 

Speth Memorial Fund. 


Robinson, Henry 
Ronaldson, Rev. W. 
Rowley, Walter, m.i.c.e., 

F.8.A., F.G.S. 

Rushton, W. H. 

Russell, Herbert Henry Anson 

Russell, Joseph 

Sandbach, Arthur Edmund, 
Lieut. -Col. r.k. 

Sanderson, C. E. Fenwick 

Saunders, Sibert 

Saunders, Wm. John H. 

Scott, Hugh Jamieson 

Scott-Hall, Rev. William E., 


Shallcrass, G. 

Shanks, P. H., m.d. 

Shields, Isaac Mann 

Silberbauer, Conrad Christian 

Simon, L. 

Simonsen, Sophus Heimann 

Sinclair, Hugh William 

Sinclair, William 

Smith, A. H. 

Smith, Charles Winlove 

Smith, General John Corson 

Smith, William Henry 

Snelling, William Walton 

Snowball, Fitzgerald 

Snowball, Oswald Robinson 

Songhurst, William John 

Spalding, John Tricks 

Sparks, Henry James 

Spiers, James 

Squier, Hamilton R. 

Stauffer, William Ferdinand 

St. Clair, Ernest 

Steele, Lawrence 

Stimson, Edward 

Stokes, John, m.d. 

Stone, Walter Henry 

Stnttaford, William Foot 

Sudlow, Robert Clay 

Sutherland, Henry 

Sutton, S- John 

Symns, R. C. 

Tate, Clement John Gifford 

Tate, John 

Taylor, Thomas 

Terry, Maj.-Gen. Astley 

Oympie, Queensland 
Dunedin, Neiv Zealand 


Muttra, India 
Brisbane, Queensland 

Whitstable, Kent 
Michigan, U.S.A. 


Melbourne, Victoria 



Cape Town 






Kings Lynn 



West cliff -on-Sea 







New York 







Worcester Park, Surrey 



Tembuland, S. Africa 

Rangoon, Burma 

Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 

Poona, India 

Newcastle, Staffordshire 


Terry, Astley H., Major A.s.c. 
Tharp, John Alfred 
Tharp, William Anthony 
Thomas, Jabez Edwin 
Thomas,Lieut.-Col.W. F.,m.d. 
Thompson, John 
Thomson, Andrew 
Thome, William 
Thornton, Wm. Henry Lindsay 
Tracy, Nathaniel 
Upton, Hon. William Henry, 

M.A., LL.M., F.E.S.A. 

Vassar- Smith, Rich'd Vassar 
Vernon, William 
Vibert, Arthur Lionel, c.S. 
Wagner, John J. Green, R.N. 
Wakeford, George William 
Walker, Chas.Rotherham, M.D. 
Walsh, Albert 
Ward, G. A. 
Warliker, Lieut. -Col. 

Darmodar, a.m.c. 
Warre, C. Bampfylde 
Watson, James Procter, J. p. 
Webb, J. 

Weiss, Felix Henri 
Wells, Dr. Charles 
Welsh, William Henry 
Weston, Samuel Thomas 
Westropp, Thomas Johnson, 

M.A., M.R.r.A. 
Whadcoat, John H.,f.r.g.s., 

F.S.S., M.S. A., F.C.A., &C, J. P. 

White, Thomas Charters 

Whitley, Edward Forbes 

Wiebe, Carl Cornelius 

Wild, Lewis 

Williams, S. Stacker 

Wilson, J. M. 

Wilton, William John 

Withers, S. 

Withey, Thomas Archer 

Woodthorpe, John William 

Wright, William 

Wright, Wm. Hy. Sterling 

Wrightson, Arthur, f.r.i.b.a. 

Wyatt, Rev. Vitruvius 

Wynter, Andrew Ellis, M.D. 

Yeomans, W. J. 







Middle Brighton, Vict. 

Cape Town 

Toowoomba, Que'nsl'd 

Ipswich, Suffolk 

Washington, U.S.A. 
Hove, Sussex 
Port Elizabeth 






Cookham Dean 




Poole, Dorset 


Truro, Cornivall 













Beckenham, Kent 
Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 

190 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


EDALS of British Freemasonry— Commemorative and Historical. 1 

This handsome volume is the English portion of the trio on Masonic 
Medals, Parts 1 and 2, in German, having been published some little 
time since. Bro. G. L. Shackles, who has an unrivalled collection of 
exclusively Masonic Medals — struck from dies — undertook " the 
onerous and honourable duty of drawing up the first scientific account 
of the Masonic Medals of the British Isles, Colonies and Dependencies," and has 
admirably discharged the trust reposea in him by "the common consent of his 
brethren." No one else has such facilities, and assuredly he has been pre-eminently 
"the right man in the right place," as Editor and Compiler of this most remarkable 
and valuable work, relating to Masonic Medals, struck for commemorative or historical 
purposes, in this Country. 

Bro. Sbackles has worked most diligently to make the volume as complete as 
possible, and what is more, has succeeded beyond the most sanguine anticipations of 
the few who know, and so can fully appreciate what is involved in such an enterprise. 

I have tried my hand a little at such studies, for many years past, and from an 
actual realization of the numerous difficulties incidental to reproductions of rare, curious 
and artistic Masonic Medals, can, and do, most warmly congratulate Bro. Shackles on 
the publication of the first work on the subject which is really worthy of the British 
Fraternity and a great credit to all concerned ; he himself assuredly having done "the 
lion's part " in securing its representative character. The labour has been considerable, 
and my friend deserves no little praise for sparing so many valuable pieces from his 
collection for reproduction ; for had any of the specials been lost or injured they could 
scarcely be duplicated at any price. 

Bro. Shackles was wise in asking Dr. W. J. Cbetwode Crawley to write the 
Introduction, for it will remain as a Masonic Classic on the Science for all time; both 
on historical grounds and in relation to the subject as a most absorbing and interesting 
study. The study is one, however, involving considerable expense for collectors like 
General Lawrence and others, who aim at possessing every piece struck, a consumma- 
tion being in process of realization, happily for the Grand Lodge of England, through 
the well directed, persistent and intelligent efforts of Bro. Henry Sadler, whose 
endeavours to make the Library and Museum equal to the needs and position of the 
premier Grand Lodge, are always warmly supported by the Grand Secretary. 

I shall have occasion to quote from Dr. Crawley's Introduction, as this article 
progresses, and indeed were it fair so to do, I should like to incorporate the whole of his 
valuable and original contribution, rather than offer any remarks of my own, because 
for the purpose his scholarly production leaves nothing to be desired. 

" With the New Learning, the Science of Numismatics was born. The Science 
is of those that act and are re-acted upon. In course of time it was found that to 
properly understand a Cabinet of Medals, required and returned the aid of History and 
Geography, of Archaeology and Ethnology, of Philology and Mythology. . . . The 

1 By Bro. G. L. Shackles, with an Introduction by Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley. [Price 7/6, 
from the Secretary, Bromley, Kent.] 

"Reviews. 191 

Science divides itself naturally into two main branches : one concerning itself with 
pieces designed solely for historical or artistic purposes : the other, with pieces issued 
to facilitate commerce." 

Dr. Crawley proceeds to show how this led to " a natural line of cleavage, and 
readily lent itself to further subdivisions." Each of these " supplies material for a life's 
work, aud finds enthusiastic students who bring to their task trained intelligence, 
artistic skill, and sound scholarship. Such an one is our Bro. George L. Shackles." 

After a few graceful references to British and American collectors and students, 
he duly recognizes the early study of the subject and the collection of pieces by our 
German brethren, besides kindred collections at the Hague and at Stockholm. "Indeed 
the connection between the reigning House and Freemasonry has placed Sweden at the 
head of the Masouic Medal-work of the present day." 

Of late years valuable Collections have been formed in this Country, but when I 
began the study the subject had long been neglected by the British Craft. Now, how- 
ever, the Masonic Cabinets owned by Bros. G. W. Bain. F. J. W. Crowe, J. Newton, 
J. T. Thorp, W. H. Rylands. the Provinces of Leicester, Worcester, and West Yorkshire 
(obtained by the indefatigable Bro. William Watson), the " Quatuor Coronati" Lodge, 
the " Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite," and the Grand Lodge of 
England have quite removed that reproach. 

Brethren desirous of knowing more about the subject should consult a Paper read 
by Bro. Shackles to the members of our Lodge on October 1st, 1897, (A.Q.G , pp. 189- 
193,) and those who have the handsome trio of volumes published by the enterprising 
and enthusiastic ZirJcel-Correspondenz of Hamburg (under the auspices of the M.W. Bro. 
Carl C. Wiebe, Grand Master), cannot do better than carefully consult those magnificent 
books. Zacharias and Merzdorf were most valuable in their day, but they have been 
superseded by Bro. W. T. R. Marvin, M.A., of Boston, U.S.A., who has already described 
over eleven hundred pieces, many being illustrated, either in his noble work of 1880 or 
still continued to be described in the "American Journal of Numismatics." 

Dr. Crawley claims that the Mother Grand Lodge of the world was fitly repre- 
sented, from its earliest days, among the scholars and artists who cultivated the study 
of medals, by Dr. Rawlinson and Martin Folkes, Elias Ashmole representing the older 

But at the present time "the great glory of English Masonic Numismatists is 
the magnificent cabinet formed by Bro. Geo. L. Shackles, of Hull," and it has been 
mainly from his marvellous Collection that the pieces have been selected for Volume 3, 
of the valuable series. It comprises over one thousand medals (exclusive of duplicates) ; 
such a large number being all the more remarkable, because no specimens have been 
admitted unless struck from dies and conforming to the most rigid tests as Masonic 
Medals. I sympathise with my friend Dr. Crawley in his regret that such a rule has 
excluded several pieces of interest and importance, besides " a host of Jewels of Office 
Lodge Jewels, Badges of Membership, engraved discs, [a very large number] and jetons, 
that fringe the outskirts of our medal work," and I am persuaded that were a few 
hundreds of the best of these reproduced in another volume, it would possibly equal in 
beauty and suggestive designs any of its predecessors. It seems hard lines to omit 
from such a cabinet the numerous Medals that have been struck from dies, simply 
because the fields have been cut out, and left the symbols all the more prominent. 
However, so it is, and it makes the number so much the less to consider. 

Volume 3 contains reproductions of one hundred and fourteen medals, struck in 
relation to British Freemasonry, taken directly from the pieces, being a distinctive and 

192 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronatl Lodge. 

most important feature of the series (mostly obverses and reverses), which have been 
described by Bro. Shackles in a most interesting manner, and free from the technicali- 
ties of the science, which would only confuse ordinary readers. The pieces are numhered 
consecutively for facility of reference, as well as their position indicated according to 
Marvin's enumeration. There are twelve fine plates. 

Naturally the first noted is the " Gorroogon Satirical Medal," which though only 
stated to be in the Rostock V.L. Collection, is also in Bro. W. H. Rylands' Cabinet, and 
one or two others. It is well to point, just now, that only one or two collections are 
usually mentioned in the volume, which contain the particular specimens ; the others 
not being recorded. The next is that very rare medal, struck for Loge L'Immortalite 
de L'Ordre, No. 376, London, of a.d. 1766. The only one T know of in this country is 
in Bro. Shackles' possession. The " Freemason s' Hall Medal," struck in 1781, makes 
the first trio, and T believe is also to be met with in bronze. Only thirteen Metro- 
politan and four Provincial Lodges have the right to this handsome decoration, worn 
by their Worshipful Masters for the time being. 

The "Country Stewards" is a beautiful specimen of the medallic art, one at 
Worcester having the inscription engraved " Samuel Glanfield 1790" (No. 18). 

The " Dr. Barry," of gold, by Kirk, of 1808, is unique as respects its reverse, and 
is in the British Museum, but in the Grand Lodge and West Yorkshire cabinets there 
are specimens struck from the same dies (possibly about 1775), only lacking an inscrip- 
tion, both being of bronze. 

The sixth reproduction is the smallest of the kind known, being rather less than 
a threepenny bit, having an undraped bust of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex on the 
obverse and was doubtless circulated to commemorate the union of December, 1813. 
Bro. Shackles says the only known specimen is in the Bintish Museum, which is of 
gold. One of the same design and metal was sold in 1887, and belonged to the late 
Bro. C. Williams, of Birmingham (vide Freemason, 8th October, 1887), so that unless 
this is the one that was bought for our National Collection, there are two existing. 

One of the most elaborate as respects design is No. 7, published by Bro. Hollins, 
of Birmingham (Prince of Wales and the Duke of Clarence in 1802), and a still rarer 
medal and unsurpassed in execution is No. 14, of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, G.M., in 
recognition of his valuable services to the Craft about 1844. Another, with the bust of 
H.R.H. as obverse and the Freemasons' Hall, Bath, on the reverse, is also exceedingly 
rare and one in which I hare taken especial interest. 

There is no lack of information as to the noted Masonic Halfpennies, of great 
variety of edges, etc., and as to the larger size of 1795, Bro. Shackles does not believe 
there were " two a penny," but only one, the second being a " a misstruck piece." 

The Grand Jubilee Medal, struck by my lamented friend Bro. George Kenning, 
to commemorate Her Majesty's long reign, was executed from my design, the obverse 
being also utilized for another, not quite so fine as a specimen, which was published by 
the same Brother in relation to the Diamond Jubilee, ten years later. 

The handsome presentation medal of the Mark Grand Lodge, as a prize to one 
scholar annually, is not for any particular " Charity School," as the children thus 
educated are distributed throughout the country according to their residences, and not 

in one Institution. 

The "Nine Excellent Masters," or "Nine Worthies" of the " Atholl Grand 
Lodo-e " of 1792, is a medal of a similar design used long before that date, even back to 
1767 or earlier, of which several issues still exist. 

Reviews. 193 

A very rare and valuable medal is the "King Alfred " of 1772 (circa), which it is 
said was struck for the " Alfred No. 3-10," Oxford, but this is an error, as the Lodge was not 
formed until 1814. The medal was first drawn attention to by Bro. Marvin, in his in- 
valuable work (or rather whilst it was being printed in the " American Journal of 
Numismatics,") but he failed to discover its origin. I was fortunate however in 
tracing it to the " Royal Alfred Lodge," Oxford, chartered in 1769. The records are 
owned by the "Apollo University Lodge " No. 357, for whom I obtained one of the 
pieces of this choice production. The members of the old and extinct Lodge ordered 
forty of the Medals to be struck, on October 22nd, 1772, the cost to the Brethren being 
half a guinea each. 

The Sussex Medal of the " Lambton Lodge" No. 375, Chester-le-Street, is a noble 
decoration, full particulars of which will be found in the " Ars " for 1895 (illustrated). 
A still rarer medal is that of the extinct " Union " Lodge, Exeter, by Kirk, a.d. 1766 
circa, numbered 244 in 1781. I have never seen an original, but an illustration appears 
in " Trewman's Principles " of 1777 (Exeter). The only one known is in the Rostock 

The Royal Arch Medal of Bro. James Newton's is unique apparently, though 
it must have been costly to produce, and both sides have been struck from dies. The 
centre design of the " Mount Lebanon " and " Burlington " Lodge Medals is the same, 
which was quite a puzzle to Bro. Shackles until he found the clue. On the reverse of 
the gold Medal of the " Old Union Lodge No. 46," London, in the Worcester Collection, 
is the inscription: — " With permission of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, M.W.G.M., worn 
by Bro. Thos. Parkinson, .... 11th June, 1835." 

The " Centenary Royal Arch " of the " Royal Cumberland " No. 41, Bath, is not 
of a special design for that particular Charter, though it was the first of the kind to 
celebrate a centenary, the Charter being granted by the First Grand Principal. The 
Grand Superintendent presented it to the members. The lamented Col. S. H. Gierke, 
Grand Scribe E., and others of us interested in the matter, attended, and much enjoyed 
the celebration. 

The "Restoration" No. Ill, Darlington, was warranted 19th June, 1761, and 
its Medal is rather a choice design. The " Mother Lodge Kilwinning" No. 0, is one of 
the oldest in Scotland, and its senior pendicile of the Canongate, Edinburgh, a.d. 1677, 
is one of the most interesting, historically considered, of all the Lodges on the Scottish 
Roll, or of any country. The senior Lodge of all is the " Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel " 
No. 1 (not No. 12, page 85), which has Records from 1599. The several medals struck 
in Edinburgh, relative to the Foundation Stone laying of the New Exchange, 1753, and 
that for the Leith Bridge, 1763, are of great value and rarity ; the particulars appended 
by Bro. Shackles being most welcome. 

I am not at all sure that the Grand Master's Lodge, Dublin, formed in 1749, was 
for purposes analogous to the " Grand Stewards' Lodge," London, as noted by Bro. 
Shackles, but Dr. Crawley will be a better authority on that subject than either of us. 
Anyway the medal is a good one, and rare. There is one in the fine Cabinet of the 
Supreme Council 33°, London. 

The " Minden Lodge" of 1748 is not mentioned in Bro. John Lane's invaluable 
"Masonic Records, 1717-1894" (England), because it was on the Register of the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland. I think, with Bro. Shackles, that the Medal, struck for its Centenary 
in 1848, is alone represented in the Collection of the Grand Lodge of England. 

The several Dr. Buimes' Medals are both rare and choice, some being quite 
unknown to me, and I question if they are in any other cabinet but Bro. Shackles ; and 

194 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

those of the " Old Lodge St. John's," Lanark, and the Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Minorca, are nearly as little known. 

Thanks to Dr. Crawley and Dr. Begemann, the celebrated Sackville Medal 
(owned by Bro. Gr. W. Bain and a very few others) has been placed on a solid historical 
foundation, and was struck for a Lodge in 1733 to commemorate the Mastership of Lord 
Charles Sackville, at Florence. 

There is a curious error in No. 115, re the celebrated Folkes' Medal. It is dated 
5742, not " S 742." 

But I must conclude this lengthy notice of this magnificent volume by Bro. 
Shackles. He has rendered a service to the British Craft and the " Quatuor Coronati " 
Lodge in particular, for which we all shall long be his debtor. Whatever may sub- 
sequently be written on the subject, this volume will never be displaced from the proud 
position it is bound to occupy, by reason of the contributions of Bro. Gr. L. Shackles and 
Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley ; my only regret being that our dear Bro. Speth was not 
spared to see the completion of the work in which he took such an active interest, and 
about which no one would have rejoiced more than he because of its conspicuous success. 

Wm. James Hughan. 

The Medals of British Freemasonry. 1 — The book I am about to review is "a 

photographic reproduction of Medals struck by British Lodges and Freemasons, together 
with an accurate description of each specimen and a full account of the person or event 
thereby commemorated." There are twelve plates, containing 175 illustrations, — for an 
intelligent study of which the reader will be agreeably prepared, by an attentive perusal 
of Dr. Crawley's charming " Introduction." 

Much has happened during the past four years, and to many members of our 
vast association the Transactions of this Lodge for 1897 will seem very ancient history, 
but to those of them that possess the volume for that year, may be confidently recom- 
mended a reference to the valuable paper on ' ; Masonic Medals," read by Bro. 
Shackles at the October meeting, and which will be found in A.Q.G., x., pp. 189-193. 
The following are the closing words of his address : — " I am confident that if any of you 
should be induced to study Masonic Numismatics, you will find that you have selected 
a most delightful branch of archaBological research, you will, however, not only have to 
make yourselves thoroughly acquainted with the history of Masonry in the British 
Isles, but it will be incumbent on you to study the Annals of the Craft in all other 
Jurisdictions, and to become an extensive reader of general European literature, notably 
in the departments of History and Biography. All of which, indeed, I may observe, 
you will find alike engrossing, amusing, and instructive." 

In Epistle v., of his Moral Essays, occasioned by the Dialogues on Medals of his 
friend Addison, the most widely known poet of the Augustan age says : — 

" Perhaps, by its own ruins sav'd from flame, 
Some bury'd marble half preserves a name ; 
That Name the learn'd with fierce disputes pursue, 
And give to Titus old Vespasian's due. 

Ambition sigh'd : she found it vain to trust 
The faithless Column and the crumbling Bust ; 
Convinc'd, she now contracts her vast design, 
And all her triumphs shrink into a Coin." 

1 By Geo. L. Shackles, P.M., P.P.G.D., N. & E. Yorks.; with an Introduction by W. J. Chetwode 
Crawley, LL.D., D.C.L., P.G.D., Ireland. 

Reviews. 195 

In the ancienb world it was understood that coins had nobler uses than to pay 
reckonings with, and even where, as in Athens, a great commerce rendered necessary a 
constant mark — Pallas and the Owl — it was found possible to celebrate almost all great 
political events upon the coins, which thus became not mere currency or chronology, 
but an aesthetic abstract of the times. Coins also throw light on passages in the 
classics, especially the poets, and embody important facts in music, mathematics, and 
mechanics. The works of many great sculptors live only on the coins, which also 
contain the only portraits of some of the world's greatest men. 

While, therefore, allowance has to be made for conscious anachronisms, re-stamp- 
ing with new dies, and forgery, the evidence of coins when you have deciphered them is 
generally admitted to be superior to that of other written records. 

It would be easy to show the utility of Numismatics in settling, or at least 
partially illuminating, many obscure points in Masonic history. But to do this I 
should have either to encroach upon the domain of Dr. Crawley, whose admirable 
" Introduction" covers the whole field, or to divorce from their proper context many of 
Bro. Shackles' remarks, which will be most profitably perused in an uninterrupted 
sequence, and by a careful study, at first hand, of his two luminous expositions on the 
Medallic history of the Society. 

The volume under review, as Dr. Crawley has happily observed, is " the first 
scientific account of the Masonic Medals of the British Isles, Colonies, and Depen- 
dencies " ; to borrow further from the same authority, " A remarkable feature of the 
present series, which distinguishes it from all its predecessors, is that all the illustra- 
tions and descriptions have been taken directly from the Medals themselves. Nothing 
has been taken at second hand." 

The medals selected for representation are of great interest and variety. The 

specimens which have most struck my own fancy, are the medals of the Gormogons, 

Freemasons' Hall, Country Stewards' Lodge, Nine Worthies, Minden Lodge, Provincial 

Grand Lodge of Minorca, Sackville, Martin Folkes, and the four that were executed to 

commemorate the services — Military and Masonic — of Dr. James Burnes. But the large 

number of illustrations afford a wide range of choice, and few or any who take up the 

volume, will lay it down without having derived both pleasure and instruction from a 

scrutiny of its contents. 

R. F. Gould. 



FRIDAY, 8th NOVEMBER, 1901. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present : — Bros. B. Conder, Jun., 
W.M; G. Greiner, S.W. ; E. J. Castle, J.W. ; W. H. Rylands, Sec. ; R. F. Gould, 
P.G.D., as I.P.M. ; F. H. Goldney, P.G.D. as S.D. ; Rev. J. W. Horsley, J.D. ; G. L. 
Shackles, I. G.; E. Armitage, Steward. Past Masters W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B. ; 
E. Macbean, C. Purdon Clarke, S. T. Klein; and J. T. Thorp, Dr. B. Ninnis, and 
H. le Strange, Prov. G.M. Norfolk. 

Also the following fifty-seven members of the Correspondence Circle: — Bros. 
T. Cohu, C. A. Markham, C. Isler, W. F. Roberts, W. H. Stone, W. H. Pocklington, 
G. Fulbrook, W. J. Songhurst, T. Charters White, Dr. Howard, H. E. Overbeck, 
J. P. Richards, E. Greiner, J. C. Nixon, S. W. Furze-Morrish, J. M. Hamm, A. L. Clarke, H. Eaborn, 
W. Chambers, T. Taylor, J.G.D. ; J. C. Pocock, H. J. Kingdon, C. N. Cobbett, J. Young, Rev. A. C. L. 
Robertson, F. A. Powell, J. Jones, L. Simon, H. J. Hazel, W. W. West, W. A. Bowser, E. A. Ebblewhite, 
R. M. Marples, E. H. Davis, W. Curry, A. Smith, E. Glaeser, J. F. Henley, H. James, Rev. H. E. Gunson, 
F. Hallows, B. W. Deacon, H. Whitney, R. T. Grisenthwaite, C. A. C. Keeson, J. M. MacLeod, P.G.S.B.; 
P. Becker, J. Webb, E. L. W. White, Dr. C. Harrer, A. Carpenter, R. Manuel, Dr. B. T. Hutchinson, 
J. H. Clare, Rev. W. E. Scott-Hall, L. Danielsson, and R. Orttewell. 

Also the following fifteen visitors :— Bros. C. Fichtner, Pilgrim Lodge No. 238; G. J. MacKay, 
P.Gr.St.B., England ; S. Meymott, Fortescue Lodge No. 847 ; W. H. Bale, P.M., "Vitruvian Lodge No. 87; 
D. Willcox, Shettleston St. John Lodge No. 128 (S.C.) ; F. R. Ridley, Surrey Masonic Hall Lodge No. 
1539 ; A. B. Walters, Moira Lodge No. 92 ; E. Bilcliffe, Royal Leopold Lodge No. 16f>9 ; A. Turner, 
Olicana Lodge No. 1522 ; P. Fitzgerald, Richard Eve Lodge No. 2772 ; F. Stotzer, W.M., Pilgrim Lodge 
No. 238; G. S. Brooks, Panmure Lodge No. 723; T. L. Wilkinson, P. D.G.Reg. ; C. T. Stewart, Shirley 
Woolmer Lodge No. 2530; and G. A. Wilding, St. Peter's Lodge No. 1024. 

The Lodge was draped in mourning. 

The W.M. referred to the severe loss the Lodge had suffered by the death of their dear friend 
and Brother, P.M. Caesar Kupferschmidt. He felt sure that it would be the wish of every member of 
the Lodge that a letter of condolence should be sent by him to Mrs. Kupferschmidt, expressing their 
sympathy, and the respect and affection borne towards her deceased husband. 

Four Lodges and eighteen Brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

Telegrams and letters were read from the following' Brethren regretting that they were unable 
to attend :— Col. S. C Pratt, Dr W. Wynn Westcott, T. B. Whytehead, Admiral Markham, W. J. Hughan, 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley, J. P. Rylands, F. J. W. Crowe, L. de Malczovich, and Carl Wiebe. 

The W.M. announced that the Book on British Masonic Medals was now complete and would be 
issued in a few days. The best thanks of the Lodge were voted to Brother Shackles for the trouble 
and care he had bestowed on collecting, and so completely describing the large series of Medals 
contained in the work ; and also to Brother Dr. Chetwode Crawley for the valuable and interesting 
Introduction he had contributed. 

The Secretary was instructed to tender these Brethren the thanks of the Lodge for their kindness. 

Bro. Gotthelf Greiner was installed in the Chair of King Solomon in ancient form by Bro. 
R. F. Gould, P.M., D.C. He appointed the following Officers and invested those who were present. 

I.P.M. Edward Conder, Jun. 

S.W. E. J. Castle, K.G. 

J.W. Admiral Markham, P.D.G.M., Malta. 

Treas. Hamon le Strange, Prov.G.M., Norfolk. 

Sec. W. H. Rylands. 

S.D. Rev. J. W. Horsley. 

J.D. G. L. Shackles. 

D.C. R. F. Gould, P.G.D. 

I.G. E. Armitage. 

Stewd. F. H. Goldney, P.G.D. 
J. T. Thorp. 

Tyler. J. W. Freeman. 

The W.M moved, and it was seconded and carried by acclamation, that Bro. Edward Conder, 
Junior, having completed his year of office as Worshipful Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 
2076, the thanks of the Brethren be and hereby are tendered to him for his courtesy in the Chair and 
his efficient management of the affairs of the Lodge : and that this resolution be suitably engrossed 
and presented to him. 

The certificate having been duly signed, was presented to Bro. Conder by the W.M. together with 
a Past Master's Jewel of the Lodge. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 197 

The Worshipful Master delivered the following 


RETHREN, — "With a grateful mind, tempered by diffidence, I find 
myself in this chair. Having served, as you know, the subordinate 
offices, this apprenticeship, backed by earlier experience in my 
Mother Lodge : " Moira " No. 92, in which I was W.M. ten years 
ago, will, I trust, enable me to discharge such duties as may 
naturally fall to my lot during the ensuing twelve months. To my 
Brethren I tender my heartiest thanks for the confidence they have 
reposed in me, and beg to assure them of my entire devotion to the best interests of this 
Lodge, full membership of which our Bro. Hughan so happily terms " the blue ribbon 
of Freemasonry." It is almost fourteen years since I became a Member of the 
Correspondence Circle, and I may fairly claim (with due modesty) to have been a 
faithful attendant at most of our gatherings, and to have imbibed during my novitiate, 
and more especially since my reception into the Inner Circle, not merely the needful 
enthusiasm but the equally necessary perception of the aims that our Founders and 
their successors placed before themselves as the real objective of the " Quatuor Coronati" 
Lodge. In loyalty to these objects I yield to none, and it shall be my constant endeavour 
to uphold worthily our traditions as a Society of Masonic Students. In doing this I 
look confidently for the unswerving support of those whom I have this evening invested 
with the different Collars, so that by hearty co-operation we may reasonably hope to 
give a good account of our stewardship when Time brings next November in his 
ceaseless course. 

Though this year of grace 1901 is running fast away, yet the Century is young, 
and being the 20th seems to us all the more noteworthy. It began ominously, for, in 
its earlier days our revered Queen, Victoria the Good, passed away, full of years and 
honour, though it is sad to think that Her latest hours, after nearly half a century of 
comparative peace, and unexampled prosperity, were clouded by the turmoil of War. 
After all that has been said I need not here pause to dwell on Her achievements or 
character ; suffice it to remark that Her Majesty supported our Charities most generously, 
and was Chief Patroness of the " Girls," Grand Patroness of the " Boys," and a Vice- 
Patroness of the " Benevolent." She was the daughter of a Grand Master (H.R.H., 
Duke of Kent) : the mother of the Immediate Past and the present Grand Masters, and 
a Provincial Grand Master (Duke of Albany) ; also the grandmother of a Provincial 
Grand Master (Duke of Clarence), besides having been otherwise related to some of the 
highest Craft Dignitaries abroad. Her demise brought about a change in our Headship, 
and to the great regret of all — whilst welcoming His natural accession to the Throne — 
we lost the wise and genial Ruler who had presided over our Masonic destinies for 
nearly 30 years. This regret was, however, tempered by the feeling that in His new 
and more exalted position King Edward VII. still manifested his attachment to the 
Society, and though for good and sufficient reasons he has followed an earlier precedent 
by resigning the Grand Mastership, our Liege Lord continues as PROTECTOR, to show 
His interest in the welfare of our Order. Further, He has graciously promised to 
continue the subscriptions to our Charities, so long contributed by Her lamented Majesty, 
the Queen. 

Compelled thus to seek another occupant of the Grand East, we may well 
congratulate ourselves on the good fortune which has led to so happy a choice as that 
of the Soldier-Mason, H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, who brings to this responsibla 

198 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

position long experience in Masonic affairs, being Provincial Grand Master of Sussex, 
and District Grand Master of Bombay — as well as holder of the Honorary rank of Past 
Grand Master of England. 

Notwithstanding this alteration no dislocation has taken place, and we may 
therefore anticipate an uninterrupted flow of that prosperity which has been so marked 
during the past quarter of a century. No doubt Masonry has become a social luxury 
to some extent, and may even be looked upon as " good form," but considering the 
enormous amount of sympathy that we show in countless ways, besides so generously 
supporting the three Great Central Institutions, and maintaining numerous Provincial 
and Lodge Charities, it would be a calamity if ought should happen tending to restrict 
the usefulness of a Society which demonstrates in such practical fashion that our 
watchword " Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth " expresses a living force that cements 
friendship and ameliorates the hardships that are so apt to befall humanity 

Coming more immediately to our own concerns in this review of the past, we 
must remark on the oft repeated losses in our Inner Circle. Founded on special lines 
and requiring student qualifications, it followed, as has been commented on in former 
addresses, that a large proportion of our Members was of mature years, and consequently 
the mortality in this Lodge has been largely in excess of that generally experienced. 
Our new venture had hardly taken shape before we were called on to mourn the loss of 
the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, P.G.C., a ripe and good scholar, a true Mason and 
voluminous writer, whose last hours (almost) were devoted to our cause. Our 
Architectural authority, Professor T. Hayter Lewis, P.M., and our Artist-Traveller- 
Author, William Simpson, R.I., P.M., who charmed and perplexed us with his quaint 
knowledge, have gone through the veil ; John Lane, our Statistician, and compiler of 
" Masonic Records " ; Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson, the hygienic friend of humanity, 
are only some of the names that occur to us when thinking of past years : for these do 
not exhaust the roll of our departed worthies. 

The most severe blow of all, however, has fallen on us this year, and most 
unexpectedly, for our Bro. Speth was still in the prime of life, and to all appearance 
had very many years of usefulness before him. He had been with us from the beginning 
and his cheery countenance was a feature of our gatherings, whether in Lodge, at 
refreshment or on pleasure bent. He was a Masonic Scholar, with a wonderful erudition. 
His retentive memory was of the utmost service in his researches, and while he was an 
expert in most branches of our science, traditions and customs, in very many he was an 
undoubted, if not the foremost, authority. Almost every page of our proceedings bears 
the impress of his mind, and his personality is abundantly evident. The Correspondence 
Circle was his creation, and by calling it into being, he supplied us with the means 
whereby our papers and discussions were disseminated over the world. To him we owe 
a debt of gratitude which the " Quatuor Coronati " can never forget, and which must 
keep his memory ever green amongst us. In the beautiful language of Milton : 

"A grateful mind 
By owing, owes not, but still pays, at once 
Indebted and discharg'd." 

Personally, I cannot express how deeply 1 feel his loss, and while confessing my 
inability to add aught to the graceful eulogium paid to his invaluable services by his 
co- Founder and colleague Bro. W. H. Rylands, I cannot allow this opportunity to pass 
without placing on record my high appreciation of our lamented Secretary, and adding 
my quota to the general feeling of mourning. 

Inattgural Address. 199 

By a sad fatality another Founder, whose seat was at the same desk as that of the 
Secretary, was taken from ns only a few weeks later. Bro. Sir Walter Besant, our 
Treasurer, had not been with us in person for a considerable time, but physical reasons 
militated against his exposure to the night air. He was the Secretary of the Masonic 
Archaeological Society that preceded by several years the formation of " 2076," to which 
indeed it largely gave the initial impetus, which resulted in our being called into 
existence. To his old co-worker in Biblical Archaeology fell the melancholy task of 
recounting his good deeds, and Bro. Rylands in his panegyric did full justice, consistent 
with space, to the Novelist-Historian, whose acquaintance with Palestine was only 
equalled by his intimate knowledge of London, ancient and modern. 

Yet a third time this year has the Fell Destroyer appeared among us, and our 
ranks are further thinned by the removal of our beloved Brother Caesar Kupferschmidt, 
A.G.S.G.O, who was W.M. in 1896-7. His forte was, as might be expected, German 
Freemasonry, but he also possessed a large fund of knowledge on Craft matters, far 
more than most Brethren would suspect, for his quiet and unobtrusive manner forbade 
any show of the information he had stored away. His kindly disposition made him a 
favourite here, and universal sympathy was expressed when we learned, nearly a year 
ago, that one of his arms had been amputated at the shoulder. Last Saturday it was 
the mournful privilege of Bros. W. H. Rylands, Edward Macbean and myself to see 
him laid to rest in Highgate Cemetery. 

Again I must refer to Bro. Rylands, who in our hour of need came gallantly to 
the rescue. When we were all stunned by the crushing news of the death of our dear 
Bro. Speth, and the work, as in the case of the Master Builder', had come to a stand, 
our eyes involuntarily turned to him, as the one man qualified to discharge the 
multifarious duties that fall to the lot of Secretary of this unique Lodge. Despite the 
pressure of other work he yielded to our solicitations, and I am delighted to say, as you 
will assuredly be to learn, that he has further deferred to our wishes, and consented to 
continue as Secretary. Till this all important matter was settled, I can assure you the 
Committee felt grave anxiety as to the future, but now we can face the coming years 
with equanimity. Our heftiest thanks are due to our dear colleague for so handsomely 
and cheerfully relieving us from a difficulty that might have had a serious effect on the 
prosperity of our Circle. 

A few months ago H.R. H. Prince Friedrich Leopold of Prussia, Protector of the 
Three Old Prussian Grand Lodges, whose gallant Father was so well known as the 
" Red Prince," received Honorary Membership of this Lodge, which, while gratifying 
to us as a body, was of special interest to myself, for very obvious reasons. 

The address from this chair last November dealt with the works that had been 
issued by the Craft during the past century, so I need not refer to that subject again, 
but the commencement of a new cycle of time seems appropriate to review, much as 
public companies do in their stated reports and balance sheets, the progress that has 
been made during the previous hundred years. 

In 1801 there were the two Rivals, Ancient and Modern, at work as Grand 
Lodges in this country, having together some 700 active Lodges on their Registers, and 
nearly 100 in a dormant state. It is not likely that the number of contributing 
members exceeded 30,000, the probability being that 20,000 would be a more accurate 
estimate. After the happy " Union " of December 1813, when the United Grand 
Lodge began with 648 subordinates, the issue of new Warrants went on increasing, 
until high-water mark was reached at the beginning of 1825 — (736) — after which, 
according to that reliable authority, Bro. Lane, there were only 591 existing in 1833. 

200 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

After the ebb came the flow of returning prosperity, and in 1842 the totals of 1801-1813 
were exceeded ; the four figures being reached in 1861, while double the number was 
on the Roll at the end of 1886. 

The 20th century began with some 2371 Lodges on the Register, notwithstanding 
considerable reductions made during the previous years by so many Grand Lodges 
being created in our Colonies and Dependencies ; this may probably induce our 
Authorities ere long again to close up the Register and re-number for a new Roll. The 
members returned by these Lodges cannot well be less than 120,000, so that the increase 
is at least four times the total of 1801, without taking into account the Brethren who 
as above noted have left our Jm^isdiction. From the formation of the premier Grand 
Lodge of England in 1717 to the present time, I find that Bro. Hughan, estimates the 
total number of " "Warrants to constitute," and ordinary " Warrants," authorized by the 
various Grand Bodies at work in England, to amount to 4450. Many of these Lodges, 
though removed from our Register, still exist under other Grand Lodges and are in a 
flourishing condition. 

Amongst these Warrants referred to above is to be numbered that granted to our 
Lodge, which marked the comparatively new born desire to acquire and spread Masonic 
Knowledge. This noble example has since been followed in different parts of this 
Country and beyond the seas ; Lodges have been founded with the object of advancing 
the study of masonic History by lectures and discussions, and Libraries are also being 
formed in a good many districts. The Grand Lodge Library in this building, over 
which Brother Henry Sadler watches with ceaseless care, has recently been put into 
thorough order, and is now housed in suitable rooms, which are well worthy of a visit. 

We can hardly expect to unearth fresh rolls of the MS. Constitutions very 
frequently, and even if we did these do not greatly interest all our readers, and 
sometimes we hear it implied that all is known that is worth learning, or that is likely 
to be discovered, bearing on Freemasonry. This, however, is quite a mistaken opinion. 
Our Rites are often compared with, and by some said to be descended from the Ancient 
Mysteries, and a flood of light might be shed on dark corners if some enthusiastic 
Mason who is well skilled in our ways and thoughts would carefully examine with the 
eye of a craftsman, old writings that deal in a more or less veiled manner with the 
Eleusinian, Dionysiac and other observances. The VHth book of the ^Eneid has been 
dealt with to some extent, but even this not minutely and sympathetically — and 
probably rich reward awaits complete exploration of the classic narratives. Valuable 
lessons might be learned by studying the records of the secret societies of Europe, more 
particularly such as can claim reasonable antiquity. Some of these would probably 
prove interesting, if not instructive, from our point of view. It is asserted that the 
Jacobite party made use of Masonry as a cloak to further their political objects, and 
some think that in the "Ancient and Accepted Rite" and the " Royal Order of Scotland," 
we have surviving relics of the intriguing adherents of the exiled Stuarts ; but we 
have still to discover authentic records of the connection of Prince Charlie with our 
Society ; though there has been no lack of dogmatic assertions as to his Masonic zeal 
and Governorship of the Craft. Bro. Gould has discussed this question, but the last 
word is not yet said. 

Of Continental Masonry we know surprisingly little, and while of what is, or has 
been, practised much may be of comparative unimportance to us, still it is a fair 
inference that papers on Freemasonry as now and formerly observed in the different 
Countries of Europe would be of considerable value. Differences in ritual and points 
of variance might be noted, and in any case such a Lodge as ours should certainly be 

Inaugural Address, 201 

kept fully posted as to what is going on in the neighbouring jurisdictions. Germany- 
has been dealt with, but not exhaustively or up to date, and it will be my care, before 
leaving the East, to lay before you a paper in continuation of the one I read here a few 
years ago. I hope some of our Continental Associates may lay this to heart and send 
us contributions for the Transactions. 

I am somewhat surprised that so little use seems to be made of our widespread 
organization. I found myself, when in very difficult circumstances, (while visiting 
New Zealand several years ago), that although I was at the time W.M. of " Moira " 
No. 92, a note of introduction with which Bro. Speth had furnished me, was of immense 
service and of more value than my Collar of Office. Though only an Outer Circle 
Member in those days, it enabled me to make many lasting friendships, and I know of 
at least one other, a P.M. of " 2076," who acknowledges similar favours. It will often 
serve you as well as a passport from the Foreign Office. 

I have already alluded to the removal of many of the men of note, whose names 
adorned our membership, and whose writings gave value and originality to our Proceed- 
ings'. This leads me to the reflection that of others who are happily still with us, several 
are becoming from one cause or another, less able to be present at our Meetings, and 
cannot consequently and reasonably be expected to continue their labours on our behalf. 
To the younger men and younger members we must therefore look for the support 
that the Lodge, and its W.M. require for the carrying on of our work. 

In every well constituted Lodge the Board of Past Masters is the backbone that 
gives it strength, and to them I appeal. Having received the highest honour that we 
here can confer, it would not be fair or generous of them to become slack in either their 
attendance or efforts. To the Officers I would say : prove while faithfully serving your 
apprenticeship that you value your present positions, and aspire still higher by virtue 
of good work done. To the other Members I would suggest that they show by their 
deeds that they have not exhausted their skill by the exertions in essay writing that 
preceded reception into the Inner Circle. In the Correspondence Circle we have a vast 
field, from which we should be able to draw unlimited supplies. To many of these, if 
not to all, must come opportunities of adding to our store of information, that only 
require seizing, recording and passing on to our Secretary. All of us, whether of the 
" Inner " or " Outer " Circle, can aid in some way. One method, and of great moment, 
is to increase the number of our Correspondence Circle, for without this, our power is 
diminished ; to pay up subscriptions (and arrears) regularly — to write papers long or 
short, on any subject germane to the Craft or bearing on our symbolism, history, 
customs, etc., which has not been, so far, discovered or recorded. 

To mention names is perhaps invidious, and more especially so when all have 
been most kind, but I cannot refrain from alluding to my obligations to Bro. Gould, who 
has counselled me since my initiation in the year 1884 ; to Bro. Macbean for the 
encouragement which induced me, eager but apprehensive, to prepare the paper which 
carried me into the charmed circle ; and also to Bro. Rylands for his guidance and 
assistance during the recent anxieties. To all I tender my heartiest thanks for this 
proof of your confidence, which to merit will be my most earnest endeavour while 
occupying this place of honour. 

Bro. Edward Macbean, P.M., then proposed the health of the Worshipful Master 
in the following terms : — 

Welcomed at every meeting ; on Installation night the "Health of the Worship- 
ful Master " assumes a paramount importance and affords the proposer an opportunity 

202 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

of presenting a brief biographical sketch of the worthy and distinguished Brother, 
whom we all delight to see in the Chair of King Solomon. For thus going somewhat 
beyond what usually obtains in other Lodges we have good and sufficient warrant, 
because, as on this occasion, I speak not only to those who grace our Festival, but also, 
through the pages of our Transactions, address the large number of Correspondence 
Circle members and other friends scattered abroad, who are interested in us and our 
doings, and in no other way have much likelihood of learning what, manner of Man 
and Mason is he whom we have raised to the summit of power in the " Quatuor 
Coronati " Lodge. To some of my hearers (and readers) my remarks may be as a 
" twice-told tale," because Bro. Gotthelf Greiner is so widely known, and not merely 
in Great and Greater Britain ; but such must bear with me for the sake of the less 

As I hope to show, Bro. Greiner is not only noteworthy in his own person, 
character and ability, but can point with pride to an ancestry of good men and true, 
who did their duty in their day and generation — chiefly in the arts of peace ; though 
at least one carried a musket (in defence of his country) which is now in the armoury 
at Frognal amongst many relics of war and the chase. 

While Queen Bess was on the throne and Shakespeare's company amused 
Londoners at the old Globe Theatre, the first Greiner of whom we possess clear 
knowledge, fled from religious persecution in his native land, and settled in that part 
of the great Thuringian Forest which now owns allegiance to the Duke of Saxe 
Meiningen. At Lauscha, in 1597, he built a glass factory, which is still in the hands of 
his descendants, and where four years ago, our W.M. as one of the heads of the family, 
presided over the gathering which celebrated the tercentenary of its establishment. 
Sacrificing his home for the sake of his conscience proved at least, strength of character; 
and the establishment of a new venture showed ability and determination. 

A century and a half later Gotthelf Greiner, great great grandfather of his 
namesake (now in the chair) set himself to solve the secret of the celebrated china 
manufactured at Dresden by Boettger. He possessed to the fullest extent, the 
indomitable perseverance and resourcefulness which marked so many of this family, and 
after the trials and disappointments which commonly beset the path of the discoverer, 
and when practically at the end of his means, found success at last. His rise was rapid, 
and five factories, in addition to that at Limbach, founded in 1761, (which is, therefore, 
only junior to the Royal Dresden), were built to supply the demand for his new products. 
Like that at Lauscha this also remains in the possession of his descendants. 

Adolf Fleischmann, the Historian of Thuringia, pays a graceful, richly deserved 
tribute to the worth of the inventor, and remarks that probably 25,000 families are 
indebted to this practical philantbrophist for the means of subsistence. Judging from 
the author's other statements the family seems ever to have been held in high esteem by 
neighbours and workpeople for their straightforwardness and sympathy, and readiness 
to promote the well-being of all with whom they came in contact, or were able in any 
way to assist ; a feeling which, I am happy to believe, survives to the present day. 

Our Worshipful Master is the oldest son of Alfred Greiner, and was born on the 
28th October, 1850, at Gluecksthal, in Saxe Meiningen. Before the completion of his 
14th year his boyish ambition was (for the moment) satisfied by an appointment in the 
London office of a relative, where his conduct was so exemplary and his probity and 
assiduity so marked that in three years he was entrusted with the " procuration " of the 
firm, and six months later was sent out as their traveller, to make periodic journeys 
throughout the United Kingdom, from Penzance to Aberdeen, and also in Ireland. In 

The Toast of the W.M. 203 

1871 he began business in conjunction with an old comrade, George Ortelli ; and so 
successful was- the young venture that after seven years of double harness, he returned 
to the Fatherland to become a banker, while our friend continued in London as 
G. Greiner & Co., calling to his aid his youngest brother, Ernest, who, an able coadjutor, 
became long since an active partner in this nourishing and progressive concern. 
Business ability, ceaseless activity, power of organization and mastery over details, 
coupled with honourable dealing, have secured for their house repute and respect in 
Australasia, America, India and South Africa, as well as almost eveiy country in 
Europe. Bro. Ernest Greiner, be it noted, is also a P.M. of the " Moira Lodge " No. 92, 
for which we entertain such friendly feelings, as it assisted in obtaining our warrant in 
1884. Our presiding officer is, in truth, a many sided man. 

German born, Bro. Greiner is a naturalized Britisher and possessed of the healthy 
love of sport and athletics that characterizes our people. At the rifle butts he can give a 
good account of himself — is a member of the Alpine Club, and in the Austrian Tyrol for 
many seasons has combined mountaineering with the pursuit of the wily chamois, proving 
by prizes and heads the accuracy of his aim. In several Shooting Societies' contests in 
Germany (Schuetzengessellschaften) he has come off victor, and from English stubble 
and Scottish moors frequently replenishes, with furs and feathers, the larders of 
grateful friends, keeping his hand in practice, at intervals, with his fellows of the 
National and Middlesex Gun Clubs. The good old English game receives his support 
through the medium of the Surrey Cricket Club : and he is a subscriber to the German 
Gymnastic Society and Liederkranz : while his love for the sea finds expression in 
membership of the Royal Cinque Ports Yacht Club, Dover, and of the Alexandra 
Yacht Club of Southend. Social, hospitable and generous, our W.M. is emphatically 
"Clubbable " and belongs to several of these institutions, where, as well as in his 
Hampstead home, he plays the host to perftction, and not infrequently one meets at his 
table acquaintances from the opposite ends of the earth. I should remark that he is a 
Member of the Barbers' Company of this City, and of course a Liveryman of our 
Ancient Corporation. 

Turning to our W.M.'s Masonic career we observe at once that, instead of 
dissipating energy in multitudinous degrees, he has confined his attention to those only 

which are recognised by the G.L. of England, under the Articles of Union in 1813 

i.e., the Craft " together with the Holy Royal Arch." Initiated in the "Moira " No. 
92 in 1884, he became Master in 1890. I may pause here to mention that while anxious 
to be passed over for that year, as he was about to go round the World, the Brethren 
held him in such respect that they insisted on his accepting the Chair of K.S. although 
well aware that he could only be present at two or three of their stated meetings. 
Exalted in the " Moira " Chapter — No. 92, he has served as M.E.Z. He is also a 
Member of the " Pilgrim " Lodge, 238, one of oar Centenary Lodges, which has always 
had the peculiar privilege of working an old ritual in the German language ; and has 
been for several years an upholder of the " Logic Club " ; a special body for practising- 
craft ceremonials — of which, doubtless, many of you have heard. Our warm-hearted 
Brother has served several Stewardships for the three great Charities, and is a Vice- 
Patron of the Boys' Institution. An old member of our Correspondence Circle, which 
he joined in 1888, some of us felt that, if only properly focussed, Bro. Greiner's talents 
were quite sufficient to stand the tests required of candidates for the Inner Circle, or 
full membership of the Lodge proper, and to our great satisfaction— with a monumental 
study of German Freemasonry as his " masterpiece " — he passed with flying colours 
amid general acclamation. It was my happy lot as W.M. in 1895-6 to welcome him 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

amongst ourselves and mark my own appreciation by the bestowal of a Steward's badge 
of office. 

During bis extended wanderings, more than once repeated, our W.M. brought 
much grist to the " Correspondence" Mill, and was recognised by our lamented Bro. 
Speth as a most valuable ally, not only (to borrow commercial phraseology) in the 
" home trade" but also while acting as "foreign agent," — in quite an honorary capacity 
however. By extending the list of subscribers he increased our sphere of usefulness, 
and enabled us to disseminate more Masonic information to a wider circle than would 
otherwise have been possible — and for this, together with other efforts on our behalf, 
we are certainly indebted to him. Since his advent amongst us, nearly 14 years ago, he 
has been a consistent supporter of every scheme that made for our success, and when 
the last Conversazione was held — during my own reign — in November, 1896, he was 
lavish alike of his time and his money, and to him (with Bro. W. H. Rylands) I made 
public acknowledgment of invaluable assistance. Having had the advantage of 
personal intimacy with him for many years past I can testify unhesitatingly to the 
experience, tact, charm of manner and kindliness which are so noticeable in our W.M. 
and which you must have already observed with satisfaction in the conduct of our 
business in " another place," as well as his graceful behaviour while presiding at the 
" Fourth Degree." These qualities, valuable at all times, will be specially so in the 
carrying on of the Lodge under the depressing losses which have befallen us during the 
past few months of this new Century, and 1 trust the appeal made to us all in the 
" Inaugural Address " will have due weight, and not fail in its object. 

By unanimous vote you have called Bro. Greiner to rule ; let us, therefore, be 
loyal and dutiful, and, as in the time of war, close up our ranks and press onward. 
Follow his example and write a paper, as he, in Lodge, promised to do : take heart 
from Bro. Rylands, who, at personal sacrifice, has accepted the Secretaryship : and so 
shall he who governs and we who obey rejoice together. 


(in ivdvrcuz) 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 205 



8 ■\\* 

H E interesting question raised by Bro. E. J. Barron (p. 140) with 
regard to the identity of "Wheeler's Lodge" can be solved with a 
tolerable approach to historical certainty. 

The appearance of the Song in Edward Spratt's New Book of 
Constitutions, Dublin, 1751, at once disposes of the suggestion that 
the Lodge was under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the 
Antients. The Brethren, mainly Irish, who believed the " alterations " in the English 
Ritual to be serious departures from the Antient Ritual common to the Grand Lodges of 
England and Ireland before 1730, did not form themselves into a Grand Lodge till long 
after that New Book of Constitutions had been printed off. It is equally a misconception 
to put Dermott's Ahiman Bezon in the forefront as the source of the quotation, for in 
this part of his book Lau : Dermott simply follows Spratt. 

The earliest, then, of the versions cited by Bro. E. J. Barron is found in the Irish 
Book of Constitutions, 1751. But the Song can be traced back to its origin. Its first 
appearance in print is in William Smith's Bocket Companion, which was published in 
1735 almost simultaneously in London and Dublin. We say almost simultaneously, for 
there is a nice question involved as to the priority of publication in London or Dublin. 
Some grounds are held to exist for assuming Bro. William Smith to have been an Irish, 
rather than an English, Freemason. At any rate, he had influence enough with the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland to procure a formal Approbation of his Bocket Companion, 
signed by the Grand Master and Grand Wardens who took office on St. John's Day in 
Harvest, 1734. And this, to the obvious detriment of their own Grand Secretary, John 
Pennell, who had a similar Manual on sale. The whole question will be found discussed 
at length in Caementaria Hibernica, Fasciculus IL. 

The Song itself cannot easily be surpassed as a specimen of tuneful trash. 
As it consists of only three verses, it may be reproduced here. 

" Song V. 

Composed by a member of the One Tun Lodge 
in Noble-Street. 


As I at Wheeler's Lodge one Night 

Kept Bacchus company ; 
For Bacchus is a Mason bright, 

And of all Lodges free-free-free. 


Said I, great Bacchus is adry, 

Pray give the God some Wine ; 
Jove in a Fury did reply, 

October's as divine-divine-divine. 

206 . Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


It makes us Masons more compleat, 

Adds to our Fancy Wings, 
Makes us as nappy and as great 

As mighty Lords and Kings-Kings-Kings." 

Wm. Smith's Pocket Companion ; London, 1735. 

This is exactly reproduced in the edition of 1736, which has been shown else- 
where {Caem. Hib., ubi supra) to be merely a re-issue, with a new title page. 

The Dublin edition, 1735, differs from the London in the number, arrangement 
and selecbion of the Songs. In this instance, the heading is not the same : it is altered 
to suit the meridian of a city that knew not the One Tun. 

" SONG X. 

" Tune of Ring, Ring the Bar-Bell of the World." 

The two headings enable us to answer Bro. Barron's inquiry with some show of 
confidence, though it is to be feared that the tune, evidently once popular, has long since 
passed away into the Limbus Fratrum Lotphagorum, where organs cease from grinding, 
and the audience gets a rest. 1 

As the whole point and appropriateness of the heading we quote from the London 
edition of the Pocket- Companion would be lost if Wheeler's were any other than the One 
Tun Lodge, we can fairly infer that Wheeler was the Boniface of the hostelry that lent 
its name and shelter to the Lodge in Noble Street. His name is not the first that has 
attained unexpected notoriety by being associated with the Bacchanalian Muse. The 
Song held its place during the rest of the century in all collections of Masonic Minstrelsy. 
The One Tun Lodge, thus " in numbers linked " with Wheeler's name, has developed 
into the most aristocratic of Lodges, counting among its members more Princes of the 
Blood Royal and Knights of the Garter than all other Lodges put together. 

The steps by which the One Tun Lodge attained this pre-eminence are worth 
recording. But the process was complicated, and, in one respect, without parallel in the 
history of the English Craft. Like the happy Hapsburg dynasty, which acquired its 
vast domains by marriage, the One Tun Lodge won its way to its present renown by 
union with other Lodges. All the steps are to be found in Masonic Records, the monu- 
mental work bequeathed to us by our late colleague, Bro. John Lane. But they are 
scattered under half-a-dozen entries, and require to be pieced together, as far as may be 
done without trenching on the private Lodge History. 

Here is the story in outline. The One Tun Lodge was originally constituted in 
May 1722, after the manner in vogue under the early Grand Lodge, which had not yet 

1 Down to the time when the Song was written, the Bar of an Inn was a solid, material bar, 
drawn at night across the narrow entrance or causeway which alone gave access to the central court- 
yard, round which the guest chambers and the stables were built. This was the construction of 
Chaucer's Inn, and survived till horse-carriages ceased to be the principal means of locomotion. 
Brethren who have had the privilege of accompanying our Lodge on its Summer Excursions will remember 
charming instances of such Inns at Winchester, Exeter and Gloucester. At night, the end of the bar 
was drawn through an aperture in the side wall of the entrance, into the host's parlour, and securely 
locked, so as to preclude ingress or egress of horses or vehicles without his knowledge. The parlour 
had an overlooking window through which refreshments could be served to outsiders without entering 
the Inn ; hence the modern use of the word Bar in connection with a hotel. The Bar-Bell was the huge 
bell in the courtyard that summoned by its olanking the ostlers from the stables to attend belated 
travellers of high degree. 

" Wheeler s Lodge.' 207 

adopted the use of Lodge Warrants or Charters Its earliest meeting-place was not at 
the One Tun. It has been traced by the untiring industry of Bros. John Lane and 
Henry Sadler to the Fountain Tavern in the Strand, in the years 1723 and 1724. This 
hostelry has, however, failed to ideutify itself with the name of the Lodge, which 
appears in the list of 1729 — the first in which the Lodges are numbered — as the One 
Tun Lodge, No. 9. 

As time went on, the One Tun Lodge repeatedly changed its name, as well as 
its quarters, though for the last hundred and fifty years it has been essentially a West- 
end Lodge. As time went on, too, it began that course of absorption and incorporation, 
by which it has profited so greatly, just as a rivulet, at first small and inconsiderable, 
gathers power and volume from its affluents. 

Some of these subsidiary streams were not far behind the One Tun in point of 
antiquity ; some were quite comparable to it in Masonic renown ; and some fairly outshone 
it in social distinction, so that the story of the main stream cannot be told without some 
mention of the tributaries, if we wish to ascertain how the Lodge came to its present 
unique position. For it is nothing less than unique among Lodges on the English 

In the year 1800, the One Tun Lodge which more than fifty years before had 
changed its name to the Ionic, united with the Lodge of Prudence and Peter, then 
numbered No. 69. The united Lodge took the name of The Ionic and Prudence, a title 
distinctive enough, but open to the objection that it will not parse. Nevertheless, it 
served the Lodge for better or for worse till 1823, when advantage was taken of 
amalgamation with another Lodge, The Alpha, No. 49, to adopt the name of this latter 
Lodge for the united body. Naturally, however, it was careful to retain the original 
seniority and proper number of the Lodge that had flourished so many years before at 
the sign of the One Tun. 

The Lodge Prudence and Peter was itself a compound body, formed of two 
separate Lodges, the senior of which was constituted in 1740, and the junior in 1776. 
The former, originally meeting at the White Swan, Seven Dials, was known in 1774 
as The Lodge of Prudence. The junior, called St. Peter's Lodge, held its meetings 
at the more fashionable resort, the Bunch of Grapes, in Upper Mount Street, 
Grosvenor Square. These two Lodges united in 1793, blending together under the 
style of the Lodge of Prudence and Peter, till both merged in the main stream of the 
One Tun Lodge. It is noteworthy that the Lodge was a Master's Lodge from 1792 to 
1799, being one of the very latest recorded to have met on that footing. 

Returning to the Alpha Lodge, which supplied a name to the composite body 
resulting from the union of the Lodges already enumerated, we find it was constituted 
as a London Lodge, meeting in 1730, at the White Bear, King Street, Golden Square. 
While in London, it had met as a Master's Lodge from 1736 to 1739. 

In the year 1779, it ceased to be a London Lodge, and was transferred to 
Waltham Abbey, in Essex. There it was known as The Well-disposed Lodge. Like 
many another well-disposed organisation, it slipped into a comatose condition, and at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century was almost extinct through lack of members. 
From this condition it was roused by the M.W.G.M., H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, who 
revived it in 1814 as his pi'ivate and personal Lodge, and transferred its meeting-place 
to Kensington Palace, under His Royal Highness's own roof. At the same time, the 
M.W.G.M. conferred on the Lodge the title Alpha, thus making up, as it were, by 

208 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

implied alphabetical precedence for any lack of numerical priority. Hence, when the 
One Tun Lodge, enriched by the numerous affluents already incorporated in its bosom, 
became one with the Alpha Lodge in the year 1823, the resulting Lodge adhered to 
the name of the latter, but preserved the numerical seniority of the former, which had 
become No. 16 on the Register of the United Grand Lodge. 

But the catalogue of the permutations and combinations of the Protean Lodge 
did not end here. The very year after the amalgamation of the two Lodges just 
narrated, the old Lodge with the new name effected yet another union with a Lodge 
hardly less noteworthy. This was the New Horn Lodge, constituted in 1764. Every 
student of our Craft history is familiar with the Old Horn Lodge (now the Somerset 
House and Inverness Lodge No. 4), to which George Payne and the Rev. Dr. Anderson 
belonged. The New Horn Lodge derived its title from meeting at the same hostelry in 
Westminster, though it soon changed its name and its abode. In 1767, it adopted, with 
justifiable pride, the title of The Royal Lodge, having had the honour of initiating two 
Princes of the Blood, H.R.H. William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, in 1766, and 
H.R.H. Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, in 1767. This latter Prince served as 
Grand Master from 1782 to 1790, and the Royal Lodge received the coveted distinction 
of the Red Apron. 

When the Alpha and the Royal Lodges coalesced, in 1824, a combination of their 
titles was adopted, and the resulting body of Freemasons became known as 

The Royal Alpha Lodge, No. 16, 

renowned among English-speaking Freemasons as the Lodge wherein His Majesty King 
Edward VII. discharged the duties of Worshipful Master, " Not thinking it any lessen- 
ing to his Imperial Dignity to level himself with his Brethren in Masonry, and to act 
as they did." 

Thus far the story of the Royal Alpha Lodge has had to do with historical events 
duly chronicled, in one form or another, in the scattered records of the Craft. But 
the circumstance which, in the first instance, drew the present writer's attention to the 
history of this famous Lodge, was a personal anecdote told him by the late Right Hon. 
Judge Townshend, who stood for sixty years in the front rank of the Freemasons of 
Ireland, and who had the story directly from the lips of His Grace the Duke of 
Leinster, for sixty-one years Grand Master of Ireland. More than one generation has 
passed since then, and it is well the episode should be put on record. 

The anecdote relates to the time when H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex took the Lodge 
under his personal protection, and caused it to hold its meetings in his Royal Palace at 
Kensington. The mode in which the idea of a private Lodge, under the direct Master- 
ship of the Grand Master, suggested itself to His Royal Highness, needs a little 
preliminary explanation. The Grand Lodge of Ireland, and, therefore, the Grand 
Lodge of the Antients and all the other English speaking Grand Lodges in union with 
it, held, from what is vaguely styled Time Immemorial, that it is a prerogative of 
the Grand Master to make Masons at sight. This does not mean that the Grand Master 
suddenly says to the man in the street, " Be thou a Freemason !" and that the man 
instantly becomes covered with stars and triangles. It means that the Grand Master 
can dispense with certain formalities otherwise necessary as conditions precedent to 
lawful initiation. 

So much controversial misconception has been begotten by the exercise of this 
prerogative, in Jurisdictions where the Grand Master's tenure of office is peculiarly 

" Wheelers Lodge." 209 

transient, that it cannot be out of place to reproduce the exact words in which Lau. 
Dermott embodied the doctrine of prerogative as he had learned it in Ireland. The 
passage occurs in a note or gloss on Old Regulation, xiii. 1, in the third edition of the 
Ahiman Bezon of the Antients. 

" However, the Right Worshipful Grand Master has 

full power and authority to make (or cause to be made, in his Worship's 
presence) free and accepted Masons at sight, and such making is good. But 
they cannot be made out of his Worship's presence, without a writtten 
dispensation for that purpose. Nor can his Worship oblige any Warranted 
Lodge to receive the persons so made, if the members should declare 
against him or them ; but, in such case, the Right Worshipful Grand 
Master may grant them a warrant and form them into a new lodge." 

Ahiman Bezon, 1778, p. 72. 

The exercise of this prerogative by the Grand Master of Ireland was carried into 
practice by the institution in 1749, of the Grand Master's Lodge, of which, the members 
were to be the Grand Officers and other personal friends of the Grand Master, and all 
candidates had to be nominated, or expressly approved by him. When the United 
Grand Lodge of England was formed by the Union of 1813, the " alterations " which 
had been admittedly introduced by the Premier Grand Lodge of England — thence 
styled the Moderns — were explicitly acknowledged and abandoned. The newly-formed 
United Grand Lodge modified its Work so as to be in conformity with the Work 
perpetuated by the Grand Lodge of the Antients and recognised as the only true Work 
by the Grand Lodges in unison with it. As a consequence, the Grand Lodges of 
Ireland and Scotland sent delegates to an International Conference held in London in 
1814, for the avowed object of making sure that the Ritual of the United Grand Lodge 
had been brought back to the Traditional Work of the Antients, and with the fraternal 
desire of removing the objections which had hitherto prevented the recognition of the 
Grand Lodge of the Moderns by the great majority of English-speaking Freemasons. 
Of course, the Work was satisfactory : how could it be otherwise, seeing that 
the Grand Lodge of the Moderns had given up all points ? The Conference resulted 
in the International Compact of 1814, which formally recognised the United Grand 
Lodge. The International Compact was duly entered on the Minutes of the Grand 
Lodges concerned, and has ever since formed the basis of their fraternal relations. 
But this is another story, and has lately been narrated elsewhere (The Freemason; 
Diamond Jubilee Number : London, 1897). In the course of this somewhat protracted 
Conference, His Royal Highness the Grand Master of England was necessarily brought 
into close Masonic intercourse with His Grace the Duke of Leinster, Grand Master of 
Ireland, and learned from him the status of the Grand Master's Lodge as it then existed 
in Ireland. His Royal Highness was much impressed by the convenience of having a 
Lodge composed of personal friends and agreeable associates. The idea commended 
itself to him, but there were difficulties in the way of carrying it out exactly after 
the Duke of Leinster's pattern. True, there was a Grand Master's Lodge in England, 
for Lau. Dermott had faithfully reproduced in the system of the Antients every 
characteristic of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. But this Lodge was exclusively made 
up of the Antients, and the members had no claim to be regarded as associates 
of His Royal Highness. It was necessary, therefore, to select a Lodge other than 
the Grand Master's, and the choice fell on The Well-disposed Lodge at Waltham Abbey. 
Its membership had been reduced almost to the vanishing point, and would produce no 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

undue admixture among the class from •which the new set of members would be 
recruited. The idea of erecting an entirely new Lodge did not apparently commend itself 
to the Duke of Sussex, possibly because the authorities had been in the habit of reviving 
old warrants rather than of issuing new ones, owing to a wide-spread interpretation, or, 
rather, mis-interpretation of a clause in the Secret Societies Act of 1799. Besides, such 
a Lodge would have lacked seniority. In the economy of the Lodge thus revived, the 
Irish precedent was followed. There was an understanding that no member should be 
admitted except on the nomination and with the express approval of the Grand Master. 
This understanding was subsequently made a By-law. On the death of the Duke of 
Sussex, the Mastership of the Lodge was taken over by his successor in the chair of 
Grand Lodge, the Earl of Zetland. From that day to this the M.W. Grand Master of 
England for the time being has been also W.M. of the Royal Alpha Lodge, just as 
the M.W. Grand Master of Ireland has been W.M. of the Grand Master's Lodge without 
a break for the last hundred and fifty years. 

May the precedent prove propitious ! 

W. J. Chetwode Crawley. 


/V. CC. MUS. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 



UR dear Brother, Gustav Adolf Caesar Kupferschmidt, Past Master 
(1896-97) of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076— which he joined 
on the 4th January, 1889 — has been taken from us. 

On the 2nd of November he was laid to rest in Highgate 
Cemetery. The cortege was accompanied by numerous friends and 
Brethren of the Pilgrim Lodge No. 238, whilst our Lodge was 
represented by Bro. W. H. Rylands, P.M., Bro. Edward Macbean, P.M., and myself, and 
the Grand Lodge by the Assistant Grand Secretary, Bro. William Lake. 

The Funeral Service was conducted entirely in the German Language, and in a 
most impressive manner by Kirchenrath F. Frisius, an old friend of the family, and I 
cannot do better than repeat, so far as my memory serves me, some of the remarks 
made by him. 

Our late Brother had unfortunately been afflicted for a number of years with a 
most painful illness, and although he sought relief from the most eminent surgical 
authorities in London and Switzerland, the disease gradually undermined his otherwise 
robust constitution and hastened his end. He bore his cross with rare fortitude in the 
firm belief that what God does, is well done. He showed us during the whole time of his 
sufferings an example of patience and resignation which every one who saw him could 
not help admiring. Up to within a few weeks of his death, although consumed 
inwardly by terrible pains and fevers, he said to his friends : " 1 must work while it is 
yet day." However, his strength was fading quickly, until at last he succumbed on 
the 30th October in the arms of his good wife, who had nursed him with the greatest 
care and love for many years. He died in the full possession of his mental powers, and 
his last words were those of deep gratitude to all who had shown him so much 
sympathy and kindness. 

His death leaves a great blank not only in his family circle and amongst his intimate 
friends, but also in the whole of the German Colony of this City. He had found time, 
in spite of his onerous duties as a business man, to lend his help to very many German 
Institutions and Societies. He was for 30 years a trusted Member of the Hamburg 
Lutheran Church, becoming its Treasurer and Secretary about 10 years ago; and an 
active Member of the Council of the German Orphan Asylum, and other social 
Bodies, all of whom decorated his coffin with magnificent floral tokens of their 
esteem and regret. 

Bro. Kupferschmidt was born at Danzig in Prussia on the 27th August, 
1840, and entered the well-known establishment of Messrs. Richard Brandt & Co. of 
this City, in 1863, where his energy, assiduity, fidelity, modesty and friendliness at all 
times soon paved the way to the highest position in that house. Consul General Bro. 
Richard Brandt, (who was Grand Secretary for German Correspondence in the Grand 
Lodge of England, 1861-1870) made him his confidant in all bnsiness matters and 
treated him as a true friend of the family, remarking on more than one occasion " That 
man is as good as gold — one can trust him under all circumstances." 
In the words of the Poet M. Claudius let us say : 

" Ja, sie haben einen guten Mann begraben, 

" Mir aber war er mehr." 

212 Transactions of the Quatnor Goronati Lodge. 

Our late Brother was initiated on the 10th November, 1875, in the Pilgrim Lodge 
No. 238, which works in the German Language under the Grand Lodge of England, 
and which then held its meetings at the Ship and Turtle Tavern in Leadenhall Street. 
He served the offices of Master of Ceremonies 1876-7, Inner Guard 1877-8, Junior 
Warden 1878-9, was Worshipful Master in 1883-4 and Treasurer from the 13th 
December, 1888, to the date of his death. 

In the year 1895 HR.H. the M.W.G.M. elected Brother Kupferschmidt to the 
office of Assistant Grand Secretary for German Correspondence, a position for which he 
was admirably fitted, and held to the last. 

Bro. Kupferschmidt leaves a widow who mourns his loss deeply, especially so as 
there are no children to comfort her in her tribulation. The Members of the Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge offer her their heartfelt sympathy, and assure her that her grief is 
shared by them and all who ever had the privilege of knowing our dear departed 


W.M. No. 2076. 

It is with regret that we have to announce the deaths of Brothers : — 

Charles Driver Wise, Grand Secretary of All Scottish Freemasonry in India, 
who joined our Circle in March, 1894. Full particulars of our late Brother's Masonic 
career will be found in the August number of the Indian Freemason for 1895. It will 
be sufficient to record in this place that the Grand Lodge under the Scottish Jurisdiction, 
etc. (of which for twelve years Captain Wise was the Grand Secretary) has in India the 
widest jurisdiction of any Grand Lodge in the world. The curtain dropped with awful 
suddenness, at Bombay, on July 29th, 1901 : 

Lamens Janson, of Eastern Boyne, Queensland, on August 12th, 1901; who 
joined us in November, 1895 : 

George West, of Ballston Spa, New York, in September, 1901 ; who joined us 
in October, 1891 : 

Horatio Ward, host of the Fleur-de-lis Hotel, Canterbury, on October 10th, 
1901. Our Brother, who was an adept in all, or nearly all, the degrees of Masonry, 
became successively a Grand Warden in the Provinces of Wiltshire and Kent, and at 
the time of his decease held the rank of Past Deputy Grand Sword Bearer of the 
United Grand Lodge of England, and that of Past Grand Standard Bearer in the 
Supreme Grand Chapter. He joined our Circle in October, 1889 : 

George Kenning", of Upper Sydenham, S.E., on October 26th, 1901, who joined 
us in November, 1887. Our late Brother — for many years past one of the most familiar 
and influential personalities of the Metropolitan Craft — founded in March, 1869, the 
Freemason newspaper, and, in 1872, the Masonic Monthly Magazine, the latter, however, 
was discontinued in the early " eighties." He also brought out, in 1870, the Cosmopolitan 
Masonic Calendar, and in addition we have his Masonic Cyclopaedia, edited by the late 
Bro. Woodford, and his Archaeological Library, the two volumes of which were severally 
written by Bros. Woodford and Hugh an. He was also the publisher of many of the 
best known works on the subject of Freemasonry. Bro. Kenning had taken all the 
degrees practised in this country, and was a Patron of the three Central Charities of 
the English Craft : 



Henry Mark Kraszinski, of Highbury New Park, N., on October 29th, 1901, 
who joined us in November, 1899. 

Henry Sutherland, on November 19th, who joined our Circle in January, 1899. 
Dr. Sutherland, whose writings on medical science had gained for him a great celebrity, 
was perhaps even more widely known as a zealous and enthusiastic Freemason. At the 
time of his decease he was the W.M. of the " Old Westminster" Lodge, No. 2233, and 
Secretary of the " Grand Stewards' " Lodge, of which he was also a P.M. Our Brother 
likewise held the rank of Past Grand Deacon in the Grand Lodge, and of Past 
Assistant Grand Sojourner in the Grand Chapter. 


ORNWALL FREEMASONRY. 1 — The first thing noticed about a book is 
the coat it appears in, and after all first impressions go for something 
in book as elsewhere : and I confess I was favourably impressed when 
I saw that this book was nicely covered, and not in the inevitable 
blue. A case full of books bound in blue would be a horror. 

The period of Masonic history in Cornwall included in the 
contents, is about 63 years, and embraces the early history of the " Ship Lodge " at St. 
Ives, the " Lodge of True Friendship," at Crowan : the "Druid's Lodge of Love and 
Liberality " at Redruth, with the R.A. Chapter, and the Templar Encampment, con- 
nected more or less with the Druid's Lodge. 

With the assistance of friends, who placed at his disposal documents and letters, 
fortunately preserved, though more largely through his own industry and perseverance, 
Bro. Osborn has collected together a number of interesting notes throwing light on the 
customs of Lodges in Cornwall during the second half of the eighteenth century. It is 
always a matter for congratulation when the history of a Lodge appears, in which the 
compiler has endeavoured to select from the papers at his disposal, all the facts worthy 
of notice. One then feels safe that when once in print, the chance of destruction or 
loss of much that may be interesting no longer exists. 

A few of the items of interest in the present volume may be called attention to : 
each degree was given separately, and it seems to have been the custom, after having 
received the first, for the candidate to propose himself for advancement in each case. 
The aprons were of leather and cost one shilling each in 17G5 : these naturally did not 
improve by constant use, the members of the Lodge evidently having the use of them. 
" The Aprons of this Lodge were cleaned," at the cost of three shillings and two pence 
in 1778. 

One looks with regret on the following minute of the 19th of July, 1786, " that 
the Silver that was made from the old Collors be sold, and [it is resolved on] the next 
Lodge night to make a subscription to Ballance the Ledger." This was done in order 
to send a subscription to the Hall Fund, and the Fund of Charity. 

New jewels having been presented to the Druid's Lodge in 1791, the old ones 
were given to the Druid's Chapter of Love and Liberality. 

1 " History of Freemasonry ia Wesb Cornwall, from 1765 to 1828, with chapters on the Mark, 
R.A., and K.T. Ceremonies," hy Joseph G. Osborn, P.M., etc. With an introduction by Bro. William 
James Hnghan, P.M., P.G.D., etc. Penzance, 1901. 

214 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In an inventory of the furniture, etc., taken in the year 1795, the Mason's Arms 
and the King's Arms are duly entered : no doubt painted or carved panels hung up in 
the Lodge room. Another inventory of 1813 includes a number of framed prints, and 
no less than " Eight Masonic Jugs," quite a little collection in itself. 

Several characteristic letters from Thomas Dunckerley will be found in that 
portion of the book telling the history of the Druid's Chapter and the Templars : and 
on two of the members wishing to have proper R.A. Aprons, Dunckerley [?] informs 
them, that, Aprons " were directed to be worn by the old Charter, but have been dis- 
used for several years, Sashes being deemed sufficient." This was in the year 1792: 
and in 1795 a letter from William Hannam states that " The Royal Arch Masons of 
London wear no Aprons when assembled as such in Chapter." 

The difficulties of obtaining anything satisfactory from the Grand Chapter were 
very great, and involved a large amount of correspondence. Registering fees having 
been paid in 1819 for a Royal Arch Companion, he was refused admittance to the 
Grand Chapter in 1824, on account of his not having been registered ! This naturally 
brought a remonstrance from the Redruth Chapter. 

Having failed to obtain from the Grand Chapter either acknowledgment of the 
remittances or the certificates repeatedly asked for, or even an answer to their letter, 
this neglect is quietly pointed out. One wonders if the irony of the following 
sentence was intended or understood; it runs as follows : "We wish to know whether it 
is absolutely necessary that a Royal Arch Companion should have a Certificate from 
the Grand Royal Arch Chapter in London." 

Many little facts of interest may be gleaned from Bro. Osborn's extracts from 
the minutes of both the Lodges and the Chapter, for example, at a meeting of the 
Chapter held in 1826 several members having previously "expressed a wish to be 
passed to the several Degrees " of J., H. and Z., and some others having made the same 
request at the present meeting, one of whom had only been exalted that day, " it was 
unanimously agreed [to], the whole passed in due and solemn form, and [they were] 
admitted accordingly." 

Space and time will not allow me to do more than mention the various copies of 
the Bye Laws here printed in full, the struggle for existence of the early Lodges, the 
numerous and interesting letters, the custom of the ladies being introduced into the 
Provincial Grand Lodge, and taking wine, the action of the Templars of Cornwall 
during the scare of 1794, and many other points worthy of notice, which must be read 
in the book itself. 

The introduction by Brother Hughan contains a useful series of references to 
other communications with reference to Freemasonry in Cornwall. 

Only 400 copies have been printed, and as the profits of the sale are to be made 
over to the Cornwall Masonic Benevolent and Annuity Fund, it is to be hoped and 
expected that in a short time the whole edition will be exhausted. 

W. H. Rylands. 

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

ft! ^ VS 

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Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 215 


HE certificate exhibited by Bro. Dr. Wynn Westcott at tbe meeting 
held on the 4th October, of which an illustration is now given, is 
written on a thick piece of parchment measuring 8| inches wide and 
8| inches high. Only a portion remains on the left hand margin of 
the seal of red wax. It bears a dexter arm embowed holding a 
trowel : and all that now remains of the inscription round the edge is, 

" LODGE No. 218." The seal is tied in with blue overlayed with yellow narrow ribbon ; 

the yellow in the centre. 

The text is as follows : — 

And the Darkness Comprehended it Not 

In the East A place full of Light where Reigns silance and peace 
We the Master wardens and Secretary of the Worship full Lodge of 
Free and Accepted Masons Dedicated to S*. John N? 218 on the Registry 
of Ireland held in the Forty Eight Regiment of Foot (Ne Varietur) 
A Dornd with all their Honours and Assembled in Due Form 

Do hereby Declare Certifie and Attest to all men Lightned spread on the 
Face of the Earth that the Bearer hereof Alexander Cockburn hath been 
Received an Entered Apprentice and fellow Craft and after sufficient proof 
And Tryall we have Given unto him the sublime Degree of Master and he 
May Lawfully and Safely without any Demur be Admitted into And Acc- 
epted off by any Society to whome these Presents Come Greeting 

Given under our Hands and Seal at our Lodge Room at the Havanna this 3 d Day of 
May in the Year of our Lord 1763 and in the Tear of Masonry 5763 

William Smith Master 

James Lee 
Peter: Tobin: Secretary. Rich d Coombs 

[ Wardens. 

It appears to have been granted by a Military Lodge attached to the 48th Foot, 
about nine months after the siege and capture of the Havannah (August 14th, 1762), in 
which that regiment took part. According to my notes, there have been two Irish 
Lodges in the 48th Foot. The warrant for the earlier one — -No. 218 — was granted in 
1750, the latest registry occurred in 1833 (though I understand that Dr. Crawley has 
recently discovered that the Lodge was active as late as 1840-50), and the document 
was cancelled in 1858. 

The second Lodge — No. 982 — was established in 1806, the latest register occurred 
in 1809, and the Warrant was returned in 1817. 

It is possible that No. 218 lapsed, that No. 982 was subsequently granted to the 
same corps, and afterwards exchanged for the old number (218) — but this is conjecture, 

216 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

and I am drifting from the earlier Masonic history of the regiment during its period of 
service at the " Pearl of the Antilles." 

None of the names appearing on the certificate of 1763 are shewn among those of 
the commissioned officers of the 48th Foot, as given in the Army List of that year. 
The third Captain on the official roll is, indeed, a Sir James Cockburn, Bart., who may 
have been related to the holder of the certificate ? and the John Lee who figures on the 
list of Lieutenants, may, in like manner, have been connected by family ties with the 
Senior Warden of the Lodge. But on the whole, the balance of probability inclines in 
the direction of all the brethren whose names appear on the certificate, having been 
either non-commissioned officers or private soldiers of the regiment to which Lodge 
No. 218 was attached. 

R. F. Gould. 


AYMUS GRECUS. — After perusing with deep interest the learned 
papers on " Naymus Grecus " by our late Bro. G. W. Speth, and on 
" Marcus Graecus Bversus " by Bro. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, I am 
quite unable to concede that Naymus Grecus is identical with Marcus 

However much we should have rejoiced to find the secret solved 
by our late accomplished Secretary, the mythical individual in question still remains 

Of all the theories yet advanced, I incline most to the one propounded by Bro. 
R. F. Gould, in his " History of Freemasonry " (vol. i., p. 248)), viz. : that Naymus 
Grecus was " a man with a Greek name " ; it is highly probable, therefore, that we 
may never know the real name and history of this " Curious Mason." 

May I add two variations of the name not recorded in the late Mr. Wyatt 
Papworth's paper in A.Q.G. (iii., p. 162), nor elsewhere to my knowledge, viz. : — 
Naymus Greeus in the "John T. Thorp MS." of 1629 ; 
Nantus Grecus in the " John Strachan MS." of 1700 circa ; 
both of which documents I have transcribed and published recently. 

John T. Thorp. 

The Man with a Greek Name.— Bro. Chetwode Crawley has so bedevilled the 
interesting paper of our lamented Bro. Speth, without giving us a theory in return, that 
we are worse off than at first ; save for the amount of interesting antiquarian matter with 
which we are furnished by both writers. Marcus Grsecus, whoever he may have been 
or wherever the legends attached to him have been derived, belongs rather to Castle or 
fortification than Church building. There is a point that Bro. Chetwode Crawley does 
not touch which it might be worth while to examine, though I have hitherto placed little 
reliance npon it myself. In a book entitled Accounts of the Gypsies of India, David 
MacRitchie, (London, 1886) ; the author traces these nomads through Egypt, Babylonia, 
(as the Luris sent to Persia from India, 5th century, a.d.) to the Jatt tribes of India, whom 
some identify with the Goths. But my reason for mentioning them is that MacRitchie 
quotes certain writers to show that the Gypsies were the earliest fabricators of Artillery, 

Notes and Queries. 


and he instances that the Jats armed their almost impregnable fortress of Bhurtpoor 
with cannon after the mode of our own ancient pieces. Kagalnitchan (whoever he may 
be) says of the Gypsies of Roumania, " it was they who were the makers of muskets, 
lances, swords, bombshells, and all the other arms required in war." In 1496 the King 
of Hungary employed Gypsies in making cannon balls, and the Turkish Governor of 
Bosnia did the same in 1565. In 1546 the English Council of Boulogne reported that 
the French King had imported two persons from Hungary to construct cannons of the 
greatest calibre ever seen. In the 11th century, in presence of Bagrat IV., certain 
Atsinkan, supposed to be Gypsies, slew wild beasts at Constantinople by their magic 
arts, and the Gypsy pirates who ascended the Tigris in 865 carried three " firemen " in 
each barge whose duty it was to attack the enemy with Greek fire. But enough of these 
extracts, if they are capable, upon investigation, of standing Bro. Chetwode Crawley's 
cannonade, the legend of an Egyptian " King Marcus " may turn out to be of Gypsy 
origin. Then we may have the old theory revived that Freemasonry is of Gypsy origin, 

amongst our uncritical detractors. 

John Tarker. 


\* founded I83 2 Q 


218 Transactions of the Quatuor'Coronati Lodge. 


N order that no time should be lost in the receipt of a resolution of 
sympathy from the Grand Lodge of England on the base assassination 
of our Brother, the President MeKinley, the Board of General Purposes, 
on the 15th October agreed to an expression " of the profound sympathy 
of English Freemasons with their American Brethren in the loss sus- 
tained through the untimely death of the highly-esteemed and much 
beloved President," being tendered through the several Grand Lodges 

of the United States, as also " the horror and detestation with which every Freemason 

regards the crime." 

The Earl of March succeeds H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught as Prov. G.M. for 
Sussex, in consequence of the Prince becoming our Grand Master, in succession to His 
Majesty King Edward VII., and Sir Augustus F. W. E. Webster, Bart., has been 
appointed as Prov. G.M. of Hants and the Isle of Wight, vice the Right Hon. W. W. 
Bramston Beach, M.P., deceased. 

These are the only changes in the Provinces for 1901, but there are four new 
District Grand Masters abroad, viz., The Lord Ampthill, for Madras, Charles B. Moss, 
C.B., for Jamaica, The Right Hon. the Lord Northcote, G.C.I.E., C.B., for Bombay, and 
General Sir Francis Reginald Wingate, G.C.M.G., C.B., for Egypt and the Soudan. 

At the last Quarterly Communication, our esteemed W.M., Bro. Gotthelf 
Greiner, was invested as Assistant Grand Secretary for German Correspondence, vice our 
lamented Brother Caesar Kupferschmidt deceased. The appointment by H.R.H. the 
Duke of Connaught, M.W.G.M., is most popular in and out of the Qcjattjor Coronati 
Lodge, and the " Moira " Lodge No. 92, of which our friend is a P.M. ; as his qualifica- 
tions for that office are beyond question and are generally recognized. 

At the Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge of England held on the 4th 
December, a curious point came up for consideration and settlement, which was raised 
on an appeal. The point was that service for twelve months as Warden to qualify 
for the Chair, need not be continuously for the year, either as S.W. or J.W., but at least 
for that period of service whether in the one or both. Over 600 Brethren voted on the 
question, the minority of 289 included the Grand Registrar, Bro. John Strachan, K.C. 

The Grand Master has graciously consented to permit of Provincial and District 
Grand Masters appointing to past rank, in commemoration of H.R.H. 's Installation : one 
for every 12 Lodges up to 30 Lodges in a province or district, and beyond that number 
one in every eight. When the broken number exceeds six and four respectively, one is 
allowed accordingly. 

Another new Temperance Lodge has been constituted, this time at Birkenhead ; 
the first W.M. being the Cheshire Masonic Historian, Bro. John Armstrong, P.Prov.G.W. 
The Membership is not confined to total abstainers, but no intoxicating liquor is allowed 
to be placed on the Refreshment Tables. 

Chronicle. 219 

"West Yorkshire is again to the fore by the publication of memoirs of deceased 
Provincial Grand Officers, with portraits; the first having recently been prepared and 
circulated by the energetic Honorary Librarian, Bro. William Watson, P.Prov.G.W. 
This is a novelty that has come to stay. 

The new Grand Officers for Ireland, or rather the names of the Grand Officers 
for 1902, are His Grace the Duke of Abercorn, K.G., M.W.G.M. ; the Right W. Sir James 
C. Meredith, D.G.M. ; the Right Hon. Viscount Templeton, S.G.W. ; the R.W. Sir 
John T. Banks, K.C.B., J.G.W. ; the R.W. R. Keating Clay, J.P., G.Treas. ; the Right 
Hon. Lord Castletown, G.Sec. ; the R.W. Rev. Benj. Gibson, M.A. and Right Rev. the 
Lord Bishop of Down, D.D., Grand Chaplains, S.G.D. ; Bro. 

James M. Lowry, J.G.D. ; Bro. William Spence, C.E., G.S. of Works; Bro. Wm. 
McGee, J.P., G.D. of C. ; Bro. D. George Scriven, G.Std. ; Bro. J. Fox Goodman, J.P., 
G.Swd.Br. ; Bro. Thomas R. G. George, Mus.D., G.Org. ; the Right Hon. Lord 
Plunkett, Grand I.G. ; Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, P.G.D., G.Sec.,G.L. of Instruction ; 
and Bro. Henry E. Flavelle, Deputy G.Sec. and Treasurer. The second oldest Grand 
Lodge in the World elects all its Grand Officers, save the D.G.M.. and the Grand Officers 
are made progressive, so that Lord Plunket who begins as G.I.G., will, all being well, 
be promoted every three years, so will not arrive at the rank of S.G.D. just directly. 
There is no honorary past rank, and the list of Past Grand Officers, excluding those 
in office for the present year, only numbers 15 Brethren. 

The Hon. James Hozier, M.P., has been re-elected as Grand Master of Scotland 
(now in the third year), other Grand Officers elected being Bros. W. Munro Denholm 
S.G.W. ; R. King Stewart, Prov.G.M., &c, J.G.W. ; the Revs. Geo. R. Anderson and 
David Watson, Grand Chaplains ; James 0. Sinclair and George Crawford Grand 
Deacons; Frank W. Simon, G. Architect ; Arthur J. Ramsay, G.Jeweller- John 
Stewart, G.Bible Br. ; Andrew Fergus, G.D.C., &c, &c. Among the appointed Officers 
are the Hon. Charles Maule Ramsay, G. Master Depute, and Bro. J. D. G. Dalrymple of 
Woodhead, substitute G.M. 

i » 

An interesting letter has been received by the Secretary from Bro. Arthur W 
Godfrey, C.C. (P.M. No. 590 Jersey, dated Harrismith, 26th Sept., 1901). Our Brother 
who joined the Imperial Light Infantry and was present at Laing's Nek, has since 
become attached to the Army Service Corps. He has had good health throughout and 
speaks well of the country. He met a few members of the " Correspondence Circle " and 
has himself done his best to keep our flag flying in that country ; his enthusiasm for the 
Craft being unbounded. 

The "Liverpool Masonic Literary and Philosophical Society" has been formed 
to provide during the winter months, lectures and papers by prominent Freemasons on 
Masonic Literature, Ancient History, Landmarks, &c. The meetings will be held in the 
Committee Room, Masonic Hall, Hope Street, on the first Saturday in each month at 
8 p.m. The Hon. Sec. is Bro. W. H. Griffiths, 7, Berkley Street, Liverpool. This is pre- 
eminently a step in the right direction, and already lectures have been delivered by well 
known Brethren. There should be no difficulty in securing the aid of Brethren qualified 
to assist the Committee in their efforts to interest and instruct the local Craft in all that 
concerns the history of the Fraternity, and we wish it all success. 

220 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The St. John's Lodge, No. 25, Omaha, Nebraska (U.S.A.,) through its W.M., 
Bro. C. S. Lobingier, has arranged for the delivery of a course of lectures on Masonic 
History, from October 1901 to April 1902 ; the titles being : 1, Medieval Craft Guilds ; 
2, Founding of the Grand Lodge of England ; 3, Evolution of tbe Ritual ; 4, Masonic 
Jurisprudence; 5, "Ancient Masons"; 6, Freemasonry in America — Transplantation. 
A number of works are noted for guidance, some being far from trustworthy for the 
purpose, such as Heckethorn's " Secret Societies," and Hyneman's " Ancient York and 
London Grand Lodges." 

The latest report of the " Liverpool Masonic Literary and Philosophical Society " 
is of a very encouraging character. The membership already exceeds thirty (many of 
whom are connected with the " Quatuor Coronati " through the Correspondence Circle), 
all expenses have been met, and a respectable balance is in hand for the new year. 

The Grand Lodge Calendar shows that the last Lodge warranted is numbered 
2885, and that notwithstanding the numerous removals from the Roll during the past 
year (consequent on the formation of new Grand Lodges), there are still over 2350 
Lodges on the Register, and of these 854 have Royal Arch Chapters. The latest 
appointment as Prov. G.M. is of the R.W. Bro. Henry Kennard, for Monmouthshire, on 
November 15th. The Grand Superintendents for Norfolk, Wilts, Sussex, and Hants 
(with Isle of Wight), appointed during the past year are Brothers H. J. Sparks, the 
Earl of Radnor, Rev. J. H. Pilkington, M.A., and Sir Augustus Webster, Bart., respec- 
tively ; those for abroad being Surgeon General C. B. Mosse for Jamaica, and Thomas 
J. Cooper for Gibraltar. 

The numerous friends of Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley will rejoice to know that 
he has been selected for the vacant office of Senior Grand Deacon of Ireland. His being 
again elected and reinstalled in this distinguished position, has occurred opportunely 
during Coronation Year, and on the 21st anniversary of his debut as a Grand Officer of 
the second oldest Grand Lodge in the world. Moreover, by special favour, our dear 
Brother retains the office of Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Instruction, which, 
though inferior in rank, is not one whit of less importance in relation to the good 
government and working of this veteran organization. 

It has been suggested by some of the members of the Lodge that the Summer 
Outing should take place this year on precisely the same lines as drawn up for 1901 by 
our lamented Secretary, Bro. Speth. Surely nothing else is likely to be so generally 
acceptable to the members of both Circles. 

W. J. Hughan. 

BAKON BLAYNEY /yQ^rtJff^nawJ^^t/J^/su/enwtSavu) Cuj/vJ (L^/^*<>»/^/fc'^y//CO ITNTY, 

Grand Master of Free and Accepted Masotjs. 








A.D. I9OI. 




Ouaftior Coxonati Bobge, Qto. 2076, 

Bonbon t 




CIRCA. 1500 A.D. 


S^Ttlx December, 1901. 


H-KebLI:, Printee, Margate. 


Utmnbevs anh ^iTaet ffct asters : 

* SIR CHARLES WARREN, G.G.M.G., Lieut.-General, P.D.G.M., East Archi., Past Master. 

* WILLIAM HARRY RYLANDS, F.8.A., P.A.G.D.C, Past Master. 

* ROBERT FREKE GOULD, P.G.D., Past Master. 

* REV. ADOLPHUS P. A. WOODFORD, M.A., P.G.C., (Died 23rd December, 1887). 

* SIR WALTER BESANT, M.A., F.8.A., (Died 6th June, 1901). 


* SISSON COOPER PRATT, Lieut. -Col., R.A., Past Master. 


* GEORGE WILLIAM SPETH, F.R.Hist.S., P.A.G.D.C. (Died 19th April, 1901.) 
WILLIAM SIMPSON, R.I., M.R.A.S., Past Master (Died 17th August, 1899.) 

THOMAS HAYTER LEWIS, Professor, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., Past Master (Died 10th December, 1898). 



EDWARD MACBE AN, Past Master. 

GUSTA.V ADOLPH CiESAR KUPFERSCHMIDT, A.G.S.G.C., Past Master (Died 30th Oct. 1901.) 

SYDNEY TURNER KLEIN, F.L.S., F.R.A.S., Past Master. 



EDWARD CONDER, Jun., J.P., F.8.A., Immediate Past Master. 

Worshipful Master 

Senior Warden 

Junior Warden 



Senior Deacon 

Junior Deacon 

Director of Ceremonies 

Inner Guard 



®fficevs of tije gofcge anb (Committee: 



ALBERT HASTINGS MARKHAM, Vice-Admiral, P.D.G.M., Malta. 

HAMON LE STRANGE, Pr.G.M., Norfolk. 









JOHN W. FREEMAN, P.M., 147. 

©tjlev : 

Freemasons' Hall, Great Queen Street, W.C. 

* Founders. 


1887—1888. R, F. GOULD. 

1888—1889. WILLIAM SIMPSON (Died 17th August, 1899.) 




1892—1893. PROP. T. HAYTER LEWIS (Died 10th December, 1898.) 

1893—1894. DR. W. WYNN WESTCOTT. 


1895-1896. EDWARD MACBEAN. 

1896—1897. CAESAR KUPFERSCHMIDT (Died 30th October, 1901.) 




1900—1901. EDWARD CONDER, Junr. 

London, 27th December, 1901. 
Dear Brethren, 

T is with no ordinary pleasure that I accept this opportunity at the very 

commencement of my year of office, to communicate with all those 

Brethren scattered over the face of the Glohe. During the years that 

^l_^^i^SjK_j^ have gone by, it has been my good fortune to meet a number of 

"^^j/jtAjf^ our army of Masonic Students, and it is my wish and hope that before 

' ' we have passed through this second year of the new century, I shall 

have the pleasure of becoming personally acquainted with many more. 

One and all I greet you Brethren, and heartily express the hope that all good 
things may be yours, now and in the future. 

The year just passed has been one of deep sorrow and trouble, so great 
that memory of it will remain with us for many years to come. We must, however, 
remember that the welfare of the Lodge is in our keeping ; and that our best efforts 
must be freely given, in order to add to its strength. 

Notwithstanding the severe losses we have suffered, our Roll of Members has 
steadily increased, the number being at the present time about 2,900. 

Brother George L. Shackles has kindly granted the use of a very fine copy of 
the engraved portrait of Lord Blayney for reproduction. 

Cadwallader, ninth Lord Blayney, was born on the 2nd of May, 1720. He 
distinguished himself at the taking of Cape Breton : became Major-General in 1765: 
Colonel of the 38th Foot: and Lieut.-General in 1772. He died on the 21st of 
November, 1775, and was buried at Castle Blayney. 

He occupied the position of Grand Master of English Freemasons ("Modern" 
G. Lodge) from his election on the 8th of May, 1764, until his successor was appointed 
on the 27th day of April, 1767. 

On the 11th of June, 1766, he " passed the Arch " as it was then called, when he 
became " Grand Master Z.," an office to which he was regularly reappointed until 
the 12th January, 1770. He signed with others the well-known " Charter of Compact " 
of the Grand Chapter, dated the 22nd of July, 1767. 

With all good wishes for your happiness and prosperity, 

I am, dear Brethren, 

Your Worshipful Master and Brother, 




la Warren, Sir Charles, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S. Lieut.-General. 10 Wellington Crescent, Ramsgate. 
245,1417,1832, P.M. Founder and First Worshipful Master. Past Grand Deacon, 

Past District Grand Master, Eastern Archipelago. 

lb Ryiands, William Harry, F.S.A. 37 Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., London. 2, P.M. 
Founder and First Senior Warden. Past Master. Secretary. Past Assistant Grand 
Director of Ceremonies. 

1c Gould, Robert Freke, late 31st Regt., Barrister-at-Law. Kingfield, Woking, Surrey. 92, 153, 570, 
743, P.M. Founder and First Junior Warden. Past Master and Director of Ceremonies. 

Past Grand Deacon. 

1d Ryiands, John Paul, Barrister-at-Law, F.S.A. Heather Lea, Charlesville, Claughton, Birkenhead. 
148, 1354. Founder. 

1e Pratt, Sisson Cooper, Lieut. -Colonel, Royal Artillery. 33 Churton Street, S.W., London. 92. 
Founder. Past Master. 

1f Hughan, William James. Dunscore, Torquay, Devon. 131, P.M. Founder. P.Pr.G.Sec, P.Pr.G.W., 

Cornwall. Past Grand Warden, Iowa. Past Grand Deacon. 

7 Bywater, Witham Matthew. 33 Telford Avenue, Streatham Hill, S-W., London. 19, P.M. Past 

Master. Past Grand Sword Bearer. Joined 7th April 1886. 

8 Whytehead, Thomas Bowman. Acomb House, York. 1611, 2328, P.M., P.Pr.G.W., North and East 

Yorks. Past Grand Sword Bearer. Past Grand Warden, New Zealand. 

Past Master. Joined 7th April 1886. 

9 WestCOtt, William Wynn, M.B., Lond. 396 Camden Road, N.W., London. 814, P.M., P.Pr.G.D.C, 

Somersetshire. Past Master. Joined 2nd December 1886. 

10 Crawley, William John Chetwode, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.G.S.,F.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. Member of the Senate, 

Dublin University. Ely Place, Dublin. 357 (I.C.), P.M., Elected Grand Secretary of the 
G.L. of Instruction, and Past Registrar of the Grand Chapter of Instruction, Ireland. Past 
Senior Grand Deacon, Ireland. Member of Permanent Committee. Joined 2nd 
June 1887. 

11 Ball, Rev. Charles James, M. A., Oxon, Clerk in Holy Orders. Blechingdon Rectory, Oxford. 1820. 

Past Master. Joined 8th September 1887. 

12 Castle, Edward James, late Royal Engineers, Barrister-at-Law, K.C. 8 King's Bench Walk, Temple, 

London. 143, P.M. Senior Warden. Joined 4th May 1888. 

13 Macbean, Edward, F.R.G.S., F.R.S.L. Rannochlea, St. Andrew's Drive, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 

1 (S.C.), 2029, Z. Past Master. Joined 4th May 1888. 


14 Goldney, Frederick Hastings. Camberley, Surrey. 259, 335, 626, P.M., Pr.G.Treas., P.Pr.G.W- 

Wiltshire. Past Grand Deacon. SeDior Steward. Joined 4th May 1888. 

15 Clarke, Caspar Purdon, CLE., F.S.A. 92 Cromwell Road, S.W., London. 1196. Past Master. 

Joined 4th January 1889. 

16 Klein, Sydney Turner, F.L.S., F.E.A.S. Hatherloiv, Raglan Road, Reigate, Surrey. 404. Past Master. 

Joined 8th November 1889. 

17 Markham, Albert Hastings, Vice Admiral, A.D.C. to the Queen, F.E.G.S. Admiralty Hovse 

Sheemcss. 257, 1593, P.M. Past District Grand Master, Past Grand Superin- 
tendent, Malta. Junior Warden. Joined 24th June 1891. 

18 Ninnis, Belgrave, M.D., Inspector General, R.N., F.R.G.S., F.S.A. BrocJcenhurst, Aldrington Road, 

Streatham, S.W-, London. 259, 1174, 1691, P.M., P.Dis.G.D., Malta. Past Grand Junior 
Deacon, Past Assistant Grand Sojourner. Joined 9th November 1891. 

19 MalCZOvich, Ladislas Aurele de. Belugyministerium, Budapest, Hungary. Lodge Szent Istzvan. 

Member of the Council of the Older, Hungary. Representative of Grand Lodge, 

Ireland. Local Secretary for Hungary. Joined 5th January 1894. 

20 Conder, Edward, jun., J.P., F.S.A. The Conigree, Neiuent, Gloucestershire. 1036, 1074, 280. 

Immediate Past Master. Local Secretary for Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire. Joined 
5th January 1894. 

21 Greiner, Gotthelf. 10 8f 12 Milton Street, Cripplegate, B.C., London. 92, P.M. Worshipful 

Master. Joined 24th June 1896. 

22 Horsley, Rev. John William, M.A., Oxod, Clerk in Holy Orders, J. P. St. Peter's Rectory, Walworth, 

S.E., London. 1973. Senior Deacon. Joined 24th June 1896. 

23 Shackles, George Lawrence. 7 Land of Green Ginger, Hull. 57, 1511, 2494, P.M., 1511, P.Z. 

P.Pr.G.D., P. Pr.G.R., Noith and East Yorkshire. Junior Deacon. Local Secretary for the 
North and East Ridings of Yorkshire. Joined 7th May 1897. 

24 Le Strange, Hamon. Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk. 10, 16, 52, P.M., 10, 52, P.Z., P.P.G.W., 

P. Pr.G.Treas., P.D.Pr.G.M., Pr.G.H., Norfolk. Provincial Grand Master, Norfolk. 

Treasurer. Joined 1st October 1897. 

25 Armitage, Edward, M.A. Greenhills, Tilford, Farnham, Surrey. 859. 1074, 1492, P.M., 859, 1074, 

1 (S.C.), P.Z., P.Pr.G.W., Cumberland and Westmoreland, P.Pr.G.J., Cambridge. Inner 
Guard. Joined 7th October 1898. 

26 Crowe, Frederick Joseph William. Marsden, Torquay, Devon. 328, P.M., 770, P.Pr.G.O., Craft and 

Royal Arch, Devon. Local Secretary for Devonshire. Joined 8th November 1898. 

27 Thorp, John Thomas, F.R.Hist.S. 57 Regent Road, Leicester. 523, 2429, P.M., 279, P.Z., 

Pr.G.W., Pr.G.J., Leicestershire and Rutland. Junior Steward. Joined 8th November 1900. 

28 Hovenden, Robert, F.S.A., F.R.Hist.S. Heathcote, Park Hill Road, Croydon, Surrey. 21, 2140, P.M. 

Past Grand Steward. Joined 24th June, 1901. 


H.R.H. Prince Friedrich Leopold Of Prussia. Berlin. Ordens Meister. National Grand 
Lodge of Germany. Past Grand Master, England. Honorary Member. 
Joined 4th January, 1901. 


— s-£?^££&^e<K— 


1 United Grand Lodge of England, Library 

2 Provincial Grand Lodge of Staffordshire 

3 Provincial Grand Chapter of Staffordshire 

4 Provincial Grand Lodge of West Yorkshire, Library 

5 District Grand Lodge of Gibraltar 

6 District Grand Lodge of Malta 

7 District Grand Lodge of Natal 

8 District Grand Lodge of Punjab 

9 District Grand Lodge of Burma 

10 District Grand Lodge of Madras 

11 District Grand Lodge of the Argentine Republic 

12 District Grand Lodge of Eastern Archipelago 

13 District Grand Lodge of Northern China 

14 District Grand Lodge of Queensland (E.C.) 

15 District Grand Lodge of Queensland (S.C.) 

16 District Grand Lodge of South Africa, W. Div. 

17 Grand Lodge of Iowa, Masonic Library 

18 Grand Lodge of Kentucky, Library 

19 Grand Lodge of Manitoba 

20 Grand Lodge of Massachusetts 

21 Grand Lodge of Montana 

22 Grand I odge of New York, Masonic Library 

23 Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Library 
21 Grand Lodge of Virginia 

25 Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, Library 

26 Grand National Lodge of Germany, Library 

27 Grand Lodge of Hamburg, Library 

28 Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower Saxony, Library 

29 Grand Lodge of the Netherlands 

30 Provincial Grand Lodge, Netherlands, South Africa 

31 Grand Lodge of New Zealand 

32 Grand Lodge of South Australia 

33 United Grand Lodge of Victoria 

34 United Grand Lodge of New South Wales 

35 Supreme Council, A. and A.S.R., England 

36 Supreme Council, A. and A.S.R., Belgium 

37 Supreme Council, A. and A.S.R., S. Jur., U.S.A. 

38 Supreme Council, A. and A.S.R., Canada 

39 The Grand Council of the Order of the Secret 

Monitor in England 











Buenos Ay res 





Cape Town 

Cedar Rapids 




Helena, Montana 

New York 







The Hague 

Cape Town 










September 1887 

May 1889 

May 1890 

October 1889 

March 1889 

January 1890 

June 1889 

May 1888 

June 1890 

May 1894 

January 1891 

October 1890 

May 1895 

June 1895 

October 1891 

June 1899 

October 1888 

May 1889 

September 1887 

January 1890 

March 1898 

November 1890 

May 1900 

January 1893 

June 1899 

May 1887 

May 1895 

January 1894 

October 1899 

January 18l>9 

November 1891 

January 1890 

November 1890 

June 1894 . 

May 1888 

May 1887 

March 1892 

March 1896 

June 1888 

*Owing to the continually increasing length of our members-list, it has become impossible to 
await the November elections before going to press. The list has, consequently, been drawn up 
immediately after the October mooting, and Correspondence Members admitted in November will be found 
in a supplementary list. Any alterations for subsequent issues should, therefore, reach the Secretary 
before October of each year. 


40 : 






















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Royal Athelstan Lodge 

United and Industrious Lodge 

St. John the Baptist Lodge 

Lodge of Industry 

Humber Lodge 

Iiodge of Probity 

Doyle's Lodge of Fellowship 

Philanthropic Lodge 

Salopian Lodge of Charity 

Lodge of Harmony 

Lodge Perfect Unanimity 

Mariners Lodge 

Lodge of Sincerity 

Lodge Hengist 

Ionic Lodge 

York Lodge 

Tyrian Lodge 

Salopian Lodge 

Lodge of Friendship 

Witham Lodge 

Lodge Peace and Concord, 2nd Batt. 

The Royal Scots. 
Phoenix Lodge of Honour and Prudence 
Lodge Perseverance 

Doric Lodge 

St Paul's Lodge 

Lodge Independence with Philanthropy 

St. David's Lodge 

Menturia Lodge 

Yarborough Lodge 

Lodge of Harmony 

Cornubian Lodge, " Coombe" Library 

Lodge Himalayan Brotherhood 

Lodge Goodwill 

Lodge of Merit 

Lodge Zetland in the East 

St. Martin's Lodge 

Lodge Zetland 

St. Matthew's Lodge 

Stuart Lodge 

Lodge of Philanthropy 

Etruscan Lodge 

Yarborough Lodge 

Lodge St. Germain 

General Lodge of Instruction 

Lodge of the Marches 

Lodge Star of Burma 

Excelsior Lodge 

Portland Lodge 

St. Bartholomew Lodge 

Goodwill Lodge 

Lindsey Lodge 

Staffordshire Knot Lodge 




Gateshead, Durham 


Halifax, Yorkshire 


King's Lynn, Norfolk 


Faversham, Kent 











Poona, India 

Truro, Cornwall 


Grantham, Lincolnshire 

Montreal, Canada 

Allahabad, N.W. Prov. 


Hanley, Staffordshire 

Gainsboro', Lincolnshire 

Cawnpore, Bengal 

Hayle, Cornwall 

Simla, Punjab 

Bellary, Madras 



Liskeard, Cornwall 

Hong Kong 

Walsall, Staffordshire 


Moulmein, Burma 

Longton, Staffords 

Ventnor, I.W. 

Selby, Yorks 


Ludlow, Shropshire 


Buenos Ayres 


Wednesbury, Staffords 

Port Elizabeth, South Africa 

Louth, Lincolnshire 


January 1890 
March 1898 
October 1890 
June 1895 
May 1889 
November 1890 
November 1896 
October 1890 
January 1889 
November 1890 
October 1893 
May 1891 
March 1894 
March 1891 
June 1895 
October 1888 
January 1888 
January 1889 
October 1888 
March 1891 
October 1901 

November 1887 
May 1897 
March 1890 
June 1888 
January 1896 
October 1896 
May 1889 
March 1890 
January 1901 
November 1887 
October 1892 
October 1893 
October 1898 
October 1890 
March 1890 
October 1888 
January 1889 
May 1900 
October 1890 
March 1893 
May 1893 
October 1893 
May 1900 
January 1889 
June 1890 
May 1890 
October 1888 
January 1889 
June 1887 
May 1889 
March 1888 


92 N 

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, 1792 

Southern Star Lodge 

Union Lodge 

Gold Coast Lodge 

Pelham Pillar Lodge 

North Australian Lodge 

Carnarvon Lodge 

Lodge of United Goodfellowship 

St. John's Lodge 

Lodge Victoria in Burma 

Isaac Newton University Lodge 

Acacia Lodge 

Royal Alfred Lodge 

Lodge of Loyalty 

Phoenix Lodge 

Lodge Leichhardt 

Lodge Wahab or Benevolent 

Kingston Lodge 

Rising Star Lodge 

Lodge Star of the South 

St. John's Lodge 

Marmion Lodge 

Lodge Rock of Gwalior 

Lodge St. George 

Lodge Pitt-MacDonald 

Marwood Lodge 

Denison Lodge 

Lodge Pioneer 

Ryburn Lodge 

Lodge of Faith, Hope and Charity 

Jordan Lodge 

Campbell Lodge 

United Service Lodge 

Castle Lodge 

Wharncliffe Lodge 

Meridian Lodge 

Friendly Lodge 

Wellington Lodge 

Duke of Cornwall Lodge 

Mount Edgcumbe Lodge 

Charters Towers Lodge 

Lodge Light of the South 

Mackay Lodge 

Townsville Lodge 

Worcester Lodge 

Eboracum Lodge Library 

Castle Lodge 

Tyrian Lodge 

Alma Mater Lodge 

Natalia Lodge 

Comet Lodge 

Manawatu Lodge 

Lodge Fraternity and Perseverance 

Transvaal Lodge 

Tudor Lodge 

Nelson, New Zealand 
Karachi, Sind, India 
Cape Coast, W. Africa 
Grimsby, Lincolnshire 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Havant, Hampshire 
Wisbech, Cambridgeshire 
Grahamstown, Cape 
Monte Video 

St. Helen's, Lancashire 
Rotherham, Yorkshire 
Rockhampton, Queensland 
Sialkote, Punjab 

Buenos Ayres 
Lichfield, Staffordshire 
Tamworth, Staffordshire 
Jhansi, Bengal 
Vepery, Madras 
Redcar, Yorks 
Gympie, Queensland 
Sowerby Bridge, W. Yorks. 
Ootacamund, Madras 
Torquay, Devonshire 
Hampton Court, Middlesex 
Landport, Hampshire 
Sandgate, Kent 
Penistone, Yorkshire 
Oradock, Cape Colony 
Barnsley, Yorkshire 
Wellington, New Zealand 
St. Columb, Cornwall 
Cambourne, Cornwall 
Charters Towers, Queensland 
Rosario de Santa Fe, 
Argentine Republic 
Mackay, Queensland 
Townsville, Queensland 
Worcester, Cape Colony 

Bridgnorth, Shropshire 
Bundaberg, Queensland 
Pietermaritzburg, Natal 
Barcaldine, Queensland 
Palmerston, New Zealand 
Benares, India 
Pretoria, V.R.C. 
Harborne, Staffordshire 

January 1892 
January 1894 
October 1890 
May 1890 
January 1892 
November 1887 
March 1892 
March 1895 
June J 890 
May 1891 
June 1890 
January 1897 
November 1888 
January 1891 
March 1897 
October 1897 
November 1889 
October 1900 
June 1890 
January 1890 
May 1889 
January 1894 
October 1890 
October 1893 
June 1898 
November 1889 
May 1898 
November 1895 
January 1895 
January 1888 
November 1891 
January 1889 
January 1895 
March 1888 
June 1889 
January 1888 
November 1887 
March 1888 
March 1891 
January 1894 

May 1898 
May 1894 
October 1895 
January 1899 
May 1887 
March 1889 
June 1898 
November 1891 
March 1889 
June 1892 
March 1897 
March 1900 
November 1893 
March 1889 





Buffalo Lodge 




Tudor Lodge of Rifle Volunteers 




Raphael Lodge 




Chine Lodge 




Audley Lodge 




Graystone Lodge 




Lodge Star of Agra 




Stewart Lodge 




Agricola Lodge 




Robinson Lodge 




Springsure Lodge 




Douglas Lodge 




Prudence Lodge 




St. Clair Lodge 




Cango Lodge 




Frere Lodge 




Prince Edward Lodge 




Makerfield Lodge 




Boscombe Lodge 




Lodge Karala 




Horsa Lodge 




Lodge Perak Jubilee 




Lodge Port Curtis 




St. Michael's Lodge 




St. Leonard's Lodge 




Chough Lodge 




Lodge Laidley 




St. Paul's Lodge 




Sitapur Lodge 




Aorangi Lodge 




El Dorado Lodge 




Read Lodge 




Lodge Aramac 




Easterford Lodge 




Lodge Pandyan 




Charleville Lodge 




Hope Lodge 




Minerva Lodge 




Lodge Mount Everest 




Gold Fields Lodge 




Jeppestown Lodge 




Humber Installed Masters Lodge 




Meteor Lodge 




Lodge St. John's 




Metropolitan Lodge 




*Rahere Lodge 




Coorg Lodge 




Lodge Waltair 




Excelsior Lodge 




Lodge Hopeful 




Lodge Manica 




Foster Gough Lodge 




Lodge Light on the Surma 




Lodge United Service 




Lodge Tambo 

East London, South Africa 
Wolverhampton, Staffs. 
Roma, Queensland 
Shanklin, Isle of Wight 
Newport, Shropshire 
Whitstable, Kent 
Agra, India 
Rawal Pindi, Punjab 

Maidstone, Kent 
Springsure, Queensland 
Port Douglas, Queensland 

Landport, Hampshire 
Oudtshoorn, Cape Colony 
Aliwal North, Cape Colony 
Heaton Moor, Lancashire 
Newton-le- Willows, Lanes. 
Boscombe, Hants 
Calicut, India 
Bournemouth, Hampshire 
Taiping, Malay Peninsula 
Gladstone, Queensland 
Bridgetown, Barbados 
Sheffield, Yorkshire 

Laidley, Queensland 
Liinassol, Cyprus 
Sitapur, India 
Wellington, New Zealand 
Zeerust, V.R.C. 
Kwala Lumpor, Selangor 
Aramac, Queensland 
Kilvedon, Essex 
Madura, India 
Charleville, Queensland 
Allora, Queensland 
Birkenhead, Cheshire 
Darjeeling, Bengal 
Johannesburg, V.R.C. 
Johannesburg, V R.C. 

Longreach, Queensland 
Buenos Ay res 
Cape Town 

Pollibetta, India 
Vizagapatam, Madras 
Eton, Mackay, Queensland 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Umtali, Rhodesia 
Silchur, Assam 
Bangalore, Madras 
Tambo, Queensland 

May 1896 
January 1889 
May 1893 
March 1888 
January 1888 
March 1889 
November 1895 
May 1889 
November 1887 
May 1893 
June 1895 
May 1896 
November 1887 
January 1889 
January 1899 
May 1891 
May 1891 
May 1889 
May 1899 
October 1900 
January 1888 
October 1890 
October 1901 
January 1894 
January 1896 
May 1890 
October 1898 
May 1899 
October 1896 
November 1891 
June 1892 
May 1895 
May 1896 
March 1897 
November 1896 
May 1895 
March 1893 
November 1892 
January 1899 
May 1895 
May 1895 
May 1898 
May 1895 
June 1898 
January 1899 
October 1898 
January 1900 
May 1898 
January 1897 
May 1897 
November 1900 
May 1899 
October 1900 
March 1901 
October 1899 




Ark Lodge, No. X. (I.C.) 

Lurgan Lodge, No. 134 (I.C.) 

St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 199 (I.C.) 

Duke of Leinster Lodge, No. 283 (I.C.) 

Lodge Hibernia and Albion, No. 289 (I.C.) 

Lodge Unity and Concord, No. 292 (I.C.) 

Lodge Temple, No. 318 (I.C.) 

West End Lodge, No. 331 (I.C.) 

Lodge Union No. 339 (1.0.) 


Lurgan, Armagh 


Brisbane, Queensland 

Townsville, Queensland 

Maryborough, Queensland 

Mackay, Queensland 

South Brisbane, Queensland 

Brisbane, Queensland 

Prince Frederick William of Prussia L., No.431,(I.C.) Ballymeua 

Derriaghy Royal Arch Chapter, No. 602 (LC.) 

Townsville Royal Arch Chapter, No. 207 (S.C.) 

Mount Morgan Royal Arch Chapter, No. 227 (S.C.) 

Golden Thistle R.A. Chap. No. 245 (S.C.) 

Saltcoats & Ardrossan St. John's R.A.L.,No.320 (S.C.) 

Southern Cross Lodge, No. 393 (S.C.) 

Lodge St. Andrew, No. 435 (S.C.) 

Lodge Athole and Melville, No. 455 (S.C.) 

St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 651 (S.C.) 

Douglas Lodge, No. 677 (S.C.) 

Lodge Level, No. 702 (S.C.) 

Lodge Maranoa, No. 730 (S.C.) 

Lodge Caledonian, No. 737 (S.C.) 

Golden Thistle LoHgo, No. 744 (S.C.) 

St. John's in the South Lodge, No. 747 (S.C.) 

Lodge Athole, No. 752 (S.C.) 

Mount Morgan Lodge No. 763 (S.C.) 

Lodge Sir William Wallace, No. 768 (S.C.) 

Mylne Lodge, No. 769 (S.C.) 

Lodge Pretoria Celtic, No. 770 (S-C.) 

Lodge Hinchinbrook, No. 779 (S.C.) 

Douglas Lodge, No. 799 (S.C.) 

Lodge Norman, No. 803 (S-C.) 

Gordon Lodge, No. 804 (S.C.) 

Lodge St. Mungo, No. 805 (S.C.) 

Lodge Maryborough, No. 811 (S.C.) 

Lodge Braemar, No. 816 (S.C.) 

Lodge Torres Straits, No. 820 (S.C.) 

Lodge Clydesdale, No. 821 (S.C.) 

Lodge Warrego, No. 835 (S.C.) 

Lodge Rasslyn, No. 836 (S.C.) 

Lodge Gympie, No. 863 (S.C.) 

Lodge Robert Lee-Bryce, No. 872 (S.C.) 

Lodge Temperance, No. 897 (S.C.) 

Lodge de Goede Hoop (D.C.) 

Jubilee Lodge (D.C). 

Star of the Rand Lodge (D.C.) 

Lodge Oranje (D.C.) 

Lodge San Jan (D.C.) 

Lodge de Goede Trouw (D.C.) 

Lodge Frere (D.C.) 

Lodge de Ster in het Oosten (D.C.) 

Anglo-Beige Lodge 

L. Les Amis du Commerce et la Perseverance Renins 

Lodge Archimedes zu den drei Keissbretern 

Lisburne, Antrim 
Townsville, Queensland 
Mount Morgan, Queensland 
Johannesburg, V.R.C 
Ardrossan, Ayrshire 

Brisbane, Queensland 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Grahamstown, Cape 
Rockhampton, Queensland 
Kirkee, Bombay 
Roma, Queensland 
Mackay, Queensland 
Johannesburg, V.R.C. 
Earberton, V.R.C. 
Bundaberg, Queensland 
Mount Morgan, Queensland 
Croydon, Queensland 

October 1888 
May 1889 
January 1899 
June 1894 
March 1897 
May 1896 
January 1897 
May 1892 
June 1898 
January 1889 
October 1893 
March 1897 
June 1891 
May 1895 
June 1893 
October 1889 
November 1891 
June 1893 
March 1895 
June 1891 
November 1900 
May 1896 
January 1896 
March 1895 
October 1889 
October 1893 
June 1891 
March 1892 

Charters Towers, Queensland May 1897 

Pretoria, V.R.C. 
Ingham, N. Queensland 
Johannesburg, V.R.C. 
Sandgate, Queensland 
Johannesburg, V.R.C. 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Maryborough, Queensland 
Gympie, Queensland 
Thursday Is., Queensland 
Caboolture, Queensland 
Cunnumulla, Queensland 
Nambour, Queensland 
Gympie, Queensland 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Barberton, V.R.C. 
Johannesburg, V.R.C. 
Paarl, Capo Colony 
Malmesbury, Cape Colony 
Cape Town 

Riversdale, Cape Colony 
Batavia, Java 
Altcnburg, Saxe-Altenburg 

October 1894 
October 1900 
January 1895 
June 1899 
March 1895 
October 1898 
March 1900 
October 1901 
June 1896 
October 1901 
June 1899 
November 1898 
May 1898 
June 1898 
June 1900 
September 1887 
October 1889 
June 1896 
January 1899 
January 1899 
January 1899 
October 1899 
November 1899 
January 1897 
June 1898 
November 1890 


256 Lodge Indissolubilis 

257 Medicine Hat Lodge, No. 31 (Assa.C.) 

258 Lodge Carl zur Gekronten Saule 

259 Lodge St. Lodewijk 

260 St. John's Lodge Olaf Kyrre til de gyldne Kjoede 

261 Lodge Baldwin zur Linde 

262 Idris Lodge, No. 43 (Eg. C.) 

263 Deloraine Lodge, No. 40 (Man. C.) 
261 Palestine Lodge, No. 357 (Mich. C) 

265 Mankato Lodge. No. 12 (Minn. C.) 

266 Fidalgo Lodge, No. 77 (Wash. C.) 

267 Cresent Lodge, No. 109 (Wash. C.) 

268 Lodge of Fidelity, No. 5 (S.A.C.) 

269 Lodge of St. John, No. 15 (S.A.C.) 

270 Emulation Lodge, No. 32 (S.A.C.) 

271 Lodge St. Alban, No. 38 (S.A.C.) 

272 Naracoorte Lodge, No. 42 (S.A.C.) 

273 Barunga Lodge, No. 43 (S.A.C.) 

274 Geelong Lodge of Unity and Prudence (V.C.) 

275 Port Fairy Lodge, No. 67 (V.C.) 

276 Lodge of Otago, No. 7 (N.Z.C.) 

277 Lodge Hawera, No. 34 (N.Z.C.) 

278 Lodge Victory, No. 40 (N.Z.C.) 

279 Lodge Robert Burns, No. 50 (N.Z.C.) 

280 Felix Gottleib Conclave, No. 3 (O.S.M.) 

281 Lodge of Perfection, No. 2, A. & A.S.R. 


Berlin June 1889 

Medicine Hat, Assa, Canada May 1901 

Brunswick, Germany May 1896 

Nymegen, Holland June 1901 

Christiania June 1901 

Leipsic, Germany March 1901 

Cairo October 1899 

Deloraine, Manitoba October 1894 

Detroit, Michigan October 1898 

Mankato, Minnesota May 1900 

Anacortes,Washington,U.S.A. March 1896 

Enumclaw, Washington, U.S. A. May 1900 

Gawler, South Australia May 1892 

Strathalbyn, South Australia May 1892 

Norwood, South Australia October 1892 

Adelaide, South Australia October 1890 

Naracoorte, South Australia October 1900 

Snowtown, South Australia March 1900 

Geelong, Victoria May 1888 

Port Fairy, Victoria May 1893 

Dunedin, New Zealand January 1891 

Hawera, Taranaki, N.Z. June 1893 

Nelson, New Zealand January 1889 

Reefton, New Zealand October 1899 

Penang January 1889 

Birmingham, Alabama January 1899 


282 Masonic Hall Library 

283 Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute 

284 The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain 

and Ireland 

285 York College of Rosicrucians 

286 Newcastle College of Rosicrucians 

287 Glasgow College of Rosicrucians 

288 Portland Masonic Library 

289 Masonic Library and Historical Society 

290 Masonic Library Association 

291 Masonic Library 

292 Masonic Library 

293 Masonic Library 

294 Bournemouth Lodge of Instruction 

295 Holmesdale Lodge of Instruction, No. 4175 

296 Masonic Club 

297 Ottawa Masonic Library 

298 The American Tyler 

299 Masonic Book Company 

300 Brighton Masonic Library 

301 The Western Mason 

302 United Lodge of Instruction 



Washington, U.S.A. 




Portland, Maine, U.S.A. 

Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.A. 

Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A. 

Walla Walla, Washington 

Los Angeles, California 

Detroit, Michigan 

B ournemouth, 

Tunbridge Wells 

Shanghai, China 

Ottawa, Canada 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

New York 


Winnipeg, Manitoba 

Pietermaritzburg, Natal 

November 1887 
November 1889 
June 1900 

March 1890 
October 1890 
March 1899 
October 1891 
June 1892 
January 1894 
January 1898 
March 1898 
March 1899 
October 1897 
May 1899 
May 1895 
May 1895 
October 1899 
May 1900 
January 1901 
November 1900 
October 1901 


(*The asterisk before the name signifies that the Brother is a Life- Member ; the lioman numbers 

refer to Lodges, and those in italics to Chapters). 

303 Abraham, Jabez. Eemmant, Brisbane, Queensland. P.M. March 1895. 

304 Abraham, P. S. 2 Henrietta Street, Cavendish Square, W., London. 2546. January 1897. 

305 Abud, Major Henry Mallaby, I.C.S. 45 Pall Mall, S.W., London. 456, 90 (S.C.) June 1896. 


306 *Aburrow, Charles. P.O.B. 534, Johnnesburg, V.R.C. 1574, P.M., 7574, P.Z. October 1888. 

307 Achard, A.L., M.D. 9 Blandford Street, W., London. 2045. May 1899. 

308 Ackers, Arthur E. Gill Street, Charters Towers, Queensland. 845 (S.C.) October 1900. 

309 Acworth, E. Cecil B. By culla Club, Bombay. 549, P.M., 549. March 1900. 

310 Adair, A. P.O.B. 142, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2539. June 1898. 

311 Adair, H. H. Stranraer, N.B. Pr.G.Sec, Wigtown and Kirkcudbright. January 1899. 

312 Adams, Alfred W. P.O.B. 467, Kimberley, S.A. 2383, P.M. Local Sec. for Kimberley. March 1897. 

313 Adams, Arthur W. Buckingham Place, Broad Road, Acock's Green, Birmingham. P.Pr.G.S.B., 

Local Secretary for Warwickshire. January 1892. 

314 Adams, Thomas. 3 Christchurch Road, Hampstead, N.W., London. 227, P.M., 7. June 1895. 

315 AdcOCk, William Ilenry. Herberton, North Queensland. 685 (S.C.) October 1901. 

316 Adkins, W. Ryland D. Springfield, Northampton. 1911. January 1894. 

317 Adler, Elkan N., F.D.B. 48 Copthall Avenue, E.C., London. 1997. March 1895. 

318 Adrianyi, Emile. Nuremberg. L. Matthias Corvinus. October 1893. 

319 Ai ns lie, William Langstaff. Hanworth Park, Middlesex. 1118. October 1896. 

320 Aland, Robert. T o moo omb a, Queensland. P.D.G.W. May 1892. 

321 Alcock, John White. 21 St. Peter's Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 1782, P.M., 7076. Oct. 1901. 

322 Alderson, F. Herbert, M.B. 2 Holland Road, Kensington, W., London. 2823. January 1901. 

323 Alexander, Adolphus B., L.D.S., R.C.S. 7 Portland Place, W., London. 2029. November 1889. 

324 Alexander, Capt. William Patrick, R.A. Fort Delhi, Punjab. 1394. October 1901 

325 Allan, Ebenezer, F.RC.S. Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire. 0. May 1901. 

326 Allan, Francis John, M.D. Lincluden, Fairfax Road, Teddington. 1768,2029. January 1897. 

327 Allen, George. 163 Ramsden Road, Balham, S.W., London. 144, P.M., 756, P.Z. September 1887. 

328 Allen, Joseph Eve, M.D. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 1, P.M., 2. October 1899. 

329 Allen, Percy James. Mosman Street, Charters Towers, Queensland. 2613, P.M., 1546. Oct. 1900. 

330 Allen, W. J. 798 Glenmore Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 638, P.M. May 1898. 

331 Aller, Charles William. 27 Aldborough Gardens, Ilford, Essex. 2005. May 1897. 

332 AI lom, George Arthur Edward. Toowoomba, Queensland. 823 (S.C), P.M., 194 (S.C.) March 1896. 

333 Allsop, T. W. Holyivell, Made'ey Road, Ealing, W., London. 2492. March 1899. 

334 Amherst Of Hackney, the Right Hon. Lord. Didlington Hall, Brandon, Norfolk. Past Grand 

Warden. May 1894. 

335 Amphlett, George Thomas. Standard Bank, Capetown. Goede Hoop Lodge. October 1891. 

336 Amselem, Alfred. 526 Cassilla del Correo, Buenos Ayres. 61", 677. May 1890. 

337 Ancell, James Shirlaw. Charters Towers, Queensland. 2613, P.M., 7546. May 1897. 

338 Anderson, A. Maghalien P.O., Basutoland, South Africa. 2089. November 1897. 

339 Anderson, Alexander, M.A. Queen's College, Galway. 14 (I.C.), W.M. March 1901. 

340 Anderson, Joseph. 35 Munster Street, Phibsboro', Dublin, 556, P.M. March 1901. 

341 Andrews, John. Homewood, Rondebosch, Cape Town. 398 (S.C), P.M., 86 (S.C), P.Z. Oct. 1889. 

342 Andrews, John Peters. Hotel Cecil, Strand, W.C., London. 1616,776. March 1898. 

343 Andrews, S. Maraisburg, Vaal River Colony. 2539. May 1898. 

344 Andrews, William Henry. 60 Broadway, Neiu York City. P.D.D.G.M. November 1897. 

345 Andy, S. Pulncy, M.D. 1 Ritherton Road, Egmore, Madras. P.D.G.D., P.O. G.J. October 1893. 

346 Angel, Robert Parsons. 36 Hungerford Road, Camden Road, N, London. 183 P.M., 179. Jan. 1893. 

347 Annand, William. Toowoomba, Queensland. 775 (S.C), P.M., 194 (S.C), P.Z. October 1894. 

348 An nison, Frederick Richard. Perth, West Australia. 857 (S.C.) November 1898. 

349 Ansel I, Frederick Henry. Box 530, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2313. March 1891. 

350 Apelt, Emil. 49 Lichfield Gruve, Finchley, N., London. 186, P.M. June 1894 

351 Appleby, Frederick Henry, M.D., J.P. Barnby Gate, Newark-on-Trent. P.P.G.W., P.P.G.J., Notts. 

January 1900. 

352 Appleton, Henry Robert. 128 Constantine Road, Hampstead, N.W., London. 2508. May 1900. 

353 Aravamuthu, Iyengar, Vathanta. P.W.D., Saidapet, Madras. 2356, P.M., 7906. March 1895. 

354 Argles.T. A. Eversley, Milnthorpe, Westmoreland. 129, P.M. October 1899. 

355 Armitage, W. J. 89 Belsize Park Gardens, N.W., London. 859. October 1896. 

356 *Armington, Arthur Herbert. City Hall, Providence, R.I., U.S.A. District Deputy Grand 

Master, Past Grand High Priest, Rhode Island; Representative of Grand 
Lodge, Louisiana, and Grand Chapter of Colorado. May 1893. 

357 Armstrong, John. 79 Kingsley Road, Liverpool. P. P.G.W., P. Pr.G.H., Cheshire. Local Secretary 

for Cheshire and Liverpool. May 1892. 


358 *Armstrong, Thomas John. 14 Hawthorne Terrace, Neu-castle-on-Tyne. P.Pr.G.St., P.Pr.G.R. 

(R.A.) February 1890. 

359 Arnold, John. Rose Bank, Timperly, Cheshire. 104. March 1898. 

360 Ashdown, Charles John. 19 Lombard Street, E.C-, London. 1427, P.M. June 1898. 

361 Aspland, W. G., F.R.G.S. Newton Abbott, Devon. 1138. May 1899. 

362 Atherton, Jeremiah Leech. Beech Grove, Bingley, Tories. P.Pr.G.D.C, P. Pr.G.H., West Tories. 

Local Secretary for Province of West Yorlis. November 1887. 

363 Atkins, Henry John. The Firs Glen, Bournemouth. P. Pr.G.W., Northamptonshire and Hunting- 

donshire, P.Pr.G.J., Hants and Isle of Wight. March 1887. 

364 Atkinson, Rev. Christie Chetwynde, M. A. Ashton-upon-Mersey, Cheshire. P Pr.G.C. June 1894. 

365 Atkinson, R. E. Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 711, P.M., 711, P.Z. June 1895. 

366 Atkinson, Richard. P.W.D., Salisbury, Rhodesia. 2479. October 1901. 

367 Atkinson, Robert Fisher. Hawick, N.B. Ill, D.M., 89, Z. May 1900. 

368 Atwel I, George Washington, jun. Lima, Livingstore Co., New York. Dis.Dep.G.M. October 1897. 

369 Attwell, Benjamin Booth. Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 828, P.M. March 1895. 

370 Austen, Arthur Elvey. Cradock, Cape Colony. Dep.Dis.G.M., E. Div. South Africa. May 1887. 

371 Austen, Rev. Edward Gillmore. Berrow Vic, Burnham, Somerset. P. Pr.G.Ch., Dorset. June 1890. 

372 Austin, C. H. Widnes, Lancashire. 1384. November 1898. 

373 Austin, Sydney Montague. 11 Park Side, Knightsbridge, London. 146, P.M. March 1899. 

374 Austin, William. 109 Craigpark Drive, Dennistoun, Glasgoiv. 27,50. January 1898. 

375 Ayling, Robert Stephen, A.R.I.B.A. 19 Old Queen Street, S. W., London. May 1894. 

376 Ayres, George V. Deadwood, South DakAa, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, Past Grand 

High Priest, South Dakota. October 1894. 

377 Bacon, Col. Alexander S. 297 Vanderbilt Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 656. May 1897. 

378 Bacon, William Arthur. 25 Derby Road, Heaton Chapel, Stockport. 1030. January 1898. 

379 Baelz, Robert. The Mount, Queen's Road, Forest Hill, S.E., London. 238, P.M. May 1897. 

380 Baer, Gustav Christian. Heidelberg, V.R.C. 2354. May 1898. 

381 Baht, William. 28 State Street, New York, U.S.A. 3, 55. November 1894. 

382 Baikie, Robert. Pretoria, V.R.C. 770 (S.C.) P.M. Local Secretary for Pretoria. March 1894. 

383 Baildon, James Owen. Supreme Court, Rockhampton, Queensland. 677 (S.C.) November 1900. 

384 Bailey, B. S. 99 Caledonian Road, Leeds. 2069, P.M. March 1898. 

385 Bailey, Henry. Clifton, Queensland. 844 (S.C.) P.M. January 1896. 

386 Bain, George Washington. Tunstall Vieio, Ashbrooke Road, Sunderland. P.P.G.R., P.P.G.Sc.N., 

Durham. Local Secretary for Province of Durham. March 1889. 

387 Bain, J. Wilson. 113 West Regent Street, Glasgow. 510, P.M. January 1894. 

388 Baines, A. Hanley, Staffords. 2149, P.M. March 1901. 

389 Baird, Reed McColloch, M.D. 1137 Chapline Street, Wheeling, West Virginia. 33, /. May 1895. 

390 Baker, Alfred J. Thames Bank Iron Co., Blackfriars, S.E., London. 2469. May 1898. 

391 Baker, George Comstock. 1090, Madison Avenue, Albany, N.Y., U.S.A. o, 242. June 1887. 

392 Baker, William. 16 Ella Road, Crouch Hill, N., London. 192, P.M., 192. October 1896. 

393 Baker, William King. Tredorwin, T«wednack, Penzance. P. Pr.G.W., P.P.G.Sc. January 1890. 

394 *Balfour, Charles Barrington. Newton Don, Kelso, Scotland. Dep.Pr.G.M., Roxburgh, Peebles aud 

Selkirk March 1892. 

395 Ball, William. Thomas Oak Lodge, Harrow, Middlesex. 435, P.M., 1260, P.Z. November 1893 
S96 Ballantine, Thomas J. Peoria, Illinois, U.S.A. March 1896. 

397 Ballantyne, Henry Norman. Innerleithen, N.B. 85G, P.M., 56. March 1899. 

398 Bambridge, Henry. 27 King Street, Great Yarmouth. 100, 71. January 1898. 

399 Bamford, William Brokaw, C.E. 213 South Clinton Avenue, Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 5. 

November 1900. 

400 Bamlet, William Henry. Floradale, Argyle Road, Westcliff-on-Sea. 183. Local Sec. for Essex. 

October 1897. 

401 Banister, Frederick James. Metropolitan Opera House, St. Paul, U.S.A. 3. March 1901. 

402 Banker, S. M. Helvellyn, Brownloiv Road, N., London. P.Pr.G.St.B , Herts. June 1894. 

403 Bannatyne, Brice Mc blister. Surbit on, Surrey. 216, P.M., 216. May 1891. 

404 Barcham, Captain Sidney. Castleacre, Ritherden Road, Upper Tooting, S.W., London. 549, 549. 

June 1900. 

405 Barchus, T. J. 72 Exchange, Memphis, Tenessee. May 1895. 

406 Barefoot, Major G. H., R.A.M.C. East India United Service Club, S.W., London. 1971. May 1901. 


407 Barefoot, .Limes William. The Banlc, Qraya, Essex. 1343. October 1900. 

403 Barker, Jacob. High Stanners, Morpeth, Northumberland. P.P.G.O., Durham. P.P.G.S.B. (R.A.), 
Northumberland. January 1895. 

409 Barker, John. Denby Leigh, Harrogate, Tories. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.D.C. (R.A.) May 1888. 

410 Barlow, G. R, 137 High Street. Tewlceslury. 900. March 1901. 

411 Barlow, William, LL.D. Morio.Ua Chambers, Victoria Square, W., Adelaide. 38, P.M. Jan. 1896. 

412 Barnard, George William Girling. 4 Surrey Street, Norwich. Pr.G.Scc. Past Assistant 

Grand Director of Ceremonies. June 1890. 

413 Barnes, Charles Henry. 62 Coif e Road, Forest Hill, S.E., London. 19. June 1895 

414 Barnes, Edward Filmer. 3 Duckett Road, Harringay, N., London. 2763, P.M. June 1900. 

415 Barnes, John Walter. 27 Clements Lane, E.C., London. 19. June 1895. 

416 Barnes, William A. Westland, Kells. County Meath. P.Pr.G.Sec. March 1901. 

417 Barnes, William Chapman. 7 St James' Park, West Croydon, Surrey. 19. June 1895. 

418 Barnet, John. Shildon, R.8.O., County Durham. 2415, P.M., P.P.G.St.B. (R.A.) January 1901. 

419 Barr, William Robert. Hill Crest, Woodcote Road, Wallington, Surrey. 1632, P.M., 7556, P Z. 

October 1898. 

420 Barrett, J. Leach. 53 Blomfield Road, Maida Hill, W., London. Past Grand Standard 

Bearer. June 1892. 

421 Barron, Edward Jackson, F.S.A. 55 Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C., London. Past Grand Deacon. 

May 1890. 

422 Barrow, Charles James. Stalbridge Chambers, Chancery Lane, Melbourne, Victoria. Past Grand 

Warden. March 1894. 

423 Barry, David J. Ledbtiry, Reigate. 1362. October 1899. 

424 Bartlett, Alfred. QueenStreet, Auckland, New Zealand. Grand Superintendent, Auckland. 

November 1897. 

425 Bartlett, George. 1 Buckingham Gate, S.W., London. 2030. January 1900. 

426 Baskett, Samuel Russell. Evershot, Dorchester. P.Pr.G.W., Dorset. March 1887. 

427 Bassett-Smith, C. A. 10 John Street, Adelphi, W.C., London. 2416, 2416. January 1901. 

428 Bastone, John Millard. 3 Tooting Bee Gardens, S.W., London. 186, P.M., PZ. March 1897. 

429 Bate, H. Francis. Applegarth Studio, Augustus Road, Brook Green, N., London. 2925. Oct. 1899. 

430 Bate, Osborne Hambrook. Standard Bank, Grahamstoivn, Cape Colony. P.D.G.W., South Africa. 

E. Div., Pr.G.M., South Africa (D.C.) June 1899. 

431 Bate, Thomas Frederick. 9 Park Street, Haslingden, nr. Manchester. 345. January 1895. 

432 Bateman, Arthur Charles. Asthal, burford, Oxon. P.P.G.W. November 1899. 

433 Batho, William John. Clyst Lea, Finchley, N, London. 1708, P.M., 7366. P.Z. May 1896. 

434 Battersby, Charles. Georgetown, Queensland. P.D.G.St.B. October 1894. 

435 Battersby, William Maxwell, J.P. 11 Clyde Road, Duilin. Past Grand Deacon, Ireland. 

Juue 1896. 

436 Bayl'lSS, Thomas Abraham. The High House, Kings Norton, Worcester. 2724. November 1899. 

437 Beak, LTenry. Pennard, Rockhampton, Queensland. 767 (S.C.), P.M., 205 (S.C.) June 1891. 

438 Beamish, William H. Brooklodge House, Glanmire, Co. Cork. D. Pr.G.M., Munster. June 1898. 

439 Bean, Harold. Eelsey House, Burstwick, nr. Hull. 2134. May 1899. 

440 Bean, Joseph Henry. Gasivorks, Sandgafe, Queensland. 2670, P.M. Local Secretary for Sandgate. 

May 1898. 

441 Bear, George Archibald. 98 Palace Gardens Terrace, Kensington, W-, London. 1615. May 1901. 

442 Beattie, William. 82 Brook's Green, Hammersmith, W., London. 95, P.M. January 1899. 

443 Beck, Rudolph Carl. 17i Wilhelmshoher AlUe, Wahlershausen, Cassel. Past Grand Orator 

and Librarian, Saxony. March 1887. 

444 Becker, Pitt. 18 Fenchurch Street, E.G., London. 238. January 1896- 

445 Bedford, James P., I.C. S. Tinnevelly Railway Station, Madras. 150. March 1900. 

446 Beer, Percy. Alexandra Hotel, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 40, 40. January 1891. 

447 Beer, Thomas James. 207 Gt. Brunswick Street, Dublin. 77,250. March 1901. 

448 Beer, Captain William. Highmead, Abergavenny, South Wales. 1754. October 1901. 

449 Beer, William A. 139 Richmond Road, Cardiff. 1992, 2547. January 1896. 

450 Beerend, Franz Philipp. Jena, Germany. L. znr Akazie am Saalstrande. Dep. M. March 1896. 

451 Beeston, Jcseph L. L.K.Q.P.S. Newcastle, New South Wales. Dis. G.I. of W. October 1897. 

452 Beever, Cyril Howard. 27 Palatine Road, Withington, Manchester. P.Pr.Gr. Registrar, Pr.G.J., 

March 1893. 

453 Begemann, Dr. Georg Emil Wilhelm. Charlottenberg, Wilmersdorfer, Strasse, 14, near Berlin. 

Past Provincial Grand Master of Mecklemberg. February 1887. 


454 Begemann, Simon. Barberton, V.R.C. 2480. Local Secretary for Barberton. May 1896. 

455 Bell, George, M.B., CM. Box 1840, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 799 (S.C.), 245 (S.C.) January 1895. 

456 Bell, .Tames Richard. 42 Addison Road, W., London. P. Dis.G.W., Punjab. June 1898. 

457 Bell, Maurice David, Capt. R.A. Jun. Constitutional Club, Piccadilly , W., London. 415. Oct. 1897. 

458 Bell, Seymour. Eldon Square, Newcastle-on-Tyne. P.Pr.G.W. June 1891. 

459 Bellew, Thomas Acheson. 13 Percy Street, Liverpool. 1380. May 1892. 

460 Bellingham, Augustus William Harvey., A.M.I.C.E. Tienstin,N. China. 1951, P.M. June 1896. 

461 Bem rose, Sir Henry Howe, M.P. Derby. P.Pr.G.W. March 1898. 

462 Bennett, George Eric Oliver. Heaton, Rosebank, nr. Capetown. Dep.Dis.G.M., W. Div. 

South Africa. January 1901. 

463 Bennett, John George Lloyd. Bromley, Kent. 183. W.M. June 1897. 

464 Bennett, Thomas R. Montecito, California, U.S.A. 48 (N.J.C.), 51. June 1897. 

465 *Bennion, Thomas. Ophir Cottage, Croydon, North Queensland. 768 (S.C), P.M., P.Z. Local 

Secretary for Croydon and vicinity. Juno 1892. 

466 Berry, Carey Edward Ernest. 311 Hay Street, Perth, West Australia. 2281. January 1899. 

467 Berry, Clement Harris. Devonia, Stopford Road, Upton Manor, E., London. 860, P.M., P.Z. Oct. 1899. 

468 Berry, Frederick Gorton. 2 Polygon Avenue, Ardwick, Manchester. 44, P.M. May 1900. 

469 Berry, Henry P., M.A., M.R.I. A., B.L. 60 Morehampton Road, Dublin. 357, P.M., 33, K. Jan. 1895. 

470 Best, Albert Sidney. Standard Bank, Barberton, V.R.C. 1467. October 1891. 

471 Best, Robert Valentine Brown. 138 Mercer's Road, Tafnell Park, N., London. 183. March 1898. 

472 BestOW, Charles Horton. 233 Brooke Road, Upper Clapton, N.E., London. Pr.G.Pt., Essex. 

March 1894. 

473 Bevan, George Alfred. P.O.B. 39, Germiston, V.R.C. 2498, 2313. November 1897. 

474 Bevan, Paul. 64 Avenue Road, N.W., London. 4. March 1897. 

475 *Bevington, Richard George. P.O.B. 1091, Johannesburg, V.R.C. Sub.D.G.M., Transvaal (S.C) 

October 1892. 

476 Beynon, John Henry. Garfield House, Liscard, Cheshire. 2657,2433. May 1900. 

477 Bhownaggree, Sir M. M., CLE. 3 Cromwell Crescent, S.W., London. Past Grand Steward, 

Scotland. October 1893. 

478 Bice, W. P. 415 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria. Past Grand Treasurer. May 1898. 

479 Biden, Lewis Marks. 20 Bucklersbury, E.C., London. 90. November 1900. 

480 Billinghurst, Henry. 13-22 Wigmore Street, W., London. 2508. May 1901. 

481 Bilson, John. 23 Parliament Street, Hull. 1010, P.M., 1010, P.Z. March 1889. 

482 Bindley, William Allen. Armstrong Works, Chester Street, Aston, Birmingham. P.Pr.G.W., 

Warwickshire. October 1892. 

483 Bingham, Sydney Clifton. St. Alban's, Christchurch, New Zealand. Assistant Grand 

Secretary. /. October 1901. 

484 Binney, Joseph. 27 Broomgrove Road, Sheffield. P.Pr.G.R Local Sec. for Sheffield. October 1890. 

485 Bird, Francis. Maldon, Essex. P.P.G.A.P., Essex. October 1895. 

486 Birdseye, Henry. Suffolk House, Lawrence Pountney Hill, E.C., London. 715, P.M., 22, P.Z. 

March 1899. 

487 Bishop, Frederick William. 11 Queen Victoria Street, E.C., London. 1056. March 1898. 

488 Bishop, John Herbert. 107 Mount Pleasant Lane, Clapton, N.E., London. 2823. November 1900. 

489 Bissell, Ernest. 22, Gowlett Road, East Dulwich, S.E., London. 1339. October 1896. 

490 Bixby, Charles Sumner. Ossawatomie, Kansas, U.S.A. 24, P.M., 80. June 1897. 

491 Black, Charles William. Mossel Bay, Cape Colony. D.G.S.B. May 1899. 

492 Black, William. Falkirk, N.B. Grand Superintendent, Stirlingshire; Past Grand 

Architect; Past Grand Haggai, Scotland. October 1888. 

493 Blackbeard, C A. Beaconsfield, Griqualand West, South Africa. 1832, P.M., P.Z. October 1890. 

494 B I ad On, Harry. 16 Clerkenwell Road, E.G., London. 2525,2501. October 1901. 

495 Blair, William Robert. Wood Gate, Uttoxeter, Staffords. P.Pr.G.W. May 1899. 
495 Blake, Arthur. 2 Halkin Road, Rangoon, Burma. 1362. May 1898. 

497 Blake, Col. Charles John, R.A. 4 Serjeant's Inn, E.C., London. P.Dis.G.J.W., P.Dis.G.Reg. (R.A.) 

Malta. March 1892. 

498 Blake, William Henry Joyce. 15 Knight Rid*r Street, E.G., London. 1460. March 1899. 

499 Blake, William James. P.O.B. 329, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 918, P.M. June 1890. 

5QO Blaker, Walter C 63^. James Street, 8.W., London. P.P.G.W., Surrey. October 1900. 


501 Bland, William Edward. 14 Park Avenue, Southport, Lancashire. 2205, P.M., Pr.G.S.B. (R.A.) 

June 1894. 

502 Blinkhorn, Edward. 64 Coleman Street, EC, London. 1471, P.M. October 1898. 

503 Blommestein, Christian van. Jagersfontein, O.R.C. L. Star of Africa (D.C.),234 (S.C.) May 1893. 

504 Blood, John Neptune, M.A., B.C.L. Huntley Court, Gloucester. 839. November 1899. 

505 BIOSS, Orlando Powers. 1009 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. 219, 102. November 1899. 

506 Blossom, Wayne W. Concord Junction, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Corinthian Lodge. January 1899. 

507 Bluett, Rev. Charles Courtney. Longhurst, Wigan, Lancashire. 2326, P.M., 7335. October 1895. 
50S Blumenau, Louis. Ill Seville Place, Dublin. 126,126. March 1900. 

509 Board, George. Whalley Avenue, Sale, Cheshire. P.Pr.G.D., East Lancashire. March 1894. 

510 *Bodenham, John. Edgmond, Newport, Salop. Past Assistant Grand Director of 

Ceremonies. November 1887. 

511 Boffey, Harry Sutton. Box 796, Capetown. De Goede Trouw, W.M., 334. March 1901. 

512 Bolton, Lieut. -Col. the Hon. Lord. Wensley Hall, Leyburn, York. Past Grand Warden. 

September 1887. 

513 Bomeisler, Louis Edwin. 27 Pine Street, New York. June 1898. 

514 Bomeisler, Paltiel R. East Orange, New Jersey. 124, June 1898. 

515 Bonar, William Macadam. Herberton, North Queensland. P.D.G.S.B. October 1895. 

516 Bond, E. E. 7 Wood Lane, Highgate, N., London. 1232. P.M. March 1898. 

517 Bond, Frederick Feilding, M D. Thorncliffe, Brighouse, Yorks. 1301, 448. October 1896. 

518 Bond, Dr. W. A. 197, High Holborn, W.C., London. May 1901. 

519 Boor, Leonard George. Greytown, (North), Wellington, New Zealand. Past Deputy Grand 

Master, Past First Grand Principal, New Zealand. January 1889. 

520 Booth, Major John. Hazel Bank, Tart on, Bolt on, Lancashire. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G. A. So. Nov. 1889. 

521 Boreham, Harold James. Rockhampton, Queensland. 932, P.M., 205 (S.C.) May 1896. 

522 Borg, Raphael. Cairo. Past Grand Master, Egypt. January 1892. 

523 Bosanquet, Rev. Reginald Albert, M.A. Penshurst, Kent. P.Pr.G.Ch., Suffolk. January 1896. 

524 Boswell, Arthur George. 31 Tankerville Road, Streatham, S.W., London. 1339, P.M., P.Z. May 1894. 

525 Boswell, Major-General John James, C.B. Darnlee, Melrose, N.B. Sub.Pr.G.M., Roxburg and 

Selkirk. March 1892. 

526 Boteler, William Stewart. Harbour Works, Penang. P.D.G.S.B., P.D.G.St.B. (R.A.), Madras. 

October 1893. 

527 Boulton, James. 267 Romford Road, Forest Gate, E., London. Past Grand Pursuivant. 

October 1891. 

528 Bourne, John Kemp. The Grove, Atherstone, Warwickshire. P.Pr.G.W. October 1896. 

529 *Bourne, Robert William. 18 Hereford Square, S.W., London. 32, P.M., 32. June 1890. 

530 Bourne, William George. Bombay. 2162, P.M. January 1898. 

531 *Boutell, Frank Hepburn Chevallier. 645 Avenida Mayo, Buenos Aires. 2329, 617. October 1901. 

532 Bowe, William Fairbanks. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 412, 2, P.H.P. Local Secretary for Georgia. 

October 1897. 

533 Bowers, John, Sergt 2ud Batt. The Royal Scots. Poona, East India. 316.W.M., 68 (S.C.) Nov. 1900. 

534 Bowers, R. W. 89 Blackfriars Road, S.E., London. 15, P.M , 2191, P.Z. May 1899. 

535 Bowles, Lieut.-Col. Frederick Augustus, R.A. Shoeburyness, Essex. P.Dep.Dis.G.M., P.Dis.G.H., 

Punjab. October 1891. 

536 Bowser, Wilfred Arthur. Haslemere, Amherst Park, Stamford Hill, N., London. 2000, P.M., J. 

October 1899. 

537 Boyce, John Alexander. 43 Queen Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 755 (S.C), P.M., 288 (S.C), H. 

June 1891. 

538 Boyd, Peter. 1001 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 368, P.M., 183. May 1897. 

539 Boyd, Rev. Thomas Hunter. Wanivieg, New Brunswick. 28 (S.C.) January 1893. 

c40 Boydell, W. T. jun. 1 South Square, Gray's Inn, W.C., London. P.Pr.G.D., Herts. January 1899. 

541 Bradly, William. 158 Fenchurch Street, E.G., London. 140. June 1896. 

542 Bradley, Alfred Charles. Park Gate, Petersham, Surrey. 1507,7507. January 1897. 

543 *Bradley, Herbert, CS. Madras, India. P.B.G. P., Madras. October 1893. 

544 Bradley, J. Wallace. 151 Smith Street, Durban, Natal. 731, 775, (S.C), J. October 1895. 

545 Bradley, William. 5 Magnus Street, Newark-on-Trent. 1661, P.M., 7667. January 1901. 

546 Bradshaw, Thomas. Stanley Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 1596, P.M., 207 (S.C), J. May 1897. 

547 Bradshaw, W. J. Calcutta. P.D.G.W., P.D.G.So., Bengal. March 1898. 


548 Braine, Woodhouse. 76 Wimpole Street, Cavendish Square, W., London. Senior Grand 

Deacon, Assistant Grand Sojourner. March 1892. 

549 Braithwaite, Edward A. Edmonton, N.W.T., Canada. Grand Registrar. November 1900. 

550 Bramble, Colonel James Roger, F.S.A. P. Clifton Antiquarian Club. Seafield, Weston-super-Mare, 

Somerset. Past Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies (Craft) and Past 
Grand Sword Bearer (R.A.), England. February 1887. 

551 Brander, Carl Magnus. 91 Wimpole Street, W-, London. 1563, P.M., 7305, Z. January 1893. 

552 Brangwin, Rowland Allan. 77 Perry Bill, S.E., London. 507, P.M. May 1899. 

553 B rays h aw, Jobn Lund. Settle, Yorkshire. 2091,265. January 1889. 

554 B red erkoft, Jacob E. Perth,, West Australia. 861 (S.C.) March 1900. 

555 Breed, Edward Aries Thomas. 2 Prince Albert Street, Brighton. Pr.Gr.W. January 1894. 

556 Brereton, Charles A. Port Elizabeth. South Africa. 711. June 1898. 

557 Brewer, Charles Samuel, L.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 7 Park Road, E., Birkenhead. 2496, P.M., 605. 

January 1895 

558 Brewster, William Henry. Middlebury, Vermont, U.S.A. 2, P.M., 22, P.H.P. March 1900. 

559 Briant, William. Town Hall, Westminster, S.W., London. 101, P.M., 1329. January 1896. 

560 Brice, Albert Gallatin. Hennen Building, Neiu Orleans, Louisiana. Past Grand Master. 

March 1891. 

561 Brickh ill, James. Zeehan, Tasmania. Past Deputy Grand Secretary, Tasmania. 

May 1895. 

562 Bridgman, William Henry. 5, Milton Villas, Aylesbury, Bucks. Pr.G.S.D. March 1901. 

563 Briers, Frank Ellis. Box 243, Salisbury, Rhodesia. 2479. November 1900. 

564 Bright, Frederick Harry. Maldon, Essex. 1024, P.M. May 1896. 

565 Brindley, Charles Frederick. Severn Road, Sheffield. 2491, P.M. May 1898. 

566 Briscoe, Edward John. 120 Caixa, Perambuco, Brasil. 1601. March 1900. 

567 Britton, George. 66 Wardour Street, W., London. 22, P.M. November 1898. 

568 Broderip, Edmund Francis, J. P. 7 York Crescent Road, Clifton, Bristol. 1363, P.M. June 1900. 

569 Brogden, Thomas Skillbeck. Walton House, Boston Spa, Yorks. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.Sc.N. June 1890. 

570 Brook, Rev. Canon Alfred. View Hill, Inverness. Pr.G.Ch. October 1894. 

571 Brooking, William. Northlew, near Beaworihy, Devon. 24*<. October 1895. 

572 Brooking, William Francis. Brougham Street, New Plymouth, New Zealand. P.P.G.W. (I.C) 

October 1895. 

573 Brooks, Arthur David. 95 Colmore Row, Birmingham. 587. June 1899. 

574 Brooks, Francis Augustus, M.D. St. Felix, Felixstoice, Suffolk. 2371, P.M., 376. October 1895. 

575 Brooks, William. Witney, Oxon. P.Pr.G.S.B. November 1899. 

576 Broom, Arthur Robert, M.D. Brisbane, Queensland. 908,908. October 1898. 

577 *Brough, Bennett-Hooper, F.G.S., F.C.S. 28 Victoria Sh-eet, S.W., London. 777. November 1895. 

578 Brough, James R. 29 Alexandra Villas, Seven Sisters' Road, N., London. 2397. January 1899. 

579 Brown, Albert. 19 Fairholt Road, Stamford Hill, N., London. 1021. November 1894. 

580 Brown, Alexander Burnett, F.S.J. 33 Waldegrave Park, Strawberry Hill, Middlesex. 1503, P.M., 

1503, H. January 1901. 

581 Brown, Ernest. Woodberry House, Woodberry Doivn, N., London. 1024. November 1894. 

582 Brown, Ernest. Rickmansworth, Herts. 2218,597. January 1900. 

583 Brown, Frederick. 10 Fairholt Road, Stoke Newington, N., London. 1365. October 1899. 

584 Brown, George Herokl. 3 South Hill Grove, Oxton, Birkenhead. P.Pr.G.W. November 1892. 

585 Brown, Harry. 6 Ravensworth Terrace, Durham. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G.D.C. (R.A.) May 1896. 

586 Brown, Henry Samuel. Blenheim, Laidley, Queensland. 2267, P.M., 194 (S.C.) March 1895- 

587 Brown, J. Gora Gali, Punjab. 1960, P.M. June 1888. 

588 Brown, Julius L. I $• 2 Brovm Block, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. 96,76. June 1892. 

589 Brown, Macdonald, F.R.C.S. 5 Lymington Road, West Hampstead, N.W., London. 2408, P.M. 

January 1900. 

590 Brown, Mount. 39 St. Mary at Hill, E.C., London. 1997, P.M., 141, P.Z. January 1895. 

.591 B'rown, Robert Smith. 75 Queen Street, Edinburgh. Grand Scribe Ezra, Scotland. Local 

Secretary for Edinburgh and Vicinity. May 18H9. 

592 Brown, Thomas. Linthorpe, Middlesbro', Yoiks. 602. January 1901. 

593 Brown, Walter Herbert, F.R.G.S. 236 Kennington Park Road, S.E., London. 23. June 1900. 

594 Brown, William Alban Haig. c/o King, King 8f Co., Bombay. 549, 549. March 1901. 

595 Brown, William Peter. 3 Austin Friars, E.C., London. Past Grand Standard Bearer. 

June 1897. 


596 Browne, Georgo Duncan. Box 458, Manilla, Philippine Islands. 373. January 1900. 

597 Browne, Herbert Henry. Bethlehem, O.R.C. 2522, P.M. Local Secretary for Orange River Colony, 

North. June 1895. 

598 Browne, Major Henry Buxton. Durban, Natal. P.Pr.G.U., Cheshire. November 1889. 

599 Browne, John. Parr's Bank, Wigan. 1335, 222G, P.M. Juno 1894. 

600 Browning, A. G..F.S. A. Spencer Lodge, Wandsworth Com., S.W., London. 83,P.M.,P.Z. Jan. 1891. 

601 Browning, Robert William. Concord Junction, Mann., U.S.A. Corinthian L., Walden Ch. Jan. 1899. 

602 Brownrigg, Henry John, A.M. I.E. E. 287 Finchley Boad, N.W., London. 1589. October 1899. 

603 *Bruce, Alexander. Clyne House, Pollute shields, Glasgow. Grand Steward. Third Grand 

Principal. June 1894. 

604 Bruce, Frederick. 2 York Buildings, Hastings. 2692. June 1897. 

605 Bruce, John M'Lean. Gladstone, Queensland. 2235, P.M. March 1896. 

606 Bruce, J. McPhail. 83 Osborne Road, Netvcastle-on-Tyne. 481, P.M., 481. October 1898. 

607 *Bruennich, Johannes Christian. Agricultural College, Gatton, Queensland. P.D.G.Sup W. Oct. 1893. 

608 Bruton, James. Wootton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. Pr.Gr.Treas., P.P.G.J. June 1890. 

609 Bryant, James. 48 Oslorne Road, Southsea. 1099. June 1900. 

610 Bryant, R. R. The Chantry, Sawbridgeivorth. Pr.G.Std.B., P.Pr.G.J., Suffolk. October 1889. 

611 Buchanan, Hon. Ebenezer John. Puisne Judge. Clareinch, Claremont, Cape Town. De Goede 

Hoop Lodge, P.M. October 1898. 

612 Buchanan, Francis C. Clarinisli, Row, Dumbartonshire. Past Provincial Grand Master. 

May 1894. 

613 Buchanan, James Isaac. Vandergrift Building, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 219, P.M., 162. Nov. 1896. 

614 Buchanan, John. Daily Graphic, Strand, W.C., London. 1853, P.M. March 1901. 

615 Buchanan-Dunlop, Lieut. A. H. 2 Royal Berks Regt., Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 1022. October 1901. 

616 Buck, Charles William. Settle, Yorkshire. 2091. October 1889. 

617 Buck, Edward H. The Priory, Hardway, Gosport. 2153. October 1892. 

618 Buckham, George Mil ward. Campf eld, Battle, Sussex. 1184,40. January 1899. 

619 Buckeridge, Edward Henry. Bancroft Road, E., London. 15, P.M., 2191. March 1898. 

620 *Buckley, Llewellyn Edison, I.C.S. Madras. 150,750. June 1896. 

621 Budden, Horace. Boscastle, Iddesleigh Road, Bournemouth. P.P.A.G.D.C, Dorset. Nov. 1895. 

622 Bugler, Thomas. 43 Morley Road, Lewishum, S.E., London. 171. March 1895. 

623 Buist, George Alexander. Gym-pie, Queensland. 816 (S.C)., P.M., 260 (S.C), P.Z. May 1898. 
C24 Bumstead, Alfred. 9 Strada, Mercanti, Valetta, Malta. 1923, 575, D.G.D.C. October 1896. 

625 Bunting, W. S. 10 Court Road, West Norwood, S.E., London. 2500. January 1899. 

626 Burdon, Charles Sambrook. 24 Lausanne Road, Hornsey, N., London. 2738, P.M., 2738, PZ 

October 1898. 

627 Burge, J. Bloemfontein, O.R.C. March 1901. 

628 Burgess, Dr. Christopher Venning. 223 Great Dover Street, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G.Sc.N., 

Middlesex. January 1890. 

629 Burgess, Henry. Cruigengillan, Layton Road, Hownsloiu, Middlesex. P.Pr.G.Stew., Surrey. 

January 1900. 

630 Burgess, J. W. 7 South Street, Thurloe Square, S.W., London. Grand Standard Bearer. 

November 1898. 

631 *Burkitt, Hon. William Robert, Judge, B.C.S. Allahabad, India. D.D.G.M., D.G.H , Bengal, 

October 1898. 

632 *Burnand, Alphonse A. 1103 Emerson Street, Denver, Colorado. Past Grand Master. Past 

Grand High Priest. March 1891. 

633 Burne, Thomas. Royal Hospital. Chelsea, S.W., London. P.Pr.G.D., Sussex. January 1880. 

634 Burnicle, John Scoby. 10 Woodlands Terrace, Middlesbrough, Yorks. 1848. October 1900. 

635 Burningham, Alonzo James. 1120 Burn's Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. 5,7. March 1898. 

636 Burr, Frederick Horst. P.W.D., French Rocks, Mysore, Madras. 1841. October 1900. 

637 Burslem, Albert. 77 Calverley Road, Tanbridge Wells. 2200, P.M., 874. May 1899. 

638 BurstOW, Thomas Stephen. Toowoomba, Queensland. P.S.D.G.M. November 1892. 

639 Burt, William Charles. Torrington, Devon. 1885, P.M., 535, P.Z. June 1899. 

640 Burtchaell, George Dames, M.A., LL.B., B.L., Sec. R.S.A, Ireland. 44 Morehampton Road, Dublin 

241,357. January 1895. 

641 Busbridge, Walter. Gras mere, Herbert 'Road, Plumstead, Kent. 913, P.M. October 1893. 

642 Butler, Charles. 104 Craven Park, WUlesden, N.W., Lo>:don. 2489, P.M., 2489, P.Z. March 1898. 

643 Butler, Charles McArthur. St. James's Hall, W., London. 195, 795. May 1897. 

644 Butler, Edger Johu. c/o Messrs. Thomson, Watson & Co., Cape Town. June 1899. 


645 Butler, Rev. G. Corly. Wesley Manse, Broad Arrow, Perth, West Australia. Dis.G.B.B. June 1900. 

646 Butterworth, John. Easingwold, Smedley Lane, Manchester. 2387, P..M., 204. May 1901. 

647 Byrne, William Samuel, M.B. Anne Street, Brisbane, Queensland. D.Pr.G.M. (I.C.) Nov. 1892. 

648 Cad I e, Harold. 110 Cannon Street, E.C., London. 1005, W.M. November 1898. 

649 Cairns, Andrew Struthers. Dalveen, Queensland. 2588. October 1900. 

650 Calhoun, David T. St. Cloud, Minnesota, U.S.A. Grand Orator of Minnesota. May 1900. 

651 Calhoun, Dr. S. Frederick, D.D., A.M. 69 Crawford Road, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Grand 

Chaplain of Grand Royal Arch Chapter, Vermont. September 1887. 

652 Calkoen, Charles. 267 Keizersgracht, Amsterdam. 92 (E.C.j March 1897. 

653 Callam, Frederick. 12 Stanger Road, South Norwood, S.E., London. 1139, P.M. January 1898. 

654 Calvert, Albert F. Roy ston, Eton Avenue, N.W., Loudon. 28, P.M. January 1900. 

655 Calvert, Alfred Beaumont. 192 Barking Road, E., London. 212. May 1899. 

656 *Cama, Dorabjee Pestonjee. 3 Great Winchester Street, E.G., London. Past Grand Treasurer. 

September 1887. 

657 Cameron, Sir Charles Alexander, M.D. 51 Pembroke Eoad, Dublin. Past Grand Deacon. 

May 1896. 

658 Campbell, Archibald John. Lieut. 19th Hussars. Charing, Kent. 434. January 1898. 

659 Campbell, Henry Johnstone, M.D. Manningham Lane, Bradford. 974. March 1900. 

660 Campbell, John Lome. Melita, Manitoba, Canada. P.M. January 1899. 

661 Campbell, John MacNausht, C.E., F.Z.S., F.R.S.G.S. Eelvingrore Museum, Glasgow. Past 

Grand Bible Bearer; Grand Representative, Dakota; Past Grand 
Joshua ; Grand Representative of G. C. of Maryland. March 1889. 

662 Campbell, Philip Charles John. Freemantle, West Australia. Senior Grand Warden. 

March 1898. 

663 Campbell, Robert John. 33 Aldershot Road, Brondesbury, N.W., London. 183, P.M. March 1899. 

664 Campbell-Everden, William Preston. Suffolk House, Cannon Street, E.C., London. 19. May 1901. 

665 Campion, Samuel S. Mercury Office, Parade, Northampton. 1704. November 1891. 

666 Campkin, Harry Herbert. Indian Head, Assa., Canada. P.Dep.Dis.G.M. March 1901. 

667 Caney, Stanley. 44 Cheapside, E.C., London. 1415,720. October 1899. 

668 Cannon, A. J. 43 Westhill Read, Southfields, S.W., London. 1044, P.M. January 1897. 

669 Cantle, William. 20 Paradise Street, Liverpool. 1264, P.M., 249, Z. May 1901. 

670 Capel, George William. Abingdon, Addiscombe Grove, Croydon. 19, P.M. May 1894. 

671 Carew, Walter Alexander. Christchurch, New Zealand. 4. Local Sec. for Cliristchurch. Oct. 1898. 

672 Carey, James- 15 Trinity Place, Windsor. 179, 179. January 1893. 

673 Carkeek, Charles. Blackall, Queensland. 2207, P.M. Local Secretary for Blackall. Oct. 1895. 

674 Carmon, William PVancis. 3 Queen Street, Newcastlc-or-Tyne. 481, P.M., P.Z. November 1889. 

675 Carnell, James. Ormond, Florida, U.S.A. Grand Master, Past Grand High Priest. 

May 1894. 

676 Carpenter, A. J. 49 Havelock Road, Brighton. Pr.A.G.Sec, P.P.G.So. January 1901. 

677 Carpenter, Arthur. Laurel Villa, Gresham Road, Staines, Middlesex- 2536, 735. June 1900. 

678 Carpenter, John Austin. 17 Greencroft Gardens, S. Hampstead, N. W., London. 2565, P.M. June 1900. 

679 Carrell, Charles William. Holmwood, Leytonstone. Past Grand Sword Bearer. January 1894. 

680 Carrick, William Lowther. Stokesley, Yorks. Pr.G.R., North and East Yorks March 1897. 

681 Carruthers, John. 8 Firpark Terrace, Dennistoun, Glasgow. Senior Grand Deacon ; Grand 

Representative of Connecticut ; Past First Grand Sojourner; Repre- 
sentative of G.C. of Dakota. May 1892. 

682 Carsberg, George Risden. 8 Meredith Street, E.C., London. 19. May 1893. 

683 Carson, Joseph Lougheed. Alexander Terrace, Enniskillen, Ireland. P.P.G.W., 205, P.K. 

March 1890. 

681 Carstens, C. Moulmein, Burma. Dis.G.Sw.B. March 1899. 

685 Cart, Rev. Henry Thomas. 47 Harold Road, Upper Norwood, S.E., London. 2705. May 1900. 

686 Carter, C. A. 18 Clyde Street, Port Elizabeth, S.A. ' P.Dis.G.D., P.Dis.A.G.So., E. Div. Oct. 1888. 

687 *Carter, Elmer Josiah. Box 496, Missoula, Montana, U.S. A. 40,25. October 1899. 

688 Carter, Robert William. Warnford Court, Throgmorton Street, E.C., London. 2242. May 1898. 

689 Carter, II- W. 4 Templar Street, Enatchbull Road, S.E., London. 22. January 1901. 

690 Cartwright, Ernest, H., D.M., B.Ch., Oxon. 1 Bower Terrace, Maidstone. P.Pr.G.Pt., P.Pr.G.Sc.N., 

Oxon. January 1891. 


G91 Cartwright, Rev. Canon TTarry Bcauchamp. St. John's, Newfoundland. 776. October 1901. 

692 Carus-Wilson, Edward Willyams. Pcntnount, Truro, Cornwall. 331, P.M. March 1889. 

C>&3 Casper, Ezekiel. Perth, Western Australia. P.D.G.W. (S.C.) Queensland. Local Secretary for 

Perth. May 185)1. 
691 CaSS, Rev. Frederick Charles Guise. Conservative Club, St. James' Strcit, S.W., London. 622. 
' May 1888. 

695 Cassal, Charles Edwa-cl, F.l.C, F.C.S. Brenne House, Routh Road, Wandsworth Common, S.W., 

London. P.Pr.G.W., Middlesex. March 1891. 

696 Cassal, Marcel Victor. Boundaries Road, Balham, S.W., London. 1415. November 1896. 

697 CastellO, James. 46 Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, W., London. 227, P.M., 7, P.Z. January 1891. 

698 Caster, F. Devon House, Park Road, Peterborough. P.P.G.A.D. of C, P.P.G.So., Northamptonshire 

and Huntingdonshire. May 1898. 

699 Caster, G. C. Medehamsted, Peterborough, Northamptonshire. P.P.G.W., P.G.J. March 1892. 

700 Cathcart, W. T. Silcuri Tea Estate, Silchur, Assam. 2726. October 1900. 

701 Caton, William Henry. 175 Graham Road, Hackney, N., London. 1365, 1471 . November 1898. 

702 Cave, William Henry. 11 Highlever Road, North Kensington, W., London. 1767. January 1899. 

703 Cawthorne, John Elstone. Elmctc House, Sherbum, South Milford, Toiks. 1221. May 1897. 

704 Cerf, Albert, J. W., M.A. 10 St. Mary's Road, Dublin. 357. May 1897. 

705 Chabot, Clement. 50 Old Broad Street, B.C., London. 11, P.M. June 1900. 

706 Chamberlin, Dr. Jehiel Weston. Lowry Arcade, St. Peter's Street, St. Paul, Minnesota. 163, 45. 

March 18513. 

707 Chambers, W. Boughton. Ed., Indian Freemason. Clyde Row, Hastings, Calcutta. P.M. June 1895. 

708 Chambers, William. Boy's School, South Ealing, W., London. 2662. January 1901. 

709 Chand, Rai Hukm, M.A. , Chief Judge, City Conrf. Hyderabad, Deccan, India. P.D.G.S.B. (R.A.), 

Madras. March 1894. 

710 ChangUOin, FranQois Daniel, D. Lit. Ph. Malmesbury, Cape Colony. L. San. Jan. (D.C.) May 1895. 

711 Chant, Thomas Whitemore. Stone Lodge, St. Andrew's, Watford, Herts. 2128. June 1896. 

712 Chapman, A. C. 7 Regent's Park Road, N.W., London. 2397. November 1898. 

713 Chapman, Arthur. Durban, Natal. D.G.Tr., East Africa. October 1895. 

714 Chapman, D. S. 1 Park Road, North Shields. 431, P.M. January 1899. 

715 Chapman, George B. Bayard Cottage, Bexley Heath, Kent. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.A.So. Oct. 1897. 

716 Chapman, John Midelton. 20 Whitefriars Gate, Hull. 907, P.M., P.Z. May 1898. 

717 Charles, Wilfred J. 24 College Street, E.C., London. 22, P.M. March 1899. 

718 Charlton, Matthew Forster. Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. 1036. May 1893. 

719 Charlton, William, J.P. Burnage House, Levenshulme, Manchester. Pr.G.J.D., East Lancashire. 

March 1901. 

720 Cheesman, Rowland Hill. 5 Bartlett Road, Darnley Road, Gravesend. 860. October 1898. 

721 Cheesman, William NTorwood. The Crescent, Selby, Tories. P.P.G.D.C., P.P.G.A.So. Jan. 1893. 

722 Cheffin, James. Box 59, Perth, West Australia. 860 (S.C.) November 1898. 

723 Cheshire, John Fitzherbert. Inglewood, Queensland. 883 (S.C.) 200, (S.C.) October 1901. 

724 Chesterton, Lewis Birch. Johannesburg, V.R.C. 72. October 1891. 

725 Chick, Frank. 83 Queen Street, Exeter. 2659. June 1899. 

726 Chilcott, Will Winsland. H.M.S. " Hibernia," Malta. 407, P.M., 407, H. March 1901. 

727 Childe, Rev. Canon C. V., LL.D. 8 York Gate, Regents Park, N.W., London. Past Grand 

Chaplain. January 1898. 

728 Chi Ids, John Frederick. 22 Chancery Lane, W.C., London. P.P.G.R. Cornwall. May 1899. 

729 Chirgwin, Percy Teague. Market Place, Penzance, Cornwall. 121, 121. May 1890. 

730 Chisholm, Edward A. Freemasons' Hall, Edinburgh. Grand Treasurer. October 1900. 

731 Churchill, Arthur. 25 Lithes Road, Soutli Hampstead, N.W., London. 1092. November 1900. 

732 Clare, James H. 416 Mare Street, Hackney, N.E., London. 1489, P.M., 7365, P.Z. May 1901. 

733 Clark, Charles Crabb. Durban, Natal. 731 (S.C), P.M. November 1898. 

734 Clark, David R., M.A., F.S.A., Scot. 8 Park Drive, W., Glasgow. 0, P.M. June 1890. 

735 Clark, Robert Douglas, M.A. The College, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. P.D.G.W. March 1889. 

736 Clarke, Albert Edward. 40 Long Street, Cape Town. 2379,2379. June 1897. 

737 Clarke, Arthur Laver. Gas Works, Maldon, Essex. 1024. October 1900. 

738 Clarke, Charles. Taroom, Queensland. 11 (V.C.), P.M. June 1895. 

739 Clarke, Rev. F. C. P. C. Moulmein, Burma. Dis.G.Ch., Dis.G.Sc.N. March 1899. 

740 Clarke, Francis Edward, M.D., LL.D., M.R.I.A. The Rectory, Boyle, Ireland. Dep.Pr.G.M., North 

Connaught. March 1892. 


741 Clarke, John Richard. Redhill, Surrey. P. Pr.G.A.P., Lincoln. March 1891. 

742 C I arry, George. West Mount, Llandaff, Cardiff. P.Pr G.W., Pr.G.Sc.E. March 1900. 

743 Clay, Robert Keating. Anglesey, Killiney, Cn. Dublin. Grand Treasurer. January 1897. 

744 Clayton, Robert G. 67 Douglas Terrace, Borough Road, Middlesbrough, Yorks. 2391. October 1900. 

745 Cleaton, Edmund Richard. 12 Palace Mansions, Kensington, W., London. 2077, P.M. May 1900. 

746 Cleghorn, William. 9 Thurlow Place, S. Kensington, 8.W., London. 1287, P.M., P. Z. March 1898. 

747 Clemens, Joshua Henry. 9 Richborough Road, Cricklewood, N.W., London. 183, F.M. May 1895. 

748 *Clendinning, James Hermon. 95 Hill Street, Lurgan, Ireland. 134. P.M., 602, P.K. May 1890. 

749 *ClifFord, Henry John. Morrinsville, New Zealand. 52. October 1898. 

750 Clift, William Edwin. Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 711. March 1901. 

751 Cloudsdale, Benjamin. Institute for Blind, South Brisbrane, Queensland. 879 (S.C.), 258, (S.C.) 

Sc.E. June 1900. 

752 ClOUgh, G. T. 73 Earlham Grove, Forest Gate, E., London. 2077. March 1895. 

753 CoateS, Arthur Robert. Valeci, Savn Savu, Fiji. 1931, P.M. October 1899. 

754 Cobb, J. G. 31 Gresham Street, E.G., London. P.Pr.G.St.B., Herts. June 1900. 

755 Cobb, Preston. The Hill, Acomb, York. 236, 236. October 1898. 

756 Cobbett, Charles Newberry, M.D. 29 Rosslyn Hill, N.W., London. January 1900. 

757 *Cobham, Charles, F.S.I. The Shrubbery, Gravtsend. P.R.G.Sup.W., Durham. June 1900. 

758 Cochran, Sam P. Box 1 19, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. 760,47. June 1899. 

759 Cochrane, E. F. Box 299, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 711. January 1898. 

760 Cochrane, W. N. Woodleigh, Darlington. 1370, P.M. January 1897. 

761 Cochrane, William Pei cy. Grovesnor Club, New Bond Street, London. 1448,60?. November 1890. 

762 Cock, William. 147 Queen's Road, Peclcham, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.St., Middlesex. Nov. 1889. 

763 Cockburn, Sir John Alexander, K.C.G.M., M.D. 1 Crosby Square, E.G., London. Past Grand 

Warden, South Australia. November 1900. 

764 Cockburn, Brigade Surgeon J. Ralfour, M.D. Elm House, Guernsey. Provincial Grand 

Master, Guernsey and Alderney. October 1890. 

765 Cockson, Edward Herbert. Engcobo, Tembuland, South Africa. 2451. June 1893. 

766 Cockson, William Vincent Shcpstone. Engcobo, Tembuland, South Africa. May 1889. 

767 Codding, James H. Towanda, Pennsylvania. 108, P.M., Dis.Dep.G.H.P. May 1890. 

768 Coffin, Maitland, M.D. 8 Weth erby Terrace, Earl's Court, S.W., London. 2581, P.M. 1891, P.Z. 

October 1900. 

769 Cohn, Albert. Hazeldene, 84 Canfield Gardens, West Hampstead, N.W., London. May 1897. 

770 Cohu, Thomas. Glatney, Edward Road, Bromley, Kent. P. P. G.W., Guernsey & Aiderney. Nov.1890. 

771 Cole, Christian John. P.O.B. 468, Cape Town. 654 (S.C), P.M. March 1899. 

772 Cole, Charles William. 55 Dafforne Road, Upper Tooting, S.W-, London. 2105, P.M. May 1899. 

773 Cole, Dr. Deloraine, Tasmania. P.M. June 1896. 

774 Cole, William F. Box 1333, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 822. January 1892. 

775 Coleman, Frank William. Chipleigh, Gerard Road, Weston-super-Mare. 1222. October 1895. 

776 CollenS, William James. 2 Gresham Bldgs., Guildhall, E.G., London. P.Pr.G.Sc.N.,Kent. Jan. 1896. 

777 ColleS, Ramsey, F.R.Hist.S., M.R.I.A., M.J.I., F.R.S.A.I., J.P. I Wilton Terrace, Dublin. 25,4. 

Local Secretary for Dublin. March 1895. 

778 Collier, Henry James. 24 Compton Road, Highbury, N., London. 2192. P.M. May 1896. 

779 Col I ingWOOd, George Meadows. St. David's Hill, Exeter. 1437. June 1899. 

780 Collins, George Sherrington. 149 High Street, Notting Hill Gate, W., London. 2192, P.M., 1471. 

January 1897. 

781 Collins, Henry Albert. Hillside, Avondale Road, Croydon, Surrey. P. D.G. A. Pt., Shanghai. Mayl895. 

782 Collins, Howard J. General Hospital, Birmingham. Pr.G.D., Pr.G.A.Sc.E. January 1894. 

783 Colman, William Henry, B.A, 33 Vesta Road, BrocHey, S.E., London. 2513. October 1895. 

784 Compton, Walter George. Box 495, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2481. May 1898. 

785 Condell, Thomas De Renzy. Christchurch, New Zealand. Dis.G.Sec. June 1899. 

786 Conder, Edward. New Court, Colwall, Malvern, Herefordshire. 1204. May 1893. 

787 Cook, Charles James. Mueller Road, Subeaco, Perth, West Australia. P.D.G.W. (S.C.) Nov. 1898. 

788 Cook, John Oliver. Wrottesley Road, Plumstead, Kent. 913, P.M., 913, P.Z. May 1898. 

789 Cook, Thomas. Box 105, Durban, Natal. P.D.G.W., P. D.G.J. Local Sec. for Natal. March 1889. 

790 Cooke, C. Whitehall, M.D. 129 Walm Lane, Cricklewood, N.W., London. 2361. May 1899. 

791 Cooksey, James Hughes. Town Clerk, Bridgnorth, Salop. Pr.G.Treas. May 1896. 

792 Cooper, Edward, Surg. R.N. H M.S. Buzzard, N.A. fy W.I. Station. 278. January 1897. 


793 Cooper, Edwin Ernest. 37 Earley Street, W., London. Past Grand Steward. May 1894. 

794 Coopar, Rev. Horace Hayes, B.A. Bridge House, Castletoiunbere, Co. Cork. 84. January 1897. 

795 Cooper, John William. P.O.B. 588, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 1574. June 1890. 

796 Cooper, Percy Stephen. 6 Coniyer Road, Hurlingham, S.W., London. 1694. May 1901. 

797 Cooper, William Henry, J. P. P.O.B. 244, Auckland, New Zealand. Past Grand Warden, 

New Zealand. Local Secretary for Auckland, N.Z. May 1893. 

798 Coote, John. Plas Tey,Rushley Green, Catford, S.E., London. 1259, P.M. November 1897. 

799 Copper, J. 10 Carlton Gardens, Criclclewood, N.W., London. 2409. May 1901. 

800 Corbett, John W., M.D. Camden, South Carolina, U.S.A. 29, P.M., 4. June 1896. 

801 Cornish, James Mitchell. Stanley House, Alverton, Penzance Cornwall. 121, 121. March 1890. 

802 Corsham, Reuben. 28 Kinysland Road, N.E., London. 183, P.M. November 1891. 

803 Cory, Paul Peter John. Box 411, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2481. May 1898. 

804 *Cory-Wright, Dudley. Northwood, Hornsey Lane, N., London. 357, 357. October 1897. 

805 Costello, F. Saville Street, Hull. 250. May 1898. 

806 Couch, Richard Pearce. 21 Chapel Street, Penzance, Cornwall. Pr.J.G.W., P.Z. March 1890. 

807 Cousans, Henry Edward. 7 Albemarle Street, W., London. P.Pr.G.W., Lincoln. October 1888. 

808 Cowan, James Bryce. Commercial Bank, Hawick, N.B. Ill, P.M., 59. Local Secretary for South 

Scotland. January 1892. 

809 Cowen, George, M.D. Dunurlin, New Maiden, Surrey. 889. November 1898. 

810 Cowel I, Sidney George. Chester Street, Brisbane, Queensland. P.A.D.G.D.C. March 1894. 

811 Cowey, Charles Wesley. Box 636, Johannesbury, V.R.C. 2481. May 1398. 

812 Cowins, Henry Somerfield. Bound Brook, New Jersey, U.S.A. 3,27. October 1897. 

813 Cowper, Frederick Spencer. 8 Belle Vue, Sunderland. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.Sc.N. Nov. 1890. 

814 COX, Charles Henry. 61 Acre Lane, Brixton, S.W., London. 163, 141. May 1890. 

815 COX, F. J. Lustleigh, Dorville Road, Lee, Kent. 19C, P.M. March 1898. 

816 Cox, George David. Swan Creek, Warwick, Queensland. 775 (S.C.), 194 (S.C.) March 1896. 

817 COX, John Samuel. Ardhallow, Dunoon, N.B. P. Dis.G.R., Hong Kong and South China. Feb. 1887. 

818 Cox, W. Herbert. 12 Lebanon Gardens, Wandsworth, S.W., London. 1706,2182. March 1899. 

819 Coxen, Harold. 16 Arkwright Mansions, Finchley Road, N.W., London. 53. November 1899. 

820 Coxen, William George. 155 High Road, Kilburn, N. W., London. 183. March 1899. 

821 Coxon, C. M. 5 Wood Street Square, E.C., London. P.Pr.G.D., Herts. March 1898. 

822 Crabtree, Charles. Hillside Villas, Bradford. P.P.G.D., P.Pr.C.So., West Yorks. March 1888. 

823 Cramp, Charles Edward. 10 Denzil Terrace, Westcombe Park, S.E., London. 871. May 1899. 

824 Cran, Alexander, M.B. Townfield House, Great Horwood, Lancashire. 1504, P.M March 1893. 

825 Crane, Robert Newton. ' 1 Essex Court, Temple, E.C., London. 2397. November 1895. 

826 Crane, Stephen. 8 Dighton Road, Wandsworth, S.W., London. 2G64. October 1899. 

827 Crank, William Henry. Hughenden, North Queensland. 769 (S.C.) March 1900. 

828 *Cranswick, William F. Kimberley, South Africa. D.G.Tr., C.S.Africa. March 1888. 

829 Craster, Major James Cecil Balfour. Benares, N.W. Prov. P. P.Dis.B.G.P., P.D.G.A.Sc.E., Bengal. 

May 1896. 

830 Craven, Rev. James Brown. St. Olaf's Episcopal Church, KirkwaU, Orkney. Pr.G.Ch., Caithness, 

Orkney and Zetland. February 1887. 

831 Crawford, George. 21 St. Andrew's Square, Edinburyh. Past Grand Dir. of Ceremonies. 

November 1897. 

832 Crawford, Robert. Edina House, Grangemouth, Scotland. Past Grand Steward. Nov. 1892 

833 Crerae, John. Melita P.O., Manitoba, Canada. Grand Registrar, Manitoba. January 1898. 

834 Creswell, Frank O. 25 Church Road, W., Walton, Liverpool. 823. March 1901. 

835 *CreSWell, John. 5 Penmartin Road, Brockley, S.E., London. 957. January 1894. 

836 Crick, William Clifton. 102 Chancery Lane, W.C., London. P.Pr.G.St.B., Middlesex. Oct. 1898. 

837 Crider, George A. 917 Filbert Street, Philadelphia, U.S. A. 91, 52. May 1897. 

838 Criswick, George Strickland, F.R.S.A. Rothley, Mycenat Road, Westcombe Park, Blackheath, S.E. 

London. 1593, P.M., 7593, P.Z. January 1891. 

839 Crombie, Walter G. Junior Constitutional Club, S.W., London. 574. October 1899. 

840 Crompton, Frederick Leslie. Shanghai. P. D.G.O., Northern China. May 1895. 

841 Crone, John Mann. St. Anne's-on-Sea, West Lancashire. 1375, 7357. January 1899. 

842 Crookshank, Robert Percy, M.D. Box 125, Rapid City, Manitoba. D.D.G.M., 705. June 1900. 

843 Cross, Edward William. Old Bank, Portland, Dorset. P.P.G.D., P.P.G.Sc.N., Hants. March 1887. 

844 Cross, Samuel J. 1 Tower Villas, South Woodford, Essex. 2242, P.M. March 1898. 


845 Crossle, Francis C, M.B. 11 Trevor Hill, Newry, Ireland. P.G.Sec, Down. January 1893. 

846 Crossthwaite, Lawrenc°. Dandy Rigg, Colby, Isle of Man. 1289, P.M , 537. October 1898. 

847 Crozier, Henry Charles. Box 334, Cairo, Egypt. Grand Deacon, Grand Sword Bearer 

(R.A.), Egypt. June 1896. 

848 Crundall, Arthur William. Vilela, F.C. Sud. Argentina, Argentine Republic. .617,617. Oct. 1900. 

849 Cuckow, Walter Mason. Ellerslie, Felixstowe, Suffolk. P.P.G.St., Suffolk. November 1895. 

850 Cullen,T. F. Inver ell, New South Wales. 48, P.M. March 1895. 

851 Cumming, John Arthur. Madura, Madras. 2356. October 1901. 

852 Cumming, Thomas Turner. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 166,2. March 1898. 

853 CummingS, William Hayman, Mus. Doc. Sydcote, West Dulwich, S.E., London. Past Grand 

Organist. November 1900. 

854 Cundill, Thomas Jordan. Gladstone, De Beers, Kimberley. 2486. November 1894. 

855 CunlifFe, William Joseph. 16 Byrom Street, Manchester. P. Pr.G.D. East Lanes. January 1889. 

856 Cunningham, Ronald Elliott. 25 Crutched Friars, E.G., London. 1159. March 1899. 

857 Cunningham, Rev. William. Trinity College, Cambridge. P.Pr.G.Ch. May 1896. 

858 Curry, William. 195 Great Portland Street, W., London. 435, P.M. January 1901. 

859 Curtis, William Edward. Bundaberg, Queensland. 752 (S.C.), 246 (S.C.) Local Secretary for 

Bundaberg. March 1894, 

860 Dales, Hugh James. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 166, 2, P.H.P. March 1898. 

861 Dalgleish, William Holway. 5 Parle Place, Exeter. 39. March 1899. 

862 Dally, Dr. Frederick. 51 Waterloo Roads, Wolverhampton. P. Pr.G.D., Stafford. March 1888. 

863 Dangerfield, Frederick. Haslemere, Beaconsfield Road, St. Alban's. 1260, P.M., P.Z. May 1894. 

864 Daniels, L. B. 1104 Main Street, La Porte, Indiana, U.S.A. 124, 31. May 1887. 

865 DanielSSOn, Leonard. 64 Antrim Mansions, Haverstock Hill, N.W., London. 1471. June 1897. 

866 Danneel, Henry Maurice. 325 Camp Street, New Odeum, Louisiana, U.S.A. Grand Warden, 

March 1901. 

667 Dansie, Brandon. May Lodge, Bexley Heath, Kent. 529, P.M. January 1896. 

868 Dansie, Crown. Durban, Natal. March 1897. 

869 Danziger, Bernhard. Johannesburg, V.R.C. Star of the Rand Lodge (D.C.), P.M. May 1889. 

870 Darby, James Thomas. 54 Brook Street, Bootl:, Liverpool. 1380,241. June 1892. 

871 Darley-Hartley, W., M.D. May field, Gilmour Hill Road, Kloof Road, Cape Town. P.Dis.G.W., 

P.Dis.G.R., East Division, South Africa. October 1888. 

872 Darling, Alexander. Governor's House, Berwick-on-Tweed. 293, P.M. 393. October 1895. 

873 Darlington, George. Amersham, Bucks. 2421, P.M. May 1899. 

874 Davey, Rev. H. M. Cawley Priory, Chichester, Sussex. P.Pr.G.Ch. March 1899. 

875 David, James. Bisley, nr. Stroud, Gloucestershire. P.Pr.G.Reg. January 1900. 

876 Davidson, James Bell. Box 23, Salisbury, Rhodesia. 69. October 1901. 

877 Davidson, John, M.B. St. Andrew's, Uxbridge, Middlesex. 2000,2000. March 1901. 

878 Davies, Charles. 50 Wellington Street, Oldham, Lancashire. 467. March 1898. 

879 Davies, Charles H. 3 Hamilton Street, Hoole, Cheshire. 1576. May 1901. 

880 Davies, F. Trehawke. 9 Cavendish Square, W., London. 2771. October 1900. 

881 Davies, J. Hudson. Sion House, nr. Shrewsbury. 117. January 1898. 

882 Davies, James John. Gwynnecote, Sanderstead Hill, Surrey. P.Dis.G.Treas., Punjab. Oct. 1892. 

883 Davies, Richard. Brynmawn, Rosecroft Avenue, Hampstead, N.W., London. 176. January 1899. 

884 Davies, Samuel. Alvanley House, Frodsham, Cheshire. P.Pr.G.St.B. June 1897. 

885 Davis, Edmund W. 47 Larkfield Road, Richmond, Surrey. Pr.A.G.D.C, Middlesex. January 1900. 

886 Davis, Edward Laurence Hines. 57 Devonshire Street, Great Portland Street, W., London. 435. 

January 1901. 

887 Davis, F. R. 80 Worting Road, Basingstoke. 1373. November 1899. 

888 Davis, W. H. Hill Crest, Alton, Warwicks. 1782, P.M. May 1901. 

889 Davison, T. 28 Great Ormond Street, W.C, London. 200. June 1899. 

890 Davy, F. D. 18 St. James Mansions, West Hampstead, N.W., London. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.A.So., 

Lincoln. June 1896. 

891 Davy, Percy Haddon. 161 Brig stock Road, Thornton Heath, Surrey. 1196. May 1898. 

892 Dawe, Alfred. Salisbury, Rhodesia. 744 (S.C.), P.M., 245 (S.C.) January 1895. 

893 Dawson, J. Nambrook, Rosedale, Victoria. 163, 166. November 1899. 


894 Dawson, William. 31 St. James, Hatcham, S.E., London. P.D.G.D.C, Middlesex 2048, P.Z. 

October 1901. 

895 Day, Edward P., M.D. 3 Holies Street, Cavendish Square, S.W., London. 1C36. Juno 1894. 

896 Day, Edward Harry. Assiout, Upper Egypt. 1982. October 1898. 

897 Day, Henry Shadforth. Kivala Lumpor, Selangor, Straits Settlements. D.G.D.C. March 1899. 

898 Day, Jack C, C.E. Fayoum, Eygpt. 1982. October 1896. 

899 Day, Robert, F.S.A., M.R.I. A., J. P. Myrtle Hill House, Cork. 8, P.M. October 1898. 

900 D'Amer-Drew, J. 69 Park Street, West Melbourne, Victoria. Past Deputy Grand Master, 

Past Grand Zerubbabel. May 1898. 

901 Deacon, Rev. Ernest W. 8 Eardley Road, Streatham, S.W., London. October 1900. 

902 Dearden, Verdon George Steade. Biish House, Attercliffe Common, Sheffield. P.P.G.D., 739, P.Z. 

March 1890. 

903 DeatS, Hiram Edmund. Flemington, New Jersey, U.S.A. 37, P.M., 37. May 1897. 

904 De Beer, Houlton Augustus. Box 26, Buluwayo, Rhodesia. 1574, P.M., P.Z. October 1899. 

905 Debenham, Edward Percy. 55 London Road, St. Allan's, Herts. P.P.G.Reg., Herts. Jan. 1893. 

906 De Conlay, James. Warwick, Queensland. 818 (S.C.), P.M., 200 (S.C.J, P.Z. May 1895. 

907 Dee, Thomas George. 15 Bessborough Street, Westminster, S.W., London. 2664, P.M. March 1898. 

908 *De Fabeck, Surgeon-Major-General (I. M.S., retired) William Frederick, M.D. Bangalore. 

P.D.G.S.B., Madras. January 1893. 

909 Denholm, William Munro. 6 Charing Cross, Glasgow. Junior Grand Warden, Past 

Grand Joshua, Scotland ; Grand Representative of G. C. of Delaware 
and Grand Lodge, Utah. March 1891. 

910 Dennis, Alfred W., F.R.G.S. Warner Street, Barnsbury, N., London. 180. June 1895. 

911 Denny, Charles Hill. 18 Wood Street, E.C., London. 1671, P.M. May 1897. 

912 Dentith, Arthur W. Ecclcsbourne, Park Road, West Dulwich, S.E., London. 859. June 1898. 

913 Denton, John Burton. Huby, nr. Leeds. 1001. May 1900. 

914 De Rabours, Jules. 2 Chemin du Square de Contamines, Geneva. Union des Coeurs. Oct. 1900. 

915 De Ridder, Louis E. Brookland, Uhvell Road, Swanage. 152,68. January 1890. 

916 Derbyshire, John Stanley. Ashfleld Road, Altrincham, Cheshire. Pr.G D. of C, 1045. May 1896. 

917 Derrick, George Alexander. Masonic Hall, Singapore. Dis.G.Sec, Eastern Archipelago. Oct. 1890. 

918 De Saone, G. Prier. Stephansberg, Bamberg, Bavaria. 549, 549. March 1901. 

919 DeutSCh, Franz. 4 Whitehall Court, S.W., London. 2108. June 1897. 

920 Dew, F. W. 4 Limesford Road, Nunhead, S.E., London. 87. June 1899. 

921 *Dewell, James D. Neiv Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. 1. January 1888. 

922 De Whalley, L. J. 172 Erlanger Road, New Cross, S.E., London. 1275. October 1897. 

923 De Wolf Smith, William Andrew. New Westminster, B.C., Canada. P.Dep.Dis.Gr. Master. 

June 1901. 

924 Dewsbury, Alfred. Mellish Road, Walsall. P.Pr.D.C, Staffords. May 1900. 

925 Diamond, Arthur William. 28 Maldon Road, Wallington, Surrey. 1365, 1471. March 1898. 

926 Diamond, Charles Graham. 128 Lower Addiscombe Road, Croydon, Surrey. 2715, 192. March 1899. 

927 Dibdin, W. T. 2 Edinburgh Mansions, Victoria Street, S.W., London. January 1899. 

928 Dickins, Vernon W. Frank. Atherstone, Eaton Avenue, South Hampstead, N.W-, London. 822,29. 

May 1898. 

929 Dickinson, William. Sunnymount, Austen Road, Guildford, Surrey. 1395. October 1898. 

930 Dickson, Robert. Jonkoping, Siveden. Grand Secretary, Sweden. September 1887. 

931 Dieffenbach, William Hermann. 1748 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 454. June 1901. 

932 Diercks, Dr. Gustav. Berlin, S. 14, Splittgerbergasse 3. Grand Keeper of the Archives. 

March 1898. 

933 Digby-Green, Arthur. 5 Mount Adon Park, Dulwich, S.E., London. 19, P.M. May 1890. 

934 *Dill, James Brooks. 27 Pine Street, New York, U.S.A. 124. June 1898. 

935 Dingle, William Alfred, M.D. 46 Finslury Square, E.C., London. P.Pr.G-Pt., Herts. June 1894. 

936 Dinwiddie, William Alexander. Bridge Bank, Dumfries, N.B. Provincial Grand Master, 

Dumfriesshire. May 1892. 

937 Dixon, Rev. Edward Young. Mount Ayliff, East Qriqualand. 2113. November 1889. 

938 Dixon, Lieut.-Col. George. St. Valery, Sutton, Surrey. Deputy Grand Sword Bearer. 

June 1899. 

939 Dixon, James John. 6 Dartmouth Park Avenue, N.W., London. 1415, P.M. November 189G. 

940 Dobson, Edward Howard. Chronicle Office, Yea, Victoria. 172, P.M. October 1899. 

941 Docker, Robert Arthur. Money Order Office, Sydney, New South Wales. 57, P.M. October 1894. 


942 Dod, Thomas Crewe Wolley- Pretoria, V.R.C. 770 (S.C.), 231 (S 0.)~ October 1894. 

943 Dodd, Matthew Henry. 41 Devonshire Place, Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. P.Pr.G.R., Durham. 

March 1890. 

944 DoddS, William. Murray Street, Roclthamptcn, Queensland. 932. March 1897. 

945 DoddS, William. P.O.B. 33, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2481, P.M., 2313. May 1897. 

946 Doe, George Mark. Enfield, Great Torrington. 1885, P.M. October 1897. 

947 Doe, Herbert William, A.R.LB. A. 30 Speenham Road, Stockwell, S.E., London. 268 (I.C.), 73 (I.C.) 

January 1901. 

948 Doesburgh, L. Van., M-D. Prinsengracht 592, Amsterdam. Concordia vincit Animos Lodge. 

P.M. January 1889. 

949 Dolby, Rev. Reginald, M.A., R.N. H.M.S. Nile, Devonport. Dis.G.Ch., Malta. March 1890. 

950 Dolling-Smith, H. 65 Wool Exchange, E.C., London. 946. March 1898. 

951 Dorman, Thomas Phipps. Renicliffe House, Northampton. A.G.D.C. March 1889. 

952 Dow, J. M. 64, Orove Street, Liverpool. 1013. May 1901. 

953 Dowden, W. J. M. Iddersleigh, Oxford Road, Bournemouth. 2208, P.M. March 1897. 

954 Dowding, Capt. H. H. Hewitt. Simla, Punjab. 2439. January 1898. 

955 Downe. Sidney J. St. Elmo, Chichester Road, Kingston Cross, Portsmouth. 342. March 1900. 

956 Downie, Tom. Northampton Downs, BlacTcall, Queensland. 2207, P.M. October 1898. 

957 Dowse, Francis. Godalming, Surrey. 2101, P.M., 777, P.Z. May 1895. 

958 Dowse, George Arthur. 520 Caledonian Road, N., London. 1602, 1602. January 1898. 

959 Dowsett, G. H. 1, Gloucester Street, Portman Square, W., London. 79. May 1900. 

960 Drew, William George. 68 Richmond Road, Islington, N., Londori. 765, 1602. November 1899. 

961 Dring, Edmund Hunt. 40 Buckleigh R>ad, Streatham, S.W., London. 229. January 1899. 

962 Dring, John Whitford. 22 Billiter Square, E.C., London. June 1899. 

963 Drummond, Charles James. 21 Dalmore Road, West Dulwich, S.E., London. 1541, P.M., 1269, 

M.E.Z. January 1899. 

964 Drummond, the Hon. Josiah Hayden. Portland, Maine, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, Past 

Grand High Priest, Maine ; Past General Grand High Priest, U.S.A. 

November 1891. 

965 Drury, Charles Dennis Hill, M.D., J. P. Bondgate, Darlington, Dublin. Past Assistant Grand 

Director of Ceremonies. March 1892. 

966 Drysdale, J. W. Melley, College Parle, Lewisham, S.E., London. 263, P.M. June 1898. 

967 Dudfield, Reginald S. Orme, M.B. 19 Blomfield Road, Maida. Vale, W., London. 1974. Oct. 1898. 

968 Dudley, William George. Wolfgang Station, Clermont, Queensland. 2207. January 1897. 

969 Duffield, Albert John. Box 74, Grahamstown, Cape. 828, P.M., 711. June 1895. 

970 Duffill, John Henry. Durban, Natal. 730 (S.C.), 17b (S.C.), P.Z. May 1899. 

971 DumolO, William. 20 Bridge Street, Aberdeen, N.B. P.Pr.G.I.G., Munster. October 1888. 

972 Dunaway, H. J. Glan Mor, Keyes Road, Crichlewood, N.W., London. 2698. May 1901. 

973 Duncan, James Dalrymple, F.S. A., Lond. and Scot., F. 15. S.E. Meiklewood, Stirling. PastGrand 

Warden, Past Deputy Grand Zerubbabel, Scotland. June 1888. 

974 Dunn, Charles Henry. Princess Cafe, Field Street, Durban, Natal. 1937. November 1888. 

975 Dunn, William Haynes. 9 Brownswood Parle, Green Lanes, N., London. P.P.G.S. of W., Herts. 

March 1895. 

976 Dunscombe, William. 25a Lisle Street, Leicester Square, W., London. November 1898. 

977 *Durell, Captain A. J. V. 3 Whitehall Place, S. W., London. 2537. October 1901. 

978 Dutt, Prosonno Coomar. 14 Sectarim Ghose's Street, Calcutta. P.D.D.G.M., P.Dis.G.H. (R.A.) 

March 1887. 

979 Dutton, Arthur. 65 Tulse Hill, S.E., London. 34, P.M., 34, P.Z May 1894. 

980 Dutton, Richard Gay. Baloroo, Roma, Queensland. 730 (S.C.), 247 (S.C) October 1895. 

981 Dyke, Charles P. 29 Fellows Road, Hampstead, N.W., London. P.Pr.G.D., Dorset. June 1890. 

982 Dyke, Edwin George, F.G.S- Greenbank, Plymouth. P.Pr.G.O., Cornwall. June 1899. 

983 Dyson, Walker. Croft House, Milnsbridge, Huddersfield. P.Pr.G.D. May 1899. 

984 Eabom, H. Glen Helen, Heber Road, Dulwich, S.E., London. 1539. November 1898. 

985 Eales, Rev. Arthur R. T. Elstree Rectory, Herts. P.Pr.G.Ch., Essex. October 1899. 

986 *Eales, C. L. M., I.C.S. Lucknow, India. D.G.R., Bengal. October 1900. 

987 Earley, James Jerome. St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 3, P.M. June 1900. 

988 EastCOtt, Thomas. Nelson, New Zealand. 40. March 1896. 


989 Ebblewhite, Ernest Arthur, F.S.A. Tintern, Ghristchurch Road, Crouch End, N., London. 99. 

January 1898. 

990 Eden, Alfred John. Railway Station, Rockhampton, Queensland. 932. Local Secretary for Kock- 

hampton, Juno 189G. 

991 Eden, Charles Stockwell. Toowoomba, Queensland. 775 (S.O.)j 187 (S.C.) May 1896. 

992 Edmonds, Thomas C. 25-4 Liverpool Road, Barnesbury, N., London. 1507, P.M., P.Z. May 1896. 

993 Edwardes- Evans, Rev. John, M.A. The Grammar School, Lymm, Cheshire. P.P.G.Chap. 

May 1901. 

994 Edwards, Charles. Barberton, V.R.C 747 (S.C.) May 1895. 

995 *Edwards, Charles Lewis, F.S.S. 748 Avenida Mayo, Buenos Ayres. 617, P.M. October 1897. 

996 Edwards, Charles Lund Fry. The Court, Axbridge, Somerset. Past Grand Deacon. 

October 1888. 

997 Edwards, Edward Tickner. Camj> Field, Overkill Road, Dulwick, S.E., London. 788, P.M. Oct.1889. 

998 Edwards, P. G. 33 Ardbeg Road, Heme Hill.S.E., London. 1027, W.M. January 1896. 

999 Edwards, Percy J. Argyll Lodge, Waldegrave Road, Upper Norwood, S.E., London. 2105. 

January 1898. 

1000 Edwards, W. G. A. 3 Coleman Street, E.G., London. 2500. January 1899. 

1001 Edwardson, E. 43 Cardington St reet, N.W., London. 179. March 1898. 

1002 Eedle, F. T. 8 Railway Approach, London Bridge, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., Essex. June 1898. 

1003 Egan, Charles James, M.D. Grey's Hospital, King Williams Town, South Africa. District 

Grand Master, Eastern Division of South Africa. January 1889. 

1004 Eggleston, Dr. Wardner. State Hospital, Binghamtnn, Neiv York, U.S.A. 435. May 1901. 

1005 Eisenmann, J. 14 Aldermanbury Avenue, E-C, London. 185, P.M., P.Z. May 1899. 

1006 Elder, Heury Vavasour. 98 Holland Road, Kensington, W., London. 645. May 1901. 

1007 Elgee, Richard Waddy. The Cottage, Car cur Road, Wexford. 935 (I.C.) March 1901. 

1008 Elkington, George, F.R.I.B.A. 95 Cannon Street, E.C., London. 2416, P.M., P.Z. January 1898. 

1009 Ellis, J. W. Hay. Pettigrew Street, St. John's Hill, Bangalore, India. 1841. May 1899. 

1010 Ellis, Lilley. 9 Rock Park, Rock Ferry, Birkenhead. P.P.G.W., P.P.G.R. (R.A.) November 1893. 

1011 Ellis, Richard Sidney. 22a Old Bond Street, W., London. 2242, P.M. May 1896. 

1012 Ellis, Tom Henry. 68 Buckleigh Road, Streatham, S.W., London. 1339. March 1899. 

1013 El lor, Andrew. Ashfield, Hyde R"ad, Gorton, Manchester. 104. January 1898. 

1014 Elstob, Arthur Charles Frank. Durban, Natal. 738, 738. October 1895. 

1015 Elvin, John William. Overton Lodge, Overton Road, Brixton, S.W., London. 2395, P.M. Past 

Asst. Grand Director of Ceremonies (R.A.) March 1898. 

1016 Ely, Thomas Robert, J P. Ballagkmore Castle, Roscrea, Ireland. G. Sec. Midland Counties. 

January 1900. 

1017 Embleton, Henry C. Central Bank Chambers, Leeds. 289. January 1895. 

1018 Emmerson, Joseph Ralph. Gill Street, Charters Towers, Queensland. 1546. October 1900. 

1019 England, Frederick. Baxter Avenue, Southend-on-Sea. 2442, P.M., 1000, P.Z. June 1901. 

1020 Enslin, Ludwig Johann Frederick. Barberton, V.R.C. 747 (S.C.) October 1898. 

1021 Evans, A.. W. Charles. Royal Chambers, Port Said, Egypt. P.A.G.D.C, Egypt. D.G.St. B. of 

D.G.L., North Africa. June 1899. 

1022 Evans, Major George Alfred Penrhys. Military Prison, Dublin. P.D.G.St.B., Punjab. Jan. 1897. 

1023 Evans, J. Henry. Woodlands, Lymm, Warrington, Cheshire. P.Pr.G.St.B. May 1899. 

1024 Evans, Rev. John Pngh. Llanddoget Rectory, Llanwrst, Nortli Wales. P.P.G.Chap. May 1901. 

1025 Evans, Marfchinns Andreas. P.O., Lindequi's Drift, V.R.C. 766 (S.C), 245 (S.C.) June 1899. 

1026 Evans, Oliver Rhys. Port Fairy, Victoria. Past Grand Deacon. October 1892. 

1027 Evekink, Huibert, jun. Ravenstraat 2, Zutphen, Holland. Karel van Zweden. May 1900. 

1028 Evens, Richard. 81 Brnmfelde Road, Clapham, S. W., London. 1949, P.M., 1589, P.Z. Jan. 1893. 

1029 Everett, Herbert Southwell. Box 146, Cape Town. 334,334. January 1898. 

1030 Everingham, Edward. Pittsworth, Queensland. 2588, P.M., 1315. June 1894. 

1031 Eversley, William Pinder. 13 Upper King Street, Norwich. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J. June 1893. 

1032 Ewbank, Rev. Thomas Cranmer. Sedgbrook, Grantham. Pr.G.Chap., 1094. January 1901. 

1033 Ewen, Alfred. Hardingstone, Northampton. March 1898. 

1034 Ewing, Alexander. Casileton, Georgetown, Queensland. 2366. October 1894. 

1035 Ewing, William Henry. Templin, Boonah, Queensland. 80S (S.C), P.M. May 1897. 

1036 Ezard, Edward Henry, M.D , D.Sc, F.R.Hist.S. 220 Lewisham High Road, S.E., London. 2140 

P.M., 25, P.Z. January 1891. 

1037 Ezard, Herbert B. 18 Manor Place, Edinburgh. 2, 56, P.Z. May 1899. 


1038 Fairbank, Robert Stephens. 13 Porchester Terrace, Hyde Park, W., London. 2000, P.M. 2000, Sc.N. 

June 1900. 

1039 Falconer, William. 67 Hope Street, Glasgow. Grand Inner Guard- June 1890. 

1040 Farrar, Jacob Rushton. 120 Calabria Road, Highbury, N., London. 1339. May 1896. 

1041 Farrow, Frederick Richard, F.R.I.B. A. 7 New Court, Carey Street, W.C., London. 1196, P.M., 

1196, P.Z. March 1897. 

1042 *Fa\A/Cett, John E. Low Royd, Apperley Bridge, near Bradford. 974, P.M. November 1900. 

1043 Fearnley, James Banks. 12 Springwood Avenue, Huddersfield. 2321, P.M. January 1899. 

1044 Feild, Ebenezer George. Percy Villa, St. John's, Redhill, Surrey. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.So. 

June 1898. 

1045 Fendelow, Charles. Carisbroolce, Riches Road, Wolverhampton. Past Grand Standard 

Bearer and Past Grand Deputy Director of Ceremonies (R. A.) Nov. 1887. 

1046 Fennell, George H. 50b Romford Road, Stratford, E., London. 1805, P.M. October 1899. 

1047 Fenwick, R. William Edward Street, Birmingham. 1016. May 1901. 

1048 Ferguson, James Finlay. Durban, Natal. 731, P.M. May 1897. 

1049 Ferguson, John. The Neuk, Bowdon, Cheshire. P.Pr.G.St., P.Pr.G.A.Sc.E. November 1898. 

1050 Fern, Edmund Watkins. 55 Apollo Street, Fort, Bombay. 338 (S.C.), 71 (S.C.), Z. June 1900. 

1051 Ferry, C. E. Beverleys, Thornbury Road, Spring Grove, Isleiuorth. 65, P.M., P.Z. February 1887. 

1052 Fick, William Charles. 4 Raeland Street, Capetown. De Goede Hoop Lodge. May 1899. 

1053 Fillingham, Rev. Robert Charles. Hexton Vicarage, Ampthill, Bedfordshire. 393,393. June 1890. 

1054 Fi It, Thomas. Box 203, Salisbury, Rhodesia. 2479. October 1901. 

1055 Finch, Charles William. Umtali, Rhodesia. 2G78, 201. October 1901. 

1056 Finch, Fred. Dalby , Queensland. (i55 (S.C.), P.M., 206, P.Z. June 1895. 

1057 Finlay, Capt. Alexander Russel. Bedford Regiment, Barracks, Lichfield. 1960, 7960. May 1896. 

1058 *Finnemore, Robert Isaac, the Hon. Mr. Justice. Pietermaritzburg , Natal. Past District 

Grand Master and Past Grand Superintendent, Natal. January 1889. 

1059 Finney, Maurice E. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 21, 21. May 1897. 

1060 Firebrace, Cordell William. Stratton House, Cirencester. 2. March 1896. 

1061 Firminger, Rev. Walter Kelly. Bishop's Palace, Chowringhee, Calcutta. 229. March 1900. 

1062 Firth, Oliver. Baildon, Shipley, Torks. 1545. May 1891. 

1063 Fischer, Geheim-Regierungs-Rath Robert. Editor of " Latoinia." Gera, Germany. L. Archimedes 

z.d.e.B., W.M. October 1894. 

1064 Fisher, A. 55 Victoria Road, South Souihsea. 342, 342. January 1901. 

1065 Fisher, Rev. Canon Frank Hawkins, D.D. Pretoria, V.R.C. D.G. Chaplain. June 1895. 

1066 FitzGibbon, Gerald, jun., B.A., B.L. Smith's Buildings, Upper Ely Place, Dublin. January 1895. 

1067 Fitz Herbert, Arthur Hugh Francis. 6 Gatcombe Road, Tufnell Park, N., London. 1461, 2425. 

March 1899. 

1068 Fletcher, Elliott G. Riversdale, Southend-on-Sea, Essex. 1000, P.M. May 1900. 

1069 Fletcher, Henry. 47 Charles Street, Providence, R.I., U.S.A. 21, 1. May 1893. 

1070 Fletcher, James. Point Durban, Natal. Dis.G.A.Sec, Natal. October 1888. 

1071 Fletcher John William. 99 Newgate Street, Bishop Auckland, Durham. 1 121. October 1898. 

1072 Flick, R. W. 12 Stanley Villas, Pembury Road, Tottenham. P.Pr.G.D., Suffolk. March 1899. 

1073 Flintoff, J. Rokeby Road, Subeaco, Perth, West Australia. 860 (S.C.) November 1898. 

1074 Fogg, James. Hughenden, North Queensland. 2167, P.M., D.G. S. October 1900. 

1075 Foley, Thomson. Westwood Road, Beverley, Forks. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.Soj. June 1899. 

1076 Fooks, William, LL.B. 2 Brick Court, Temple, E.C., London. 2033. October 1891. 

1077 Footer, Thomas. Cumberland, Maryland, U.S.A. Past Junior Grand Warden. Oct. 1895. 

1078 Foppoli, L. Holford Villa, Holford Square, W.C., London. 2687. January 1899. 

1079 Forbes, Henry. Port Elizabeth, Cape. 711, P.M. May 1895. 

1080 Forbes, Samuel Russell, Ph.D. 76 Via della Croce, Rome. Lodge Univ r rso. November 1887. 

1081 Forbes, liev. William. Buona Vista, Wynberg, Cape Town. 398 (S.C.) 86. January 1898. 

1082 Ford J- H. 39 Great George Street, Leeds. 1221. January 1894. 

1083 Fordham, C. H. C'aloner Street, Guisborough, Torks. 561, P.M. June 1901. 

1084 Fornaes, 0. Throndhjem, Norway. 4. January 1899. 

1085 Forrester, William. Powell House, Staplehurst, Kent. 2660,599. October 1901. 

1086 Fortescue, George West. Termain, Keswick Road, Putney, S.W., London. 2437, P.M., 946 

November 1898. 

1087 Fortmeyer, George William. East Orange, New Jersey, U.S.A. Past Grand Master. 

March 1895. 


1088 Foster, Charles Ross. Armaside, Hampton Hill, Middlesex. Pr.G.D., Sussex. May 1900. 

1089 Foster, Frank Oswald. Rockhamptim, Queensland. P.Dis.G.D. Local Secretary for Rockhampton. 

June 1899. 

1090 Foster, John Belcher. 4 Nelson Road, Hastings, Sussex. P.Pr.G.Pt. March 1892. 

1091 Foster, Thomas. 40 George Street, Richmond, Surrey. 1656. June 1900. 

1092 Foster, Walter A. Glyn Menai, Bangor, North Wales. P.Pr.Gr.St.B., P.Pr.G.S.B. (R.A.) May 1894. 

1093 Foster, Wilbur Fist. Nashville. Tennessee, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, Past Grand High 

Priest, Tennessee. March 1892. 

1094 Fowler, Thomas Benjamin Davis. 441 Calle Piedad, Buenos Ayres. P.D.G.St.B. October 1890. 

1095 Fox, Charles. 21 Stratfoid Road, Kensington, W., London. 96, P.M., 2000. March 1901. 

1096 FOX, Clement Lyman. State School, Bulimba, Brisbane, Queensland. 2419, P.M., 908, P. Z. Mar. 1893. 

1097 Fox, Edwin. 99 Gresham Street, E.C., London. Past Grand Steward. June 1899. 

1098 FOX, Thomas E. Willow City, North Dakota, U.S.A. 47, P.M. October 1899. 

1099 FOX, Walter Caughey. Park Villa, Grange Crescent, Sheffield. P.P. A. D. of 0. 7260, P.Z. May 1891. 

1100 Fox-Thomas, Rev. Egbert. Hill Top Hall, Bramley, Leeds. P.P.G.C., P.P.G.A.So., North and 

East Yorks. March 1896. 

1101 Fox-Warner, Richard. Minto Villa, Staines. P.P.G.D., Middlesex, P.G.Sw.B., Staffordshire. 

January 1901. 

1102 Francis, Charles King. 425 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 610, P.M. February 1887. 

1103 Francis, Robert C. Pretoria, V.R.C. 1665. March 1894. 

1104 Francis, Thomas. Havant, Hants. P.Pr.G.D., Sussex. May 1887. 

1105 Francis, Wesley. Pietermaritzourg , Natal. District Grand Master and Grand Superin- 

tendent, Natal. March 1889. 

1106 Fraser, Rev. W. Henry, D.D. Constitutional Club, S.W., London. January 1899. 

1107 Freeman, Vincent Paine. 2o Queen's Road, Brighton. Pr.G.S. Past Grand Deacon. Oct. 1894. 

1108 Freer, Richard, M.D. Church Street, Rugeley, St affords. 1941, P.M. March 1899. 

1109 French, Frank Togill. Witney, Oxon. 1703. May 1899. 

1110 French, John Richard. Thirsk, Yorks. 1416, P.M. March 1900. 

1111 Friedman, Monroe J. 4559 Lake Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 311,69. November 1899. 

1112 Fripp, John Trade, L.D.S., R.C.S. Station Road, Willesden Junction, N.W., London. 2098. 

June 1899. 

1113 Frost, Fred Cornish, F.S.I. 5 Regent Street, Teignmouth, Devon. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.Treas. 

(R.A.), Devon. June 1891. 

1114 Fruen, Charles. 120 Victoria Street, S.W., London. P-P.G.D., P.P.A. So., Middlesex. Jan. 1891. 

1115 Fry, George Charles Lovell. 9 Fenchurch Street, E.C-, London. 2427. March 1896. 

1116 Fryberger, Dr. Ludwig. 41 Regents Park Road, N. W., London. 1397. June 1898. 

1117 Fuerst, H. 61 Ladbroke Grove, Kensington Park, W., London. 238, P.M. October 1897. 

1118 Fulford, Frederick Henry, F.R.Hist.S. 9 West Park, Clifton, Bristol. 68, 68. January 1891. 

1119 Fullbrook, George. 49 Queen Victoria Street, E C, London. 1471. March 1898. 

1120 Fuller, Rev. A. S., D.D. Leeson Park, Dublin. Representative of Grand Lodge 

Hamburg. May 1899. 

1121 Furby, William Stafford, MJ.E.E. Wellington, New Zealand. 1338, P.M. November 1893. 

1122 Furman, Henry M. Ardmore, Indian Territory, U.S.A. Grand Master. March 1899. 

1123 Furze, John Joseph. Box 260, Johannesburg' V.R.C. 799 (S.C.). 245 (S.C.), J. March 1895. 

1124 Gale, Frederick William, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Cheriton, Templecombe, Somersetshire. Past 

Assistant Grand Organist. June 1897. 

1125 Gamble, George Cliffe. Parkinson's Chambers, Bradford. 600, P.M. January 1893. 

1126 Gammon, Victor Emmanuel. 94 Lamb's Conduit Street, W.C., London. 177. March 1898. 

1127 Gane, William James. Sandhill House, Pembury, Tunbridge Wells. 2200. March 1899. 

1128 Gankrodger, David William. Terrick Terrick Station, Blacka.ll, Queensland. 2207. May 1901. 

1129 Garbutt, Matthew, A.M.I.C.E., A.R.I.B.A. 40 Great James Street, Bedford Roiv, W.C., London 

2416. January 1898. 

1130 Garden, John. National Bank, Winburg, 0. B.C. Unity Lodge (D.C.) P.M. October 1893. 

1131 Gardiner, Bruce Herbert John, M.D. Gloucester House, Barry Road, East Dulwich, S.E London 

1261. March 1895. 

1132 Gardiner, Thomas Asko. Longlands, Vaal River, South Africa. 1417. Jan aary 1889. 

1133 Gardner, Frederick Leigh, 14 Marlborough Road, Gunnersbury, W., London. 1017. March 1895. 


1134 Gardner, James Card well. The Firs, Amersham, Bucks. March 1901. 

1135 Gardner, Joseph Goodes. North Street, Graaf Reinet, Cape Colony. 862. January 1901. 

1136 Garland, Rev. Canon David John. Church Office, Perth, Western Australia. 485. October 1894. 

1137 Garner, Frederick. Brisbane, Queensland. 455 (S.C.), P.M. June 1892. 

1138 Garraway, Capt. Charles William. Karrachee, Sind, India. P.Dis.G.A.D.C January 1897. 

1139 Gathercole, William Henry Joseph. 141 Rendlesham Road, N.E., London. 2664. Nov. 1898. 

1140 Gauntlett, Edwin. Laving ton Lodge, Coplestone Road, Beckham, S.E., London. 1901, P.M., P.Z 

March 1898. 

1141 Gaveston, Joseph John. Baxton Street, Toumsville, Queensland. P.Dis.G.D. May 1897. 

1142 Gaydon, Thomas. Childers, Queensland. 2573, P.M. October 1898. 

1143 Gaye, W. H. E. Barberton, V.R.C. Jubilee Lodge (D.C.) January 1898. 

1144 Gedge, Alfred Sydney. Endsleigh, Holwood Road, Bromley, Kent. 1692. January 1901. 

1145 Gensan, A. von. P.O.B. 25, Heidelberg, V.R.C. 2345, P.M. June 1897. 

1146 George, George Stewart. Brisbane Street, Launceston, Tasmania. 2. June 1898. 

1147 George, Henry, B.A. Harcovrt Street, Neiuark-on-Trent. P.P.G.W, P.P.G.J., Notts. Jan. 1900. 

1148 Gerrard, John Henry. BarMy West, South Africa. 1417, P.M. October 1894. 

1149 Gerstenkorn, Karl Andreas. Esk Street, Invercargill, Southland, New Zealand. P.G.St.B., 3, P.Z. 

May 1901. 

1150 Gervis, Frederick Heudebourck. 1 Fellows Road, Hampstead,N.W., London. 2408,P.M. June 1895. 

1151 Gervis, Dr. Henry. 74 Dyke Road, Brighton. 409, P.M., 271. March 1897. 

1152 Ghislain, Louis. 16 Rue du Mont de Pidtd, Mons, Belgium. Lodge Parfaite Union. October 1895. 

1153 Ghosh, Dr. Rakhaldas. 109 College Street, Calcutta. Grand Senior Warden. P.G.So., A.S.F.I. 

October 1900. 

1154 GibbS, Clement Stanley. 256 Willesden Lane, N.W., London. 2489, 2489. March 1898. 

1155 Gibbs, Capt. James Alec Charles. Bangalore, Madras. P. D.G.Pt., Barbados. January 1898. 

1156 Gibbs, Charles Alfred. Gloucester Lodge, Laurie Bark Road, Sydenham, S.E., London. 1397, 1397. 

May 1900. 

1157 Gibson-Sugars, John Sugars. H.M.S. Bioneer, Mediterranean. P.D.G.St.B., P.D.G.S.B. (R.A.), 

Malta. Local Secretary H.M. Navy. March 1889. 

1158 Gieve, John William. High Street, Bortsmouth. Pr.G.Treas., Pr.G.Sc.N., Hants. January 1889. 

1159 Gilbert, Alfred George Fisher. 5 Lothbury, E.C., London. 1521. January 1900. 

1160 Gilbert, Arthur. 4 Walbrook, E.C., London. 15. January 1900. 

1161 Gilbert, H. P. 22 Lime Grove, Shepherd's Bush, N.W., London. 1828, P.M. June 1898. 

1162 Gilbert, John. Grove Park, Liskeard, Cornwall. 510. October 1897. 

1193 Gilks, William S. 15 Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C., London. 2201, P.M. November 1894. 

1164 Gill, Henry Frederick. P.O.B. 242, Bloemfontein, OR.C. 1022, P.M., 241 (S.C), P.Z. Jan. 1894. 

1165 Gillespie, Rev. Canon Henry John, D.D. Finnoe Rectory, Borris-0' Kane, Tipperary. P.G.Chap., 

Midland Counties. May 1900. 

1166 Gillies, David. Hong Kong. P.Dis.G.D., Hong Kong and South China. October 1888. 

1167 Giraud, Francis Frederick. Faver sham, Kent. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J. May 1891. 

1168 Gladding, W. 238 Romford Road, Forest Gate, E , London. 2632. March 1897. 

1169 G I aeser, Edward Nicholas. Cairngorm, Vllathorn Road, Streatham, S.W., London. 1627. May 1893. 

1170 Glaeser, F. A. Hurstcomb, Buckhurst Hill, Mseas. 238, P.M. May 1897. 

1171 Glaister, George J. 69 Hyde Road, Ardwick, Manchester. 424,48. May 1897. 

1172 Glaser, C. Hanan House, 160 Haver stock Hill, N.W., London. 1446. June 1900. 

1173 Glass, John. 4 Lordship Park, Green Lanes, N., London. I'.Pr.G.S. of W., Essex. May 1890. 

1174 Glover, Charles Richmond John. 165 Gilles Street, Adelaide, South Australia. Jun, Grand 

Deacon, 4, J. June 1901. 

1175 Goblet D'Alviella, Le Comte, Membre de l'Academie Royale. Court St. Etienne, Brabant, 

Belgium. Past Grand Master, Belgium. February 1890. 

1176 Godding, Clarence Miles, M.D. 312 Benefit Street, Providence, R.I., U.S.A. 33, P.M. May 1893. 

1177 Godding, J. W. S. 7 Wyndha7n Square, Plymouth. P.P.G.St.B., Oxon. March 1890. 

1178 Godfray, Arthur Walter. 67 St. John's Road, Jersey. Pr.G.D.C. March 1897- 

1179 Godfree, John. Ficksburg, Orange River Colony. Unity Lodge (D.C), P.M. March 1895. 

1180 Goffage, John. Toowoomba, Queensland. 1315, 194 (S.C.) May 1891. 

1181 Gohl, Jacob Coenraad. Cape of Good Hope Savings Bank Co., Cape Town. De Goede Hoop Lodge. 

January 1901. 

1182 Goldberg, Albert Nathan Simon. Box 248, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2478, 225 (S.C), P.Z. 

March 1895. 


1183 Goldenberg, Maurice. Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Cairo. Past Grand Warden, Egypt. 

May 1897. 

1184 Goldstein, Oscar. 4 Whitehall Court, S.W., London. 2108. June 1897. 

1185 Goode, Henry. Street, Rockhampton, Queensland. 677 (S.C.), P.M. June 1899. 

1186 Goodinge, James W. 10 Gower Street, W.C., London. 1818, P.M., 1269. June 1899. 

1187 Goodfellow, George Ben. Woodley, nr. Stockport. 1030, P.M. March 1900. 

1188 Goodman, G. H. Maiwand,, Gosport. 1705. March 1898. 

1189 Goodrich, Edward Conyers, M.D. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 166, 2, P.H.P. March 1898. 

1190 Goodrich, Thomas Henry. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 166. October 1898. 

1191 Goold, George Hawkins. Picton House, Gloucester. 483, 493. November 1890. 

1192 Goolden, Richard Edward. Horton Grange, Maidenhead, Berks. P.Pr.G.W. October 1898. 

1193 Gordon, George. Freemantle, West Australia. Past Grand Registrar, South Australia. 

May 1888. 

1194 Gordon, Gerald. Charters Towers, Queensland. 2613, 1546. October 1900. 

1195 Gorgas, William Luther. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. D.D.G.M. May 1896. 

1196 Gotthold, Professor Dr. Christian Christoph Karl. Editor of Bauhutte, Frankfort-on-Main, 

Germany. W.M. Lodge Einigkeit. January 1896. 

1197 Gottlieb, George Spencer Harris. Penang. P.Dis.G.Sup.W., Eastern Archipelago. Local 

Secretary for Penang. January 1889. 

1198 Gould, Joseph. 4 Bouverie Place, Exeter. 39, P.M. March 1899. 

1199 Gowan, Robert A. National Liberal Club, S.W., London. 2029, P.Pr.G.St.B., Surrey. May 1888. 

1200 Graddage, Stephen Albert. The Wellington, Archway Road, Highgate, N., London. 1708, P.M., 

7385. May 1896. 

1201 Graff, Hans. 11 Park Hill, Moseley, Worcestershire. 938, P.M., 938, P.Z. May 1897. 

1202 Graham, Alexander. 2 Quarry Place, Shreivsbury. P.Pr.G.A.Pt., Salop. May 1896. 

1203 Graham, Henry. Holmwood, Langholm, N.B. 107, P.M. January 1897. 
1201 Granger, Thomas. Braemar, Beech Road, Stockport. 323. June 1901. 

1205 Granja, Dr. Edward de la. 265 Shawmut Avenue, Boston, U.S.A. Gate of the Temple Lodge. 

October 1888. 

1206 Grant, Alexander. 541 Calle Stuzaingo, Buenos Aires. 617, P.M., 617. June 1901. 

1207 Grant, Captain Donald. The Chantry, near Frome, Somersetshire. 2328. May 1890. 

1208 Grant, Donald John. 4 High Street, Shrewsbury. 117. January 1897. 

1209 Grant, George, M.D. Woodthorpe, Padiham, East Lancashire. P.Pr.G.D. March 1892. 

1210 Grant, John Miller, jun. 136 Sutherland Avenue, W., London. 176, P.M. March 1900. 

1211 Grase, Jan Carl Gysbert. 32 Alex Boerstraat, Amsterdam. Nos Vinxit Libertas, Master. 

January 1901. 

1212 Gratton, Frederick Montague, F.R.I.B.A., M.S.A. 16 The Bund, Shanghai. P.D.G.W. June 1894. 

1213 Gray, Percy. 22 Bride Lane, Fleet Street, E.C., London. 1597, W.M. March 1898. 

1214 Gray, Joseph. Masonic Club, Singapore. P.D.G.D., Eastern Archipelago. 508, H. 

March 1901. 

1215 * Gray, Thomas Lowe. 349 Reconquista, Buenos Aires. 1025,617. October 1899. 

1216 Greatbatch, D. W. Eimberley, South Africa. D.G.Sup.W., C.S.Africa. May 1892. 

1217 Greatorex, John Thomas. Ormes Road, Kilpauk, Madras. Past Assistant Grand Director 

of Ceremonies, Past Grand Sword Bearer (R.A.) October 1893. 

1218 Greaves, W. C. 6 Dyers Buildings, Holborn, E.C., London. 22, P.M. January 1901. 

1219 Green, Edward Thaddeus. Georgetown, Queensland. 2366, P.M. October 1894. 

1220 Green, Robert Sheddon St. John. Jagersfontein, O.R.C. Lodge Star of Africa (D.C.) May 1893 

1221 Greene, Thomas, LL.D., J. P. Millbrook, Magenny, Co. Kildare. 116, 116. January 1899. 

1222 Greene, William Sturdy. 19 Lillian Avenue, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 4. June 1901. 

1223 Greenefield, Joseph C. Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. P.M. June 1898. 

1224 Greenelsh, Joseph. Winton, Queensland. 2365, P.M. Local Secretary for Winton. Jan. 1896. 

1225 Greening, Robert. 49 Fenchurch Street, E.C., London. 1426. November 1900. 

1226 Greenland, Oliver. 10 Great St. Helen's, E.C., London. 1227. January 1898. 

1227 Green leaf, Lawrence N. Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. March 1899. 

1228 Greenstreet, William John. Marling School, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 702, 702. January 1897. 

1229 Greenwood, Charles. 26 Akeds Road, Halifax, Yorks. 448. Local Secretary for Halifax. 

November 1888. 

1230 Greenwood, Rev. Francis Jones. 1 Brewster Gardens, St. Quintin Park, North Kensington, S.W., 

London. 2593. January 1898. 


1231 Greenwood, Thomas. Alderbury Farmhouse, Salisbury. P.Pr.G. St., P. Pr.G.Sc.N., Oxfordshire. 

March 1888. 

1232 Greever, Charles 0. 1345 East Ninth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A. 110, P.M., 14, P.H.P. 

March 1899. 

1233 Gregory, George. 25 Barnsbury Parle, N., London. P.Pr.G D., P.Pr.G.T. (R.A.) M'sex. Oct.1889. 

1234 Gregory, George Ernest. 100 Haverstoch Hill, N.W., London. 1539. January 1900. 

1235 Gregory, Harry. 116 Union Street, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 37. May 1892. 

1236 Greiner, Ernest. 10 & 12 Milton Street, E.C, London. 92, P.M. November 1894. 

1237 Grey, Arthur. Lahore, Punjab. P.D.G.W. October 1898. 

1238 Gribble, James Dunning Baker. Hyderabad, India. D.G.S.B., Madras. October 1893. 

1239 Griffith, Right Hon. His Excellency Sir Samuel Walker, G.C.M.C. Chief Justice. Merthyr, 

Brisbane, Queensland. Past Provincial Grand Master (I.e.) Queensland. 

March 1894. 

1240 Griffiths, Arthur. Box 3928, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2481. May 1898. 

1241 Griffiths, C. J. W. Blenheim, New Zealand. Deputy Grand Master. March 1899. 

1242 Griffiths, Harold. Daisy Bank, Court Road, Sutton, Surrey. 1347, P.M. May 1898. 

1243 Grigg, William Henry. 2 Aclcfold Road, South Fulham, S.W., London. 2664. January 1898. 

1244 Gripper, Walter, M.D. The Poplars, Wallington, Surrey. Past Deputy Grand Director 

of Ceremonies, Past Grand Sword Bearer. November 1894. 

1245 Grisdale, J. 100 Wood Street, E.C., London. 1708. November 1895. 

1246 Grisenthwaite, R. T. 143 Streatham High Road, S.W., London. 857, P.M. January 1900. 

1247 Grisewood, Rev. Arthur G. Daylesford Rectory , Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. 1036. May 1893. 

1248 Grosvenor, Wilshaw W., M.D. 18 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 829. October 1900. 

1249 Guenzel, Ludwig. 1 Herbert Road, Stockwell, S. W., London. 2021, P.M. January 1898. 

1250 Gundelflnger, Isaac. 26 Ab^rdare Gardens, West Hampstead, N.W., London. Lodge Star of the 

Rand. P.M. October 1892. 

1251 Gunnell, Louis J. 440 Commercial Road, Portsmouth. 342. October 1899. 

1252 Gunson, Rev. Herbert E, M. A. Middlesex Hospital, W., London. 2843. October 1901. 

1253 *Gunther, Gustav Carl Hermann. 28 Cleveland Road, Brighton. 1198,1198. March 1896. 

1254 Gurney, Arnold. 36 Anerley Park, S.E., London. 1139. January 1898. 

1255 Gurney, E. W. 10 Stanger Road, South Norwood, S.E., London. 1139. January 1898. 

1256 Guthrie, Adam White. Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Dis.G.Sup.W, East Div., S.A. June 1887. 

1257 Guthrie, James. 13 Bourtree Place, Hawick, NB. 424. March 1894. 

1258 Haarbu rger, Ivan H. Bloemfontein, O.R.C. Past Assistant Grand Director of 

Ceremonies. October 1895. 

1259 *Haarhoff, Daniel Johannes. Kimberley, South Africa. Past Assistant Grand Director 

of Ceremonies. D.D.G.M.,C.S. Africa January 1889. 

1260 Hackett, Hon. John Winthrap, M.A. St. George's Terrace, Perth, West Australia. Grand 

Master. October 1901. 

1261 Haes, Daivd. 28 Bassett R 'ad, North Kensington, S.W., London. 105G. June 1898. 

1262 Hagborg, Gustav. 2 St. Albans Villas, Highgate Read, N.W., London. 2562. March 1898. 

1263 Hale, Albert H. 3 York Street, Broadstairs, Kent. P.Pr.G.A.D.C. November 1892. 

1264 Hale, Major Charles Henry, D.S.O. A.M.S. South Camp, Aldershot. 1971. January 1898. 

1265 Hall, Albert Edward. Norbury, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. 1779. May 1898. 

1266 Hall, Charles Robert. Singapore, Harcourt Road, Wallington, Surrey. 1815,7507. June 1899. 

1267 Hall, Edward. 4 Glenton Road, Lee, S.E., London. 1793, P.M. March 1899. 

1268 Hall, Ernest James. 267 Borough High Street, S.E., London. 1346. November 18t8. 

1269 Hal!, Co). Geoffrey Craythorne, I.M.S. Lucknow, India. P.D.A.G.D.C., P. D.G.So., Bengal. Oct.1898. 

1270 Hall, George W. 1131 Arch Street, Philadelphia. 121, P.M., 183. May 1891. 

1271 Hall, Henry Foljambe, F.R.HistS. 17 Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield. 296. June 1900. 

1272 Hall, James J. 17 Empress Avenue, Ilford, Essex. 1278, P.M. November 1892. 

1273 Hallett, Frederick Charles. 23 Brunswick Street, Teignmouth, Devon. P.Pr.G.D.,P.Pr.G.S.B.(B.A.) 

March 1890. 

1274 Hal I i well, Frederick William. North Eastern Hotel, Scarborough. 1611. January 1888. 

1275 Hallows, Frederick. 41 Noble Street, E.C., London. 861, P.M., 141, P.Z. January 1896. 

1276 Ham el, Fergus Edward. 73 Hillfield Avenue, Hornsey, N., Lojidon, 2408. June 1897. 


1277 Hamilton, George M. E. 43 St. Mary Axe, E.G., London. 144G, P.M., P.Z. October 1900. 

1278 Hamm, Johannes M. 57 Lordship Park, Stoke Newington, N., London. 238, P.M. March 1891. 

1279 Hammer, Edwin Howard. 11(5 William Street, New York. 771,160. May 1898. 

1280 Hammerich, Soplius Johannes August. Durban, Natal. 1747 (E.C.), 775 (S.C.) J. June 1896. 

1281 Hammersley, Edward J. Hartley, North Staffordshire. 418. June 1900. 

1282 Hammett, B. W. 184 Barking Road, E , London. 860. March 1899. 

1283 Hammond, William. Bolingbroke Lodge, Wandsworth Common, S.W., London. 209. Oct. 1899. 

1284 Hammond, Dr. William. Stuart House. Liskeard, Cornwall. P.P.G.W., P.Pr.G.So. March 1888. 

1285 Hamsher, William. Gulistan, Lawrie Fark Road, Sydenham, S.E., London. 1139, P.M. Jan. 1898. 

1286 Ham-Smith, W. J. 241 Selhurst Road, South Norwood, S.E., London. 2096. May 1899. 

1287 Hancock, Prank Eider. 536 Calle Cangallo, Buenos Ayres. Dis.G.Treas., D.G.W. May 1890. 

1288 Hancock, F. W. 33 Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath, S.E., London. 548, P.M. March 1898. 

1289 Hancock, Walter, M.I.E.E. 10 Upper Chadwell Street, E.C., London. 2191, P.M., P.Z. May 1898. 

1290 Hands, Joshua. 57 Portsdown Road, Maida Vale, W., London. 188. May 1899. 

1291 H an ify, Gerald Page. Box 256, Brisbane, Queensland. 339 (I. C), P.M. 127 (S-C), P.Z. Local 

Secretary for South Brisbane. May 1895. 

1292 Hankin, Herbert Ingle. The Firs, St. Ives, Hunts. Pr.G.W. January 1900. 

1293 Hanks, Walter Samuel. 14 Davenport Road, Catford, S.E., London. 2466. March 1893. 

1294 Hann, Lewis. Lindisfarne, Cheltenham. 82, P.M. June 1900. 

1295 Hansen, Johan Henrik. Oxbol Mejeri pr. Varde, Denmark. June 1901. 

1296 Hanson, John Currie. 5 Hong Kong Road, Shanghai. 570, 570. Local Secretary for Shangai. 

March 1898. 

1297 Harben, Henry Andrade. 107 Westbourne Terrace, W., London. 2408. May 1899. 

1298 Hard ie, Peter Curtis. Charters Towers, Queensland. 2365. January 1896. 

1299 Hardiman, John Percy. Pegu Club, Rangoon, Burma. 542. May 1901. 

1300 Harding, Ernest James. Toowoomba, Queensland. 775 (S.C.), 194 (S.C.) January 1897. 

1301 Harding, James Cooper, M.I.Mech.E. Fcrnville Terrace, West Hartlepool. 2462, P.M., 764. Nov. 1898. 

1302 Hardy, Andrew Allen. 7 St. John's Terrace, Southall, Middlesex. 2163, P.M., 1549. May 1899. 

1303 Hardy, Charles Albert Creery. Rakaia, Canterbury, New Zealand. Deputy Grand Master. 

June 1900. 

1301 Hardyment, Archibald Frost. 112 & 1U High Road, Kilburn, N. W., London. 2698, P.M. Jan. 1901. 

1305 Hare, Sholto Henry, F.R.Hist.S., etc. 7 Litfield Place, Clifton, Bristol. P.Pr.G.D., Cornwall. 

January 1892. 

1306 Harf eld, Louis. 83 Priory Road, N. W., London. 2705. November 1900. 

1307 Harmer, W. S. 3 Tower Street, Cirencester. 592. October 1900. 

1308 Harrer, Dr. C. 34 City Road, E.G., London. 238, P.M. January 1898. 

1309 Harries, Frederick James. Editor of the " Craftsman." 283 Cowbridge Road, Cardiff. May 1894. 

1310 Harris, Arthur William. 102 St. John's Road, Waterloo, Liverpool. 1380. November 1893. 

1311 Harris, Edward Bernard. 1, Holy Innocents Road, Hornsey, N., London. 2580. June 1900. 

1312 Harris, Ernest Edmund. Box 340 Durban, Natal. 1W7, 1937. October 1899. 

1313 Harris, Ernest Wormser. 124 Lower Baggot Street, Dublin. 158, P.M., P.K. October 1899. 

1314 Harris, Henry. 2 Bancroft Road, E., London. 1349. March 1894. 

1315 Harris, Herbert. 47 High Street, Bangor, Maine, U.S.A. Past Grand Warden, Maine. 

March 1894. 

1316 Harris, Leonard Woosmer. Stock Exchange, E.G., London. 2488, P.M. March 1900. 

1317 Harris, Richard. Aliwal North, Cape Colony. P.Dis G. Stew., E.Div., South Africa. May 1891. 

1318 Harris, William Henry. Pietermaritzburg, Natal. P.D.G.D., P.Z. June 1891. 

1319 Harris, Walter*. 300 Banbury Road, Oxford. 1515, P.M. November 1894. 

1320 Harrison, Frank Drake. 15 Springfield Place, Bradford. 600. October 1888. 

1321 Harrison, Percy, I.C. S. Bahraich, Oudh, India. P. Dis.G.R., Bengal. March 1897. 

1322 Harry, William Moodie. Box 176, Cape Town. 2379, 2379. October 1896. 

1323 Hart, Arthur. Crewkerne. P.Pr.G.St., P.G.Sup.W., Somersetshire. May 1889. 

1324 Hart, Charles Sumner. Concord Junction, Massachusetts- Coriuthian Lodge, P.M. Walden 

Chapter. Local Secretary for Massachusetts. May 1898. 

1325 Hart, George. Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 863, P.M. June 1898. 

1326 Harte, Albert Edward. Brisbane, Queensland. P.D.G.D., P.D.G.St.B. (R.A.) January 1894. 

1327 Hartnell, William. Box 59, Perth, West Australia. 860 (S.C.) November 1898. 

1328 Harty, John. P.O. No. 11, East London Division, Cape Colony. D.G.W., E. Div. August 1892. 


1329 Harvest, Major William Sidney Smith, R.M. H.M.S. " Warspite," Pacific Squadron. 2721, P.M. 

7269. January 1901. 

1330 Harvey, J. M. Palace Green, Ely. P.Pr.G.W. Suffolk. October 1899. 

1331 Hascall, Lee Clafin. 36 Bromfield Street, Boston, Massachusetts. Mt. Hermon Lodge. Jan. 1891. 

1332 Haslam, Professor Francis William Chapman. Canterbury College, University, Christchurch, New 

Zealand. P.Dis.G.W. January 1897. 

1333 Hastings, David Whyte. Townsville, Queensland. 819 (S.U.) March 1896. 

1334 Hatherly, William Firmer Hong Kong. 1311. October 1888. 

1335 Hatton, Arthur Vincent. Colebridge House, Gloucester. P.Pr.G.W. June 1900. 

1336 Hauguberg, Drengman J. Flandreau, South Dakota, U.S.A. 11,79. March 1901. 

1337 Havell, Charles Graham. Highbury Lodge, Felixstowe. P.P.G.O., Suffolk. November 1895. 

1338 Haward, Edwin, F.R.C.S. 34a Gloucester Place, Portman Square, W., London. 231. October 1889. 

1339 Hawkins, Elyot Sidney. The Lindens, Ferrers Road, Oswestry. 2131. May 1898. 

1340 Hawkins, William Isaac. Bank House, Dunstable, Bedfords. 1046. March 1898. 

1341 *Haworth, Wallace Ellwood, M.B., CM. Umtali, Rhodesia. 2678. June 1899. 

1342 Hawthorn, James George. 41 East India Road, E., London. 871. May 1897. 

1343 Hay, Thomas A. H., M. A. Hay's Court, Easton, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 152, P.M., 173. January 1888. 

1344 Hayd on, William Nicholson. 12 St. George's Road, Abbey Road, N.W., London. 2128. Jan. 1896. 

1345 Haysom, George. 109 Fenchurch Street, E.G., London. 1816. May 1899. 

1346 Hayter, Henry Harvey. 24 Trinity Square, Neivington, S.E., London. 871. March 1900. 

1347 Hazel, H.J. 2 Caversh am Road, Kentish Town, N.W., London. 1693, P.M., P. Z. October 1901. 

1348 Hazzledine, F. A. Church House, Westminster, S.W., London. 2098, P.M., 141. March 1899. 

1349 Headlam, John Emmerson Wharton, Capt. R.H. A. Meerut, India. 1789. October 1897. 

1350 Heanley, Marshall. Little Houghton, Northampton. 2533. March 1899. 

1351 Heap, Herbert Ryder. Cilalgarth, Frongoch, Bala, Merionethshire. P.G.Stew. March 1895. 

1352 Heard, Major Edward Severin. Rossdohan, Tahilla, Kerry, Ireland. P.Pr.G.S.B., Berks. May 1898. 

1353 Heard, Henry Charles. Hailey Hall, Hertford. P.Pr.G.D., Herts. May 1890. 

1354 H earn, James John. 3 Newnham Street, Edgioare Road, W., London. 1538. October 1900. 

1355 Heath, Meyrick William. Mortimer House, Clifton, Bristol. Pr.A.G.Sec, Bristol. May 1893. 

1356 Heath, Rev. William Mortimer. Lytchett Matravers, Poole, Dorset. Past Grand Chaplain. 

November 1887. 

1357 Heber-Percy, Algernon. Hodnet Hall, Market Drayton, Shropshire. 262. November 1895. 

1358 Hehner, Otto. 11 Billiter Square, E.C., London. 238, P.M. February 1887. 

1359 Heimann, C. A. 6 Wedderburn Road, Hampstead, N.W., London. P.D.G.Tr., Japan. March 1898. 

1360 Heitzman, Charles G. 76 Broderick Road, Wandsworth Common, S.W., London. 2395. Jan. 1898. 

1361 Heller, Adolf. Barberton, V.R.C. 747 (S.C.) May 1895. 

1362 H el I muth, Carl August. Bethlehem, O.R.C. 2522, P.M. March 1899. 

1363 Hellyer, Herbert Rowe. 41 Bridge Road West, Battersea, S.W., London. Dis.G.D.C, Dis.G.Sw-B., 

Malta. March 1898. 

1364 Henderson, John Robson. 34 St. Alban's Terrace, Gateshead. 2520. October 1899. 

1365 Henderson, William, J.P. Klipdam, South Africa. P.D.G.R., C.S.Africa. November 1887. 

1366 Hendry, Major John Burke. 7 Neiv Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C, London. 396 (N.Y.C.), 773 

(N.T.C.; June 1889. 

1367 Henley, Edward W. Barnwood, Gloucester. 839, P.M. October 1900. 

1368 Henley, J. F. 62 Kennington Oval, S.E., London. 2504. January 1897. 

1369 Henning, Albert. 16 Talgarth Road, West Kensington, W., London. 1471. January 1898. 

1370 Henry, George. 3 Treivsbury Road, Sydenham, S.E., London. 1139, P.M., 780. January 1898. 

1371 Henry, Joseph Carruthers. 1895 Iglehart Street, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 190, P.M., 5b, P.H.P. 

January 1899. 

1372 Hensley, Henry Clay. Nashville, Tennesse, U.S.A. Past Grand High Priest. March 1892. 

1373 Herbert, Captain D. Dep. Com., Shillong, Assam. P.D.G.D. Bengal. October 1900. 

1374 Herman, Henry Edward. 92 Bartholomew Close, E.G., London. 2501, P.M. October 1894. 

1375 Hertslet, Gerald Spencer. 22 Linacre Road, Willesden Green, N.W., London. 2722. Oct. 1899. 

1376 Hertslet, Godfrey Edward Procter, F.R.G.S. Brooklyn, Larkfield, Richmond, Surrey. 1503, 1603. 

October 1899. 

1377 Hervey, Rev. G. A. Augustine, M. A. The Vicarage, Southowram, Halifax, Yorks. 1826. June 1893. 

1378 Hesketh, William Thomas. 10 Brook Road, Heaton Chapel, Stockport. 1375,P.M.,P.Z. March 1899. 


1379 Hewer, Henry John, M.D. Blackall, Queensland. 2207. May 189G. 

1380 Hewett, Graham. Cunnamulla, Queensland. 835 (S.C.) October 1901. 

1381 Hewitt, David John. 2 Bonfield Road, Lewisham, S.E., London. 1339. March 1899. 

1382 Hewson, Henry Philip. 44 Harmood Street, Chalk Farm Road, N.W., London. 2427, W.M. 

October 1901. 

1383 Heymann, Samuel Leopold. P.O.B. 77 Johannesburg, V.R.G. 744 (S.C.) October 1892. 

1384 Heyzer, Charles Henry. 407 Sixth Avenue, New York. Representative of G. L. of New 

South Wales. May 1899. 

1385 Hiam, William John. 124 Cazenove Road, Upper Clapton, N.E., London. 1364. June 1898. 

1386 Hicks, Edward. 144 Calle Reconquista, Buenos Ayres. 1025, P.M., 617. October 1898. 

1387 Hicks, Francis Baptist. Kwala Lumpor, Selangor, Straits Settlements. D.G.St. March 1899. 

1388 Hicks, Thomas. Tregamere, St. Columb, Cornwall. P.Pr.G.W., Cornwall. June 1889. 

1389 Hide, George John. Piedad 682, Buenos Ayres. 617. June 1901. 

1390 HiggS, Charles James, cjo Higginbotham fy Co., Mount Road, Madras. Dis.G.Asst.Sec, P.D.G.D.C. 

(R.A.) October 1893. 

1391 Higman, John Wheeler. St. Austell, Cornwall. P.Pr.G.D., Cornwall. May 1888. 

1392 Hildesheim, Paul. 27 Clement's Lane, E.C., London. 34. March 1901. 

1393 Hill, Elliot. Moulmein, Burma. Dis.G.D., Dis.G.A.So. June 1895. 

1394 Hill, George Henry. 20 Abchurch Lane, E.C., London. 183. March 1901. 

1395 Hill, J. Cotesworth. The Moors, Barmvood, Gloucester. P.Pr.G.D. March 1898. 

1396 Hill, John Ernest. 22 Copthall Buildings, E.C., London. 1460, P.M. October 1898. 

1397 Hillman, W. George Hotel, Solihull, Warwickshire. 539, P.M. November 1894. 

1398 Hills, David. St. Brelades, Elm Road, Beckenham, Kent. 185, P.M. May 1899. 

1399 Hills, Gordon P. G., A.R.I. B. A. 4 Adam Street, Adelphi, W.C., London. 2416. May 1897. 

1400 Hinxman, Ernest. 8 Thurloe Place, Winchester, Hants. Pr.Sup. of W. October 1895. 

1401 Hitchcock, John Franklin. 339 Brcadivay, Neiu York. 197, P.M., 760. May 1893. 

1402 Hoare, George. 24 Harvey Road, Hornsey, N., London. 1950. March 1901. 

1403 Hobbs, Hugh Marcus. Lloyds, E.G., London. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J., Surrey. January 1890. 

1404 Hobbs, Thomas H. 59 Grosvenor Road, S.W., London. P.P.A.G.Sec, Bucks. May 1899. 

1405 Hobbs, W. C. Eingswood, Gipsy Lane, Barnes, Surrey. 901. November 1899. 

1406 Hoblyn, Edward Robert. 97 Union Street, Plymouth. 39,247. May 1899. 

1407 Hocken, Joshua. 31 Oldhall Street, Liverpool. P.Pr.G.D.D.C, P.Pr.A.G.So. June 1896. 

1408 Hodge, A. P. D. Barberton, V.R.C. 747 (S.C.) October 1896. 

1409 Hodge, William John. 786 Rivadavia, Buenos Aires. District Grand Warden. 2329. 

June 1901. 

1410 Hodgkinson, John Newton. 3 Ripon Place, Whitehall Street, Aylesbury. 2420, 750/. May 1900. 

1411 Hodgkinson, Rev. William Eccles. 286 Calle 25 de Mayo, Buenos Ayres. January 1897. 

1412 Hodgson, Charles Wilbert. 65 Jesmond Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 659, P.M. May 1901. 

1413 Hodgson, Richard. Clifton House, Halifax, Yorks. 448. March 1888. 

1414 Hodson, James. Mill House, Robertsbridge, Sussex. 1184, P.M. May 1892. 

1415 Hoffman, Gert Joel. P.O.B. 86, Capetown. Lodge Oranje. P.M., 703, P.Z. January 1899. 

1416 Hogg, James C. 2 Clifton Terrace, Forest Hill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 58 (S.C), P.M. January 1894. 

1417 Hokanson, Carl Gustav. 34 Hans Road, Hans Place, S. W., London. 1513. May 1894. 

1418 Holbrook, Jasper Leslie. Anne Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 872 (S.C.) March 1899. 

1419 Holden, James Austin, A.B., A.M. 27 Elm Street, Glens Falls, Neiv York. 456, P.M., 55, P.H.P. 

October 1891. 

1420 Hole, Hugh Marshall. Buluwayo, Rhodesia. 2479. Local Secretary for Matabeleland. Jan. 1898. 

1421 Holland, Henry James. Wellington Street, Perth, West Australia. 829 (S.C.) November 1898. 

1422 Holland, Job. Eclipse Ganister Works, Attercliffe Road, Sheffield. P.P.G.D.D. of C. May 1898. 

1423 Holland, Joseph H. 119 Victoria Road, Seacombe, Cheshire. 1276. October 1901. 

1424 Hollander, Georgo Henry. Winburg Road, O.R.C. Unity Lodge (D.C.), P.M. November 1892. 

1425 *Holliday, Cecil. Box 18, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. 1729, P.M. October 1889. 

1426 Hollingshurst, H. G. C. 127 Fenchurch Street, E.C., London. 1524. June 1900. 

1427 Holloway, John Majendie. Herberlon, Queensland. 1978, P.M., 206 (S.C.) November 1896. 

1428 Hol man, Major Herbert W. L., R.M. Galcston, Eton Avenue, South Hampstead, N.W., London. 

2612. January 1901. 

1429 *Hol me, Henry Edward, District Judge. Pilibhit, N.W.P., India. 391,393. October 1896. 


1430 Holme, Richard Hopper. 6 Chester Street, Newcastle -on-Tyne. 1676,45. Local Secretary for 

Northumberland. October 1890. 

1431 Holmes, Andrew. 71 London Street, Greenwich, S.E., London. 548, P.M., P. Z. March 1895. 

1432 Holmes, John Franklin. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 1,2. May 1899. 

1433 Holmes, John Richard, District Judge Papho. Cyprus. 387. June 1888. 

1434 Holt, Charles. Eyre Street, Townsville, Queensland. 1956, P.M., 207 (S.C.) June 1896. 

1435 Holt, John. Yarm-on-Tees, Durham. P.P.G.D., P.G.H. June 1900. 

1436 Holt, William Henry. 11 Ashville Road, Birkenhead. P.P.G.W. November 1894. 

1437 Holtorp, Oscar James von. 105 Forest Road, Dalston, N.E., London. P.P.G.D., Middlesex. Jan. 1893. 

1438 Hood, Harry John, M.A. 115 St. George's Road, S.W., London. P.P.G.D.O., Oxon. June 1899. 

1439 Hood, James. Mary Street, Gympie, Queensland. 329 (1.0.), P.M., 260 (S.C.) May 1898. 

1440 Hope, Andrew. 38 Prospect Park, Exeter. Pr.G.D., Pr.A.So. November 1889. 

1441 Hope, Rev. Walter Muirhead, M.A, Prestwick, Manchester. P.Pr.G.Ch., Berks. March 1890. 

1442 Hopwood, James William. Vrede, Orange River Colony. Lodge Yrede. May 1899. 

1443 Horley, Percy H. Griqualand, Woodside, South Norwood, S.E., London. 1139, P.M. Jan. 1898. 

1444 Hornsby, Thomas Nightingale. Cuyo 760, Buenos Ayres. 1617. October 1900. 

1445 Horst, Christian. Fairmount, Church Hill, Walthamstow, Essex. 1471. March 1898. 

1446 Horton, Edward. Stanley Street, Rockhampton, Queensland. 932. January 1892. 

1447 Horton, William Abbott. Ruthin Villa, Westcombe Park, S.E., London. 1472. May 1899. 

1448 Horwill, Hughes. 80 Worting Road, Basingstoke. 1883. January 1898. 

1449 Hosker, J. R. Argus Printing Co., Tudor Street, E.C., London. 2528. June 1901. 

1450 Houlden, John William. Rose Grove, Burnley, Lancashire. 1504, P.M. Local Secretary for 

Burnley and vicinity. March 1893. 

1451 Houndle, Henry Charles Herman Hawker. 3 Paper Buildings, Temple, E.G., London. P.Pr.G.W., 

Surrey. January 1890. 

1452 Howard, J. W. 52 Norfolk Road, Cliftonville, Margate. 1731. June 1888. 

1453 Howard, John William. Box 221, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 2566, P.M., P.Z. October 1899. 

1454 Howard, Sir Richard Nicholas. Greenhill House, Weymouth. Past Grand Deacon. Jan. 1894. 

1455 Howe, George. Tallarook, Victoria. 87, P.M. March 1894. 

1456 Howell, Alexander Nathaniel Yatman. 109 High Street, Portsmouth. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G.O. (R.A.) 

Hants. March 1888. 

1457 HowSOn, Alfred James. Park Side, Fir Road, Waterloo, Liverpool. 241, 241. March 1899. 

1458 Hubbard, Frederick Joseph. Halton, Tring, Herts. P.Fr.G.D., West lanes., P.Pr.G.Tr., Bucks. 

March 1899. 

1459 Hubbard, Edmund Isle. Moorgate Street, Rotherham, Yorks. 904, P.M. November 1890. 

1460 Hudson, Robert. 24 Hotspur Street, Tynemouth. Pr.G.Sec. andPr.G.Sc.E. Past Grand Sword 

Bearer and Past Grand Standard Bearer (R.A.) March 1889. 

1461 Hudson, Robert James. Rathfriland, Ireland. 80, P.M., 80, P.K. October 1899. 

1462 Hughes, Frank. Lea Bridge House, Handsworth, Birmingham. 482, P.M. March 1898. 

1463 Hughes, George W. Window Lane, Garston, near Liverpool. 220, P.M., 220, P.Z. March 1901. 

1464 Hughes, Robert. St. Oswald's, Alexandra Park, Hastings. P.Pr.G.St.B., Sussex. Local Secretary 

for East Sussex. February 1887. 

1465 Hughes, William. 66 High Street, Sandgate, Kent. P.Dis.G.W., P.Dis.G.J., Malta. May 1892. 

1466 Hullett, Alfred Charles. Christchurch, New Zealand. Grand Janitor. May 1899. 

1467 Humphreys, Alfred W. 44, Canonbury Square, N., London. 1677. June 1892. 

1468 Hunt, A. H. 16 Gordon Road, Lowestoft. 71, P.M. June 1898. 

1469 Hunt, Charles John. State School, Nudgee, Queensland. 803 (S.C.) June 1899. 

1470 Hunt, Frank, c/o J. Kirschbaum, Salisbury, Rhodesia. 2479. October 1901. 

1471 Hunt, Rev. Jasper Benjamin. Casilla Gorreo 26, Rosariv de Santa Fi, Argentine Republic. 1553, 

1553. May 1901. 

1472 Hunt, J. H. St. George's Terrace, Perth, West Australia. District Grand Inner Guard. June 1900. 

1473 Hunter, Colonel Charles, F.R.S. Edin., F. S.A.Scot. Plas Coch, Anglesey. Past Grand Warden, 

Greece, Past Grand Deacon, England. March 1893. 

1474 Hunter, George. P.O. Roodepoort, V.R.C. 2539. May 1898. 

1475 *Hunter, William Sutherland. Kildonan, Maxwell Drive, Pollokshields, Glasgow. Past Grand 

Standard Bearer (R.A.) Scotland. March 1890. 

1476 Hutchence, William Albert. 32 Albert Road Middlesbro', Yorks. P.P.G.D. May 1901. 

1477 Hutchinson, Dr. Berks Thompson. 5 Luxemburg Gardens, Brook Green, W., London. P.P.G.D. 

January 1899. 


1478 Ikkink, Peter Jan. Boksburg, V.R.C. 2480. May 1896. 

1479 Inches, Robert Kirk. 2 Strathearn Road, Edinburgh. Past Grand Jeweller. June 1900. 

1480 Inghram, John T. 236 N. Fifth Street, Quincey, Illinois, U.S.A. 159(Mich.C.)5. P.H.P. March 1899. 

1481 *lngle, Thomas. 10 Albert Road, Brockley, S.E., London. 79, P.M., 79, P.Z. November 1897. 

1482 Inglis, Charles J. St. John Street, Launceston, Tasmania. 9, P.M. January 1899. 

1483 Inglis, Joseph W. S. 110 George Street, Edinburgh. 757,56. June 1899. 

1484 Inman, John. 24 Robertson Street, Hastings. 40. May 1895. 

1485 I nskipp, George, P.R.I. B. A. 5 Bedford Row, W.C, London. 1997, P.M. March 1897. 

1486 Irvine, Thomas William. East London, Cape. 1800. May 1898. 

1487 Irving, David Halliday. G.P.O. Perth, West Australia. 35 (W.A.C.) June 1900. 

1488 Irving, Miles, I. CS. Jhelum, Punjab. 357. May 1899. 

1489 Irving, William. Cintra Villa, Lover's Walk, Dumfries, N.B. 63, 174. November 1896. 

1490 Isebree-Moens, Joost. Villa Bloois, Rotterdam, Holland. L. Frederick Royal, W.M. Grand 

Secretary, Grand Lodge of the Netherlands. October 1890. 

1491 Isherwood, John Vernon. West View, Ravensthorpe, Dewsbury, Tories. 827. January 1899. 

1492 Isitt, Prank Neilson. 80 Adelaide Road, N.W., London. 2108. March 1900. 

1493 Isler, C. 45 Marlboro Mansions, Cannon Hill, Finchley Road, N-W., London. 1471. October 1897. 

1494 Jackman, Joseph. 4 Kenwood Park Road, Sharrow, Sheffield. P.Pr.G.D. June 1891. 

1495 Jackson, Charles Napier. 1 Cleveland Villas, The Green, South Tottenham, Middlesex. 1579,W M 

May 1901. 

1496 Jackson, Henry. Osborne House, Staleybridge, Cheshire. P.P.G.W. March 1901. 

1497 Jackson, John Chappell. Town Hall Chambers, Borough High Street, London, S.E. October 1898. 

1498 Jackson, Richard. 17 Commercial Street, Leeds. 289, P.M. Local Secretary for Leeds and 

Vicinity. January 1893. 

1499 Jackson, Robert. 16 Dixon Avenue, Crosshill, Glasgntv. 313, P.M., Gr.St.B. (R.A.) Jan. 1895. 

1500 Jackson, Thomas Clepham. Caixa 675, Rio de Janeiro. 3. January 1897. 

1501 *Jackson-Jones, W. 222 Chepstow Road, Maindee, Newport, Monmouth. March 1894. 

1502 Jacob, William Henry. Magdala Villas, Winchester. Pr.G.Snp.W., P.Pr.G.So. March 1888. 

1503 James, Rev. Francis Grant. Marske-by-the-Sea, Yorks. 1618. October 1899. 

1504 James, Henry J. Ahaura, Grey Valley, West Coast, Neiu Zealand. 40 (N.Z.C.) October 1900. 

1505 James, Hugh. 85 Nightingale Lane, Wandsioorth Common, S.W., London. 1441, 946. June 1898. 

1506 Jamieson, Christian. Croydon, North Queensland. 768 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1507 Jamieson, James. Gibson Place, St. Andrew's, N.B. May 1899. 

1508 J arvis, Matthew Jervoise. Hawthorns, Twyford R.S.O., Berks. 12. May 1895. 

1509 Jauncey, John. 2 Bridgewater Street, E.C., London. 1471. March 1898. 

1510 J efferis, Arthur Henry. 4 St. Peter's Square, Manchester. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J. September 1887. 

1511 Jenkins, Frederick. 55 Windsor Road, The Brook, Liverpool. 673, P.M., P.Z. November 1898. 

1512 Jenkins, Henry. 5 Henry Road, Finsbury Park, N., London. 860, P.M., 860, P.Z. June 1894. 

1513 Jenkins, Joseph Molyneux. Headmaster, Grammar School, Rye, Sussex. P.Pr.G.St.B. Jan. 1892. 

1514 Joel, Jenkin. 18 Knatchbull Road, Camberwell, S.E., London. 2381. June 1893. 

1515 Johns, Frederick. South Australian Register Office, Adelaide. Past Grand Standard 

Bearer, South Australia. Local Secretary for South Australia. November 1891. 

1516 Johnson, Charles Thompson, A.M. I.C. E. Town Hall, Thornaby-on-Tees. Pr.G.D.C, P.A.G.Sc.E. 

March 1899. 

1517 Johnson, Harry. East Street, Rockhampion, Queensland. 667 (S.C), P.M., 205 (S.C), P.Z. Oct.1895. 

1518 Johnson, H. T. C 346 Little Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 110. May 1898. 

1519 Johnson, John Worthy. Lecdersville, Perth, West Australia. 859 (S.C.) January 1899. 

1520 Johnson, Joseph. Danderoo, via Warwick, Queensland. 293 (I.C.) P.M. May 1898. 

1521 Johnson, Louis Stanley. 16 Shacklewell Lane, N.E., London. 453. March 1899. 

1522 Johnston, James. Emu Vale, Warwick, Queensland. 2629. October 1900. 

1523 Johnston, Professor Swift Paine, M.A. 6 Trinity College, Dublin. 357, P.M. June 1898. 

1524 Jolley, Philip Henry. Waipukurau, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. Past Assistant Grand Sword 

Bearer, New Zealand. May 1894. 

1525 Jones, D. W. Carmalt. Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 2183, P.M. March 1899. 

1526 Jones, Edward Mark. 10 St. Quintin Avenue, North Kensington, W., London. 2696. June 1899. 


1527 Jones, Hugh. Goivrie Colliery, Tooivoomla, Queensland. 826 (S.C.) May 1898. 

1528 Jones, Johu Archyll, B.Sc, F.C.S. 27 Southfield Road, Middlesborough, Tories. 391. Nov. 1895. 

1529 Jones, Samuel. 13 Elm Grove, Birkenhead. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G.H., Cheshire. November 1892. 

1530 Jones, Rev. S. Wickham. Salt Vicarage, Stafford. P.P.G.Ch., Staffords. June 1895. 

1531 Jones, Thomas. 52 Oxford Road, Hoe Street, Walthamstow, Essex. 1607, PJVL January 1890. 

1532 Jones, Thomas. 31 Anerley Hill, S.E., London. Past Grand Deacon. March 1898. 

1533 Jones, Thomas Banfield. Crescent Road, Gympie, Queensland. 2067, P.M., 260 (S.C.) May 1898. 

1534 Jones, W. Douglas. Glanaethwy, Bangor, North Wales. 1849, P.M. March 1901. 

1535 Jones, William Henry. Norfolk Chronicle Office, Noruich. 1808, P.M. January 1899. 

1536 Jones, William W. 21 Huskinson Street, Liverpool. P.P. D.G.Reg., West Lanes. January 1900. 

1537 Joslin, J. F. 4 Ilbert Street, Plymouth. 156. January 1899. 

1538 Joy, J. T. Beaconsfield House, The Avenue, Linthorpe, Middlesbro', Yorks. 2391. January 1901. 

1539 Joyce, Alfred. 18 Reighton Road, Clapton, N., London. 2356, P.M. October 1900. 

1540 Junius, Gustav. Edward. 24 Rue Pasquier, Paris. 538. June 1901. 

1541 Junius, Heinrich. Banhofstrasse, 29, Hagen in Westphalia, Germany. Lodge Victoria zu 

Morgenrothe. June 1901. 

1542 Kapadia, A. 39 Cranfield Road, Brockley, S.E., London. 1155. January 1899. 

1543 Kautz, C. W. J. H. Inverell, New South Wales. 48. May 1896. 

1544 Keble, Harman, J. P. Albyfteld, Cliftonville, Margate. 183. March 1894. 

1545 Keeble, Frederick Thomas Coleman. 87 Gilmore Place, Edinburgh. P.G.B.B. January 1895. 

1546 KeeSOn, Charles Albert Cuthbert. St. Cuthbert's, Crediton Road, West Hampstead, N.W., London. 

822, 29. November 1895. 

1547 *Keighley, Lieut.-Col. C. M., C.B. c/o T. Cook 8f Son, Ludgate Circus, E.G., London. 1960, P.M. 

January 1897. 

1548 Keith, William. 19 Fairfax Road, South Hampstead, N.W., London. 770 (S.C), P.M., 231 (S.C.) 

October 1894. 

1549 Kelley, John Goshorn. 27 North, 38th Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 368,250. May 1897. 

1550 Kellner, E. F. F. G., B.A. Horst College, Pannal, Harrogate. 1001. November 1899. 

1551 Kelly, Charles Frederick. Box 1160, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2481. May 1898. 

1552 Kelly, John Robert. Blackall, Queensland. 2207. May 1901. 

1553 Kemmis, Henry William Shore. Livingstone P.O., Alberta, Canada. 45, P.M. March 1901. 

1554 Kemp, H. 7 Thavies Inn, Holbom Circus, E.C., London. 862, P.M. May 1901. 

1555 Kemp, William Coster. 13 Marlborough Grove, Birkenhead. 4,77,477. November 1893. 

1556 Kemp, William David. 32 Academy Street, Inverness. 339, 775. May 1894. 

1557 Kempster, William Henry, M.D. Chesterfield, Clapham Common, Novth Side, S.W. London. 

Past Grand Steward. March 1888. 

1558 Kendal, Edwin Austin, I.C.S. Gonda, Oudh, N.W.P., India. 1422, 7336. January 1899. 

1559 Kennan, Henry Laurens. Spokane, Washington, U.S.A. Grand Warden. January 1900. 

1560 Kenning, Frank Reginald. Upper Sydenham, S.E., London. 192, 7 92. March 1894. 

1561 Kenning, George. Proprietor of " Freemason." Upper Sydenham, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.D. and 

P.Pr.G.D. C. (R.A.), Middlesex. November 1887. 

1562 Kenworthy, Robert Judson. 41 Park Row, Neiv York. P.Dis.D.G.M. January 1898. 

156? Kenyon, George Henry, M.D. 123 North Main Street, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Past 

Grand Master, Past Grand High Priest, Rhode Island. October 1890. 

1564 Kenyon, William John Charles. South Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A. 25 (Neb. C), 45. January 1893. 

1565 Kephart, Rev. William H. 683 East 143rd Street, New York City, U.S.A. 435,139. October 1900. 

1566 Kerr, James A. S. 19 St. Vincent Place, Glasgow. Grand Steward, Past Grand Joshua, 

Representative of G.C. Massachusetts. November 1893. 

1567 Kerr, Robert England, M.B., M.A. Box 2909, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 339. June 1895. 

156S Kertesz, Dr. Joseph. VIII. S&ndor utcza 9, Budapest. Mathias Corvinus Lodge. March 1898. 

1569 Key, Thomas E. Kent House, Aldeburgh, Suffolk. 936,376. May 1899. 

1570 Keys, W. H. Lyndon House, West Bromwich, Staffords. October 1901. 

1571 Keyser, Charles Edward. Aidermaston Court, Reading. Past Grand Deacon, Past Grand 

Sword Bearer (R.A.) January 1893. 

1572 Khory, Edalji Jamsedji. 8 Raffles Place, Singapore. P.Dis.G.W., Eastern Archipelago. Local 

Secretary for Singapore. October 1890. 

1573 Kiallmark, Henry Walter. 5 Pembridge Gardens, W., London. Past Grand Deacon, Past 

Standard Bearer (R.A.) October 1895. 


1574 Kidd, Edwin Moses. Mount Vernon, Nottingham. P.Pr.G.W. June 1899. 

1575 Kidson, R. G. Fenn. 2 Gresham Buildings, Basinghall Street, E.C., London. 1820. March 1898. 

1576 Kieser, Charles John. Klipdam, Kimberley, South Africa. 2486. June 1899. 

1577 Kilham, John. Toowoomba, Queensland. 1315, P.M., 194 (S.C.), P.Z. May 1891. 

1578 King, Arthur William. Preston Road, Blackburn, Lancashire. 345. January 1896. 

1579 King, Frank. 22a Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, W., London. 1607. January 1890. 

1580 King, George Seymour. 91 Fore Street, E.C., London. 765. November 1898. 

1581 King, G. T. Bangalore, Madras, India. 1043,7043. October 1899. 

1582 King, Herbert. Upper Bangor, North Wales. 384. March 1901. 

1583 King, Stephen. Barberton, V.R.O. 747(8-0.) October 1896. 

1584 King, William Yuill. 27 Rutland Street, Edinburgh. 1 bis, P.M. March 1898. 

1585 Kingdon, Henry Faulkes. 1 Staple Inn, W.C., London. 822. May 1898. 

1586 Kingston, William Richard. Strada Reale, VaUetta, Malta. P.D.G.Stew. January 1893. 

1587 Kipps, William. 93 Lewisham High Road, S.E., London. Asst. Grand Pursuivant, Asst. 

Grand Director of Ceremonies (R.A.) June 1894. 

1588 Kirchhoffer, Samuel G., M.A., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. Tately Grange, Blackwater, Hants. Past 

Deputy Grand Director of Ceremonies, Past Grand Standard Bearer 

(R.A.) November 1887. 

1589 Kirchner, Conrad Philip. Broadwater Sugar Mill, Richmond River, N.S. Wales. 1554. May 1897. 

1590 Kirk, John Croisdale. 39 Clarendon Road, Leeds. 2069,2069. May 1896. 

1591 Kirkpatrick, Samuel. Nelson, New Zealand. P.Dis.G.So. May 1897, 

1592 Kite, Edwin. 150 Brighton Street, Seacombe, Cheshire. 823, P.M., 823, P.Z. November 1892. 

1593 Kitson, George H. 43 Malpas Road, Brockley, S.E., London. 548, P.M., 79, Z, October 1894. 

1594 Klein, Dr. Valdemar. Sblvgade 87, Copenhagen. June 1901. 

1595 Klock, Robert A. Aylmer, Quebec Province, Canada. 405. March 1895. 

1596 Knight, Arthur. Singapore. PJ).D.G.M., East Archipelago. May 1896. 

1597 Knight, Charles Neil. 36 Kensington Park Road, W., London. 1C36. May 1895. 

1598 Knight, Herbert Manning. Melbourne, Victoria. Pres. B. of Gen. Purposes, June 1892. 

1599 Knight, W. Walworth. P.O. Albany, West Australia. Grand Steward. Local Secretary for 

West Australia, S. Div. March 1900. 

1600 Knobel, Alfred. Mackay, Queensland. 1554. October 1897. 

1601 Kolberg, C. Rouxville, Orange River Colony. 2089. October 1900. 

1602 Kotze, Gysbert Willem. Malmesbury, Cape Colony. Lodge San. Jan. May 1898. 

1603 Krasa, Ferdinand. 9 Garlinge Road, West Hampstead. N.W., London. 1504. January 1899. 

1604 Krueger, Albert J. 30 Rue Osy, Antwerp. Grand Director of Ceremonies. Nov. 1899. 

1605 Kruszinski, Henry Marks. 62 Highbury New Park, N., London. 185. November 1899. 

1606 Kuhn, William Frederick, M.D. 1103 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. Past Grand 

High Priest. March 1900. 

1607 Ku hies, George F. 451 Dewey Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. 190,55. November 1899. 

1608 Kundig, Henry. Case Post 54 Stand, Geneva. Union des. Coeurs. March 1900. 

1609 Knowlton, David Waldo. 522 New York Life Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 112, P.M. 

March 1901. 

1610 Kyle, Hugh. Box 28, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 779 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1611 *Kyle, James, sen. Box 28, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 152 (I.C.), P.M. 198 (I.C.) March 1895. 

1612 Kyle, James, jun. Box 28, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 591 (S.C), 179 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1613 Kyle, William Boyle. Box 28, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 159 (I.C), 225 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1614 Lake, Richard, F.R.C.S. 19 Harley Street, W., London. 2000, P.M., 2000, J. November 1893. 

1615 Lake, William. Kenwyn, Queen's Road, Beckenham. Assistant Grand Secretary. May 1887. 

1616 Lambert, Alfred. Belclart, Ashburton Road, Croydon, Surrey. P.Pr.G.D. January 1897. 

1617 Lambert, Charles Alexander. Warwick, Queensland. 818(S.C), P.M., 200 (S.C), P.Z. June 1896. 

1618 Lambert, James J. 83 Mosley Street, Manchester. Past Grand Deacon, Past Grand 

Assistant Sojourner. March 1891. 

1619 Lambert, R. P.O., Roodeport, V.R.C. 2639. October 1899. 

1620 Lambert, Richard. Room 11, Masonic Temple, New Orleans, U.S.A. Grand Secretary, Past 

Grand High Priest, Louisiana. Local Secretary for Louisiana. May 1887. 


1621 Lambert, Thomas. Bank of New South Wales, Melbourne, Victoria. Past Grand Deacon, 

Past Grand Standard Bearer (R.A.) October 1899. 

1622 Lamberton, James McCormick. P. O.B. 297, Harrisburg, Pennyslvania. 21, P.M. January 1897. 

1623 Lambton, John William. 96 West Percy Street, North Shields P.Pr.G.St.B. January 1897. 

1624 Lamonby, William Farquharson. Ballarat, Kitto Road, St. Catherine's Park, S.E., London. Past 

Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies, England; Past Deputy Grand 

Master, Victoria. November 1889. 

1625 Lancaster, George Felton. 3 Moreland Terrace, Forton, Gosport. Grand Pursuivant, 

Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies (R.A.) May 1887. 

1626 Lane, Charles Sheriff. Newttead, Eaglecliff Junction, Yarm, Durham. P.Pr.G.W., Pr.G.H. March 1888. 

1627 Lane, J. Ernest, F.R.C.S. 46 Queen Anne Street, S.W., London. 2183, P.M. May 1901. 

1628 Lane, Stanley Herbert Newman. 2 Bannercross Abbey Road, Torquay. 1402. May 1900. 

1629 Lange, Albert Jacob. Eidsvold, Voerk, Norway. 39 (S.C.) October 1899. 

1630 Lange, Paul. Senekal, O.R.C. Lodge Unity (D.C.) May 1893. 

1631 Langlands, G. Nasymth, R.S.W. 2 Melville Street, Edinburgh. 2,56. May 1901. 

1632 Langton, John Gordon. 6a Austin Friars, E.G., London. 96, P.M., P.Pr.G.Sc.N., M'sex. Oct. 1898. 

1633 Lansdell, Edwin. Pumula Lodge, Umbilo Road, Durban, Natal. 799 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1634 Lapin, Bernard. Pretoria, V.R.G. 744 (S.C.) June 1889. 

1635 Lapsley, James M. Fire Brigade Station, Perth, West Australia. Dis.G.W., (S.C.) Nov. 1898. 

1636 Larch in, Robert. 6 Alconbury Road, Upper Clapton, N.E., London. 1541, P.M. March 1901. 

1637 Lardner, Henry Joseph. 27 Clement's Lane, E.C., London. Past Grand Standard Bearer, 

Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies (R.A.) May 1890. 

1638 Large, James Richard. 15 Springfield Gardens, Upper Clapton, N.E., London. 1607, P.M., 174. 

March 1890. 

1639 Larkin, Edgar. Christchurzh, New Zealand. October 1899. 

1640 Larkins, Charles. 58 Ringstead Court, Catford, S.E., London. 1339. March 1889. 

1641 Larsen, August. 117 Holborn, E.G., London. 2105. May 1898. 

1642 Larter, Ezekial Henry. State School, Nundah, Brislane, Queensland. 2167. October 1900. 

1643 Last, John Thomas. 48 Sunbridge Road, Bradford. P.Pr.G.R., West Yorks. March 1887. 

1644 Last, J. T., P.R.G.S. Zanzibar. 2098. January 1900. 

1645 Lavery, Hugh. Survey Office, Bendigo, Victoria. 64, P.M., Grand Scribe N. October 1892. 

1646 Law, C. G. Lawrence. Kingscliffe, Wansford, Northamptonshire. 607. November 1900. 

1647 Lawless, James Frederick. Pacific Coast Co., Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, 

Minnesota. November 1892. 

1648 Lawrance, Walter, F.S.I. 13 Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.G., London. 2416, 2416. October 1889. 

1649 "Lawrence, General Samuel Crocker. 28 Lancaster Street, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Past 

Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. March 1888. 

1650 Lawson, Thomas Mann. Hill Top, Armley, Leeds. 600, 600. January 1889. 

1651 Lazenby, Frederick. Capital Sf Counties Bank, Basingstoke. 694, P.M. May 1901. 

1652 Lea, Edwin, J. P. Cear Glow, Churchdown, nr- Cheltenham. P.P.J.G.W. October 1900. 

1653 Leah, John. Cobar, New South Wales. P.D.G.W. October 1895. 

1654 Le Cronier, Dr. Maxwell. 40 David Place, Jersey. P.Pr.G.D. March 1897. 

1655 Lee- Bryce, Robert. Elizabeth Street, Brisbane, Queensland. Dep.D.G.M. (S.C.) March 1895. 

1656 Lee- Dillon, the Hon. Harry Lee Stanton. Ditchley, Enstone, Oxon. 1165,1165. May 1897- 

1657 Leeson, Charles John. P. and Tel. Dep., Georgetown, Queensland. 769 (S.C), P.M. Jan. 1892. 

1658 Le Feuvre, Major John Emilius, J. P. 19 Carlton Street, Southampton. Past Grand Deacon 

and Past Grand Sword Bearer (R.A.) September 1887. 
1859 Le Feuvre, Dr. William Philip. Tou's River, Cape Colony. 1603. January 1899. 

1660 Lehmann, Viggo. Pilestroede 70b, Christiania, Norway. Lodge Oscar til den flammende Stjerne. 

October 1897. 

1661 Leigh, George. 52 George Street, Hull. P.Pr.G.St.B., North and East Yorks. May 1897. 

1662 Leigh, William Stonier. Pietermaritzburg, Natal. P.D.G.W., P.D. G.N. June 1898. 

1663 Leighton, Albert. West Harding Street, Fetter Lane, E.G., London. 263. May 1897. 

1664 Leighton, Alexander Robert. 441 Calle Piedad. Buenos Ayres. P.D.G.D. October 1898. 

1665 Lei lo, Horace John. 467 West Street, Durban, Natal. 1937. May 1898. 

1666 Lemon, Rev. Thomas William, D.D., Oxon. Vicarage, Poughill,nr.Bude, North Cornwall. P.Pr.G.W. 

P.Pr.G.J., Devonshire. September 1887. 


1667 Lena, Joseph. 132 Queen Victoria Street, E.C., London. 11. November 1900. 

166S Leslie, Major John Henry, R.A. (Retired list.) Hathersage, North Derbyshire. P.D.G.W., 
P.D.G.A.D.C. (R.A.), Punjub. Local Secretary for H.M. Army. October 1891. 

1669 Letts, Alfred Woodley. 2 St. Wilfred's Road, New Barnet, Herts. 2509. October 1898. 

1670 Levander, Frederick William, F.R.A.S. 30 North Villas, Camden Square, N.W., London. 

P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G.Treas. (R.A.), Middlesex. Local Secretary for Middlesex and North 
London. January 1890. 

1671 Leversedge, Robert Coram. Eng. Depmt., G.P.O., E.G., London. Pr.G.D., Pr.A.G.S., Middlesex. 

June 1900. 

1672 *Leveson, Edward John. 6 Queens Mansions, Victoria Street, S.W., London. Past Grand 

Steward. January 1901. 

1673 Levoy, Lewis G. Webster, South Dakota, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, Past Grand High 

Priest, South Dakota. Local Secretary for South Dakota. October 1893. 

1674 Lewenberg, Jacob Frank, M.D. 2321 Oxford Street, Philadelphia. 11 (D.C.), 3 (D.C.) May 1891. 

1675 Lewes, Prince Kinnear, Capt., RA. Shoeburyness. October 1896. 

1676 Lewin, Francis Montague Spencer. 32 Southampton Street, Strand, W.C., London. 2000, 2000. 

October 1900. 

1677 Lewin, Frederick. 1L Cannon Street, E.C., London. 1155. March 1900. 

1678 Lewis, Charles Edwardes. Baeda Street, Cape Town. Deputy Grand Master ^D.C.) Oct. 1892. 

1679 Lewis, Edward Charles. 77 Palace Road, Tulse Hill Park, S.W.,London. P.Pr.G.D., Essex. Jan. 1897. 

1680 Lewis, Harold. Mercury Office, Bristol. Keeper of the Archives, Bristol. February 1887. 

1681 Lewis, J. J. Fron Deg, Mold, North Wales. 1477, P.M. October 1900. 

lf'82 Lewis, Rayner Blount. 37 Annerley Park, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.D., Hereford. November 1897. 

1683 Lewis, Thomas White, M A., M.D. Kingscliffe, Wansford, Northamptonshire. XXV. (I.C.) Oct. 1898. 

1684 Litchenfeld, Sigmund. 300 Regent Street, W., London. Pr.G.Stew., Herts. October 1896. 

1685 Lidgey, William. Devoran, Truro, Cornwall. 589, P.M., 1006, P. Z. October 1889. 

1686 Lightfoot, Bruce. Station Master, Shoreham, Kent. 1915, W.M. March 1889. 

1687 Lightfoot, Richard Henry. Herberton, Queensland. 737 (S.C.), P.M. May 1894. 

1688 Lindsay, Thomas. \3 Minerva Street, Glasgow. 553,69. October 1897. 

1689 *Lindsay, Thomas A. Carnoustie, N.B. Pr.G.H., Angus and Mearns. May 1894. 

1690 Line, Harry. Willow Qrove, Chislehurst, Kent. 2266. March 1898. 

1691 Linsell, William Goode. Little Waltham, Essex. 1543. October 1900. 

1692 Lipinski, Louis. Box 119 Johannesburg, V.R.C. 738 (S.C.) May 1889. 

1693 Lipscomb, William Gull, M. A. Hope Villa, Spring Grove, Isletoorth. 1479. March 1901. 

1694 Lissack, Simeon. Box 511, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 744 (S.C.) January 1891. 

1695 Lister, Colville William. Railway Station, Grandchester, Queensland. 755 (S.C), 194 (S.C.) 

May 1893- 

1696 Littleton, Joseph. 28 Archficld Road, Gotham, Bristol. P.Pr.G.St.B. March 1901. 

1697 Livsey, Milton. 60 Providence Street, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Past Grand Master. 

May 1893. 

1698 Lloyd, James John. Box 105, Roodepoort, V.R.C. 2486. January 1897. 

1699 Lloyd, Dr. Samuel. 50 Bloomsbury Street, W.C, London. 1201, P.M. June 1898. 

1700 Lloyd, William Tuouias. Box 105, Roodepoort,V.R.C. 2539, P.M. Local Secretary for Krugersdorp. 

October 1894. 

1701 Lobingier, Charles Sumner. Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A. 25. Local Sec. for Nebraska. May 1900. 

1702 Lockwood, Joseph. 50 Strada Reale, Malta. 1926,343. May 1899. 

1703 Lockwood, Luke A. 115 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, Past Grand 

High Priest, Connecticut, Grand Representative of England. October 1894. 

1704 Lodge, W. R. 14 Fern Terrace, Manningham, Bradford. 23yl. January 1901. 

1705 Loewy, Beuno. 206 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 209, 220, P.II.P. Local Secretary for New- 

York. May 1894. 

1706 Logan, William. Langley Park, Durham. P.Pr.G.R., Durham. February 1887. 

1707 Logan, William Charles. Llys Alaw, Port madoc, North Wales. P.P.G.W., P.P.G.J. June 1895. 

1708 *Long, Geoffrey Rogers. Moulmein, Burma. 542, 542. November 1896. 

1709 Longman, Henry. Laurel Bank, Lancaster. P.Pr.G.Sup.W., P.Pr.G.So. January 1896. 

1710 Longman, Val. J. Rod. 35 Carleton R>ad, Tufnell Park, N., London. 1328. January 1898. 

1711 Loomes, Reuben. 83 Carleton Road, Tufnell Park, N., London. 1471, P.M. March 1899. 

1712 Loutit, William F. Naracoorte, South Australia. 42, P.M. October 1900. 


1713 Lovegrove, Henry, F.S.I., A.R.I.B A. 18 Foxgrove Eoad, Beckenham, Kent. Past Grand 

Sword Bearer. November 1887. 

1714 Lovel I, Arthur. 5 Portman Street, W., London. 1425. October 1898. 

1715 Lowe, F. J. The Mount House, Shrewsbury. 117. March 1898. 

1716 Luck, Henrv Courtenay, A.K.C., F.R.G.S-, F.R.M.S., A.S.E. Brisbane, Queensland. Dis.Gr.Sec. 

Past Asst. Grand Director of Ceremonies (Craft and R.A.) October 1890. 

1717 Lunn, Alfred George. 85 Northenden Road, Sale, Cheshire. 317- June 1901. 

1718 Lunn, Henry Simpson, M.D. 5 Endleigh Gardens, N-W., London. 2110,2410. January 1898. 

1719 Lunt, Dr. D. C. M. Lymm, Cheshire. 1565. October 1901. 

1720 Lyon, H. Thomson, M.I.E.E. 57 Onslow Square, S.W., London. 1789. January 1899. 

1721 Lyons- Montgomery, Foster Kynaster Walter. Brit. S.A. Co., Cape Town. 1331. January 1898. 

1722 Mabin, Frank. 10 Union Street, Plymouth. 105. January 1891. 

1723 Macadam, William Ivison, F.R.S.Edin.', F.I.C., F.C.S., F.S.A.Scot. Surgeon's Hall, Edinburgh. 

Past Grand Director Ceremonies, Past Grand Zerubbabel. March 1890. 

1724 MacAlister, Robert. Pietermaritzburg, Natal. 701 (S.C.), P.M. October 1895. 

1725 Mac Arthur, Peter Robertson. 11 Randolph Place, Mount Florida, Glasgow. May 1899. 

1726 MacBride, Andrew Somerville. 17 Doune Terrace, Kelvinside, Glasgow. D.P.G.M., Dumbarton. 

iMay 1893. 

1727 MacCalla, W. A. Editor of "Keystone." 239 Dock Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. March 1894. 

1728 McCombie, W. G. 20 Queenhithe, E.C., London. 1232, Bourne, Liucolns. March 1898. 

1729 MacCullough, William. High Street, Auckland, New Zealand. Pr.G.M., Dep.G.Sup. (R-A.) 

North Island. March 1891. 

1730 MacDonald, Alexander. Thornwood, Ardrishaig, Scotland. 754, P.M., 69. January 1893. 

1731 MacDonald, John. Bowen, Queensland. 819 (S.C.) P.M., 127 (S.C.) P.Z. Local Secretary for 

Bowen. November 1896. 

1732 MacDonald, John Christopher. 6 Lynivood Avenue, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 54]. March 1898. 

1733 MacDonald, Robert. 37 Marquis Street, Glasgow. Grand Steward, Scotland. June 1891. 

1734 MacDonnell, Adam John Pettigrew, B.A. Cairus, North Queensland. 2139. May 1901. 

1735 MacDowall, Andrew. Beaconsfteld, Kircudbright, N.B. P.P.G.D.C, P.P.G.ScN., Berks and 

Bucks. March 1893. 

1736 MacDowall, G. A. Jesmond, Plaistow, Essex. 2291. January 1892. 

1737 Mace, Albert E. Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. 1036. March 1894. 

1738 Macfarlane, George. Charters Towers, Queensland. 1546, P.M., 1546. Local Secretary for 

Charters Towers. June 1897. 

1739 Macfarlane, Rev. Peter. 281 Fourth Avenue, New York City, U.S.A. 454, 7. June 1901. 

1740 MacGee, Robert. 34 South Castle Street, Liverpool. 1675, P.M. May 1892. 

1741 Machin, Harry. Fircroft, Walton-on-Thames. 231, P.M., 2489. March 1901. 

1742 Macintyre, Richard Beech. Gayudah, Queensland. March 1895. 

1743 Mackay, Wallace. 26 High Street, Exeter. 1254. June 1899. 

1744 Mackenzie, Alexander F. 15 Union Street, Inverness. Pr.G.Treas., Pr.G.Scribe E. Local Sec. 

for Inverness. November 1893. 

1745 Mackenzie, Arthur Colin, M.D. Inverness House, Mount Morgan, Queensland. 763 (S.C), P.M. 

227 (S.C.) October 1900. 

1746 Mackenzie, J. E. Kimberley, South Africa. 1409. May 1890. 

1747 Mackenzie, James. Belize, British Honduras. 339 (S.C), 115 (S.C.) November 1895. 

1748 Mackersy, Lindsay. 74 Queen Street, Edinburgh. 48, (S.C.) P.M. June 1900. 

1749 MacKinnon, Ludovic, Lieut. Derbyshire Regiment. Chatham. 1843. March 1898. 

1750 MacKway, Sydney Frederick. Bottling Stores, Linsey Street, Bermondsey, S.E., London. 2310,P.M. 

1216, P.Z. May 1901. 

1751 MacLean, Lachlan. Capetown. 398 (S.C), P.M. March 1893. 

1752 MacLean, Peter. Roma, Queensland. 730 (S.C), P.M., 247 (S.C.) October 1894. 

1753 MacLeavy, James. Wirral Hotel, New Ferry, Birkenhead. 477, 477. January 1894. 

1754 MacLeod, George. 7 Upper Hill Street, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. Pr.G.S.W., 115, H. 

January 1895. 

1755 MacLeod, James Morrison. 6 Freemasons' Hall, W.C., London. Secretary R.M.I.B. Past 

Grand Sword Bearer. November 1890. 

1756 *MacMi I Ian, Frederick Douglas. Box 1541, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 714, (S.C.) November 1890. 


1757 Macnaughton, James. Dundarave, Pitlochry, N.B. 814, W.M. March 1901. 

1758 *MacNeill, Percy Russell. 5 Crossman Road, Kimberley, South Africa. 1417. October 1894. 

1759 Macpherson-Grant, George Bertram. Ballindalloch Castle, Scotland. Pr.G.W., Inverness. 

March 1896. 

1760 Macpherson-Grant, John. Milton Cottage, Kingussie, N.B. Provincial Grand Master, 

Inverness. May 1894. 

1761 Mactaggart, Major Charles, M.B., I. M.S. Allahabad, Indin. P.D.G.D., Bengal. March 1898. 

1762 Mager, William Kelk. Queenstown, South Africa. P.M. May 1893. 

1763 MagU ire, Edward. Gowrie Crossing, S. and W.R., Queensland. 826 (S.C.), P.M. May 1898. 

1764 Mahon, Ernest Leonard. Follibetta, Coorg, India. 2576, P.M., 1043. June 1896. 

1765 Makeham, Henry William Payne, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., L.S A. 330 New Cross Road, S.E., London. 

1559, P.M., 1275, P.Z. October 1896. 

1766 Makein, William. 33 Torbay Street, Kentish Town, N.W., London. 180. March 1896. 

1767 Makovski, Stanislaus. Fairlawn, Redhill, Surrey. 416, P.M. October 1896. 

1768 Malcolm, Alexander George. 2 Huntley Gardens, Cathcart, Glasgow. 754. November 1896. 

1769 Malcolm, John Cooper. 30 Spencer Street, Leeds. Past Grand Deacon. October 1896. 

1770 Maltby, Charles Barnard Richard. 4 Queen Street Place, E.C., London. 2562, P.M. May 1899. 

1771 Mander, James, Compton House, Hounslow, W., London. 1201, P.M., P.Z. May 1898. 

1772 Manfield, Harry. Moulton Grange, Northampton. Grand Treasurer. May 1889. 

1773 Mangles, William Waring. 19 Chesham Place, Brighton. 811. June 1897. 

1774 Manley, Herbert, M.A., M.B. West Bromwich, Staffordshire. 2385, P.M., 662, P.Z. June 1896. 

1775 Mann, Edgar Montague. 7 Clifton Hill, Exeter. 39, 112. March 1892. 

1776 Manning, Dr. Leslie Samuel. Christchurch, New Zealand. 2597. June 1900. 

1777 Mansbridge, Josiah. 32 Birchington Road, West Hampstead, N.W., London. October 1901. 

1778 Mansfield, W. W. Belle Vae House, Deans Brook Lane, Edgware, Middlesex. 1549, P.M., 1702, 

P.Z. May 1898. 

1779 Manton, James Odom. Gower Street, Derby. P.Pr.J.G.W., P.Pr.G.Sc.N. March 1892. 

1780 Manuel, Robert. 5 Pump Court, Temple, E.C., London. 1196, P.M., 1196, P.Z. October 1893. 

1781 M ap I eton, Cuthbert Walter. 29 Schubert Road, Putney, S.W., London. 256. June 1890. 

1782 March, Arthur N. West Bank, Oahwood Avenue, Shortlands, Kent. 1321. May 1898. 

1783 Margerison, James Bell. 47 Shear Brow, Blackburn, Lancashire. 345, P.M. May 1897. 

1784 Markham, Christopher A., F.S.A. 4 St. George's Place, Northampton. P.P.G.W. May 1892. 

1785 Marling, W. J. P. Stanley Park, Stroud, Gloucester. 702. January 1898. 

1786 Marlow, C. F. 375 Hagley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 1551. May 1891. 

1787 Marples, Robert Muffett. 54 Bedford Court Mansions, W.C, London. 754. June 1900. 

1788 Marr, Robert. 29 Corn Exchange Chambers, E.C., London. 238. June 1896. 

1789 Marrian, Charles J. 8 Heathfield Park, Willesden Green, N.W., London. 2489, P.M., 2489, P.Z. 

June 1895. 

1790 Marrlson, Oswald S. Patterson Street, Launceston, Tasmania. Past Grand Director of 

Ceremonies. January 1899. 

1791 Marriott, H. P. FitzGerald, F.R.G.S. cjo H. S. King $• Co., Pall Mall, S.W., London. 5 (Sp.C), 

259 (S.C.) January 1897. 

1792 Marrs, Henry John. Casilla 148, G.P.O., Buenos Ayres. 2459, P.M., 2329. June 1901. 

1793 Marrs, John H. Box 113, Concord Junction, Massachusetts. Corinthian Lodge, Walden Chapter 

K. October 1898. 

1794 Marshall, Angustine, M.D. London Road South, Kirkley, Lowestoft. 1452. January 1899. 

1795 Marshall, A. V. 211 Camberwell Road, S.E., London. 1539. Juno 1898. 

1796 Marshall, Henry. Wellington Street, Leeds. 1001. May 1898. 

1797 Marshall, James. 24 Charing Cross, S.W., London. 4, P.M., 50. March 1892. 

1798 Marshall, William Bayley, F.S.S., M.I.O.E., M.I.M.E. Richmond Hill, Birmingham. P.Pr.G.R., 

Warwickshire. June 1892. 

1799 Marsland, Octavius. 15 Seething Lane, E.C., London. 19. November 1895. 

1800 Marson, James Thomas. Sandon Road, Stafford. 726,726. Local Secretary for Staffordshire. 

November 1893. 

1801 Marston, Henry Charles. Church Street, West Hartlepool. P.Pr.G.St.B., Durham. March 1900. 

1802 Marston, Thomas Henry. Casilla 170, Rosaria de Santa F6, Argentine Republic. 1553, 7553 

Jane 1898. 

1803 Martin, F. E. 14 St. Andrew's Street, Dublin. 261. May 1901. 

1804 Martin, George. 5 Melbourne Terrace, Bradford. 702,702. January 1890. 

1805 Martin, George. 19 Eltham Road, Lee, Kent. 829, P.M., 2099. October 1896. 


1806 Martin, John. Mornington Road, Woodford, Essex. 105G. May 1899. 

1807 Martin, William Henry. Toowoomba, Queensland. 775 (S.C.) October 1896. 

1808 *Marty, Francis Charles. Casilla Correo 32, Rosario de Santa F4, Argentine Republic 1553 P M 

7553. May 1898. 

1803 Masey, Francis Edward. 44 Adder! ey Street, Cape Town. October 1899. 

1810 Mason, Charles Letch. The Hollies, Cliff Road, Leeds. P.Pr G.W., P.Pr.G.H. June 1887. 

1811 Mason, J. J. Hamilton, Ontario. Grand Secretary for Canada. March 1888. 

1812 Mason, John. Freemasons' Hall, W.C., London. Past Grand Standard Bearer. Oct. 1897. 

1813 Mason, Richard Cogan, 18 John Street, Bedford Row, W.C., London. 2241. January 1901. 

1814 Mason, William Edward. Advertiser Office, Durban, Natal. 447 (S.C.) March 1900. 

1815 Massey, Louis Conrad. Orlando, Florida, U.S.A. D.D.G.M., Florida. March 1898. 

1816 Massey-Hicks, John Moses. P.O.B. 2031, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 853, P.M. October 1890. 

1817 Massie, E. J. Simla House, Spring Road, Bedford. P.G.D.D.C., West Torks. January 1888. 

1818 Masson, David Parkes. Lahore, Punjab, E.I. P.Dis.G.Treas., Punjab. June 1888. 

1819 Matalha, E., Baron de. Pretoria, V.R.C. 738, P.M., 738. October 1889. 

1820 Mathews, Robert Uumphrys. Cootamundra, New Sou,th Wales. 185, P.M. November 1895. 

1821 Mathieson, James. Box 1022, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 570 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1822 Matier, Charles Fitzgerald. Mark Masons' Hall, Great Queen Street, W.C., London. Past 

Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies. June 1888. 

1823 Matthew, John. Box 92, Pretoria, V.R.C. October 1896. 

1824 Matthews, Edmund Harry. Royal Bank of Queensland, Croydon, Queensland. 768 (S C ) 273 

(S.C.) October 1899. 

1825 Matthews, H. J. 15 St, Stephen's Square, Bayswater, W., London. 2509, P.M. January 1899. 

1826 Matthews, James Woodrow. 32 Great St. Helen's, E.G., London. Past Grand Steward 

June 1899. 

1827 Matthews, Robert C. Sheridan Street, Gundagai, New South Wales. 25, P.M. June 1895. 

1828 Matzinger, Capt. Theodore. 21 Edith Road, Wnst Kensington, S.W., London. 174. May 1894. 

1829 Maund, William Charles. Chillagoe, North Queensland. 1978, P.M. January 1896. 

1830 Maunsell, Major G. W. 2nd Roy. W. Kent R., Field Force, S. Africa. P.D.G.D., Bengal. Nov. 1897. 

1831 *Maxwell, John M. Room 1, Chicago Block, East Fifth Street, Leadville, Colorado, U.S.A. Past 

Grand Master, Colorado. May 1890. 

1832 Maye, William Bennett. Abham, Buckfastleigh, Devon. P.Pr.G.D.C, P.Pr.G.Std.B. (R.A.) Jan. 1889. 

1833 Mayer, Daniel. 18 Great Marlborough Street, W.C., London. Grand Deacon. May 1898. 

1834 Mayfield, Joseph. Roma, Queensland. 780 (S.C), P.M., 190 (S.C), P.Z. Local Secretary for 

Roma. October 1892. 

1835 McAdam, Archibald Campbell. 20 Arundel Drive, Battlefield, Langside, Glasgow. 0, 67, P.Z. 

March 1900. 

1836 McCaw, J. Dysart, M.D., F.R.C.S. Coolard Lodge, East Finchley, N., London. 211 (I.C) May 1897. 

1837 M'Cullough, David Ballantyne. Melbourne Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 2119, P.M., 908. 

October 1898. 

1838 McDowal I, Alexander. Umtali, Rhodesia. 2678. October 1901. 

1839 M'Eachern, Archibald. Malvern Hills, Blackall, Queensland. 2207. October 1898. 

1840 McGuigan, Edward. 801 Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. 445, P.M. May 1900. 

1841 McLaren, Joseph Henry. Schoolmaster, Newcastle, Natal. 31 (W.A.C) May 1901. 

1842 M'Lean, Hugh Gordon. Hughenden, Queensland. 2338. Local Sec. for Hughenden. March 1899. 

1843 McLean, William. Ardgour Church Street. Middle Brighton, Victoria. 57, W.M., 17. May 1901. 

1844 McLennan, John Paul. Houie's Creek, Mansfield, Victoria. 131, P.M., 64. November 1899. 

1845 McMillan, Donald. 12 Willoughby Road, Hampstead, N.W., London. 2408. May 1899. 

1846 McMurray, Frederick Thomas. Glencairn, Willis Road, Cambridge. 2121,88. March 1901. 

1847 Mead, Arthur Charles. 9 Cheyne Gardens, Chelsea, S.W., London. 1420, P.M. March 1900. 

1848 Mears, Arthur. Cairns, North Queensland. P.Dis.G.St., P.Dis.G.S.B., Queensland. Local Sec- 

retary for Cairns. March 1888. 

1849 Meek, J. M. 6 Nelson Terrace, Coatham, Redcar, Torks. P.PrG.R., Durham. October 1898. 

1850 Meggy, Arthur Robert. Orthez, Hare Street, Romford, Essex. P.Pr.G.W. January 1898. 

1851 *Mehta, Roostumjee Dhunjeebhoy, J.P., CLE. 55 Canning Street, Calcutta. P.Dis.G.D. June 1891 

1852 *Meikle, John. Umtali, Rhodesia. 2678, W.M., 2566. November 1900. 

1853 Meldrum, Hon. Dato J. Iskander Hall, Johore, Straits Settlements. 1 (S.C.) January 1901. 

1854 Mendelssohn, Max. 56 Hilldrop Crescent, Camden Road, N., London. 212,7839. January 1889. 

1855 Mendelssohn, Sidney. Ashleigh, FairhaeelGdns.,Hampstead,N.W., London. 1409, P.M. Jan. 1889. 


1856 Menzies, James Herbert. 47 Earl's Court Square, S.W., London. May 1901. 

1857 Mercer, Harry West. Box 6, Barberton, V.R.C. 747 (S.C), P.M. October 1898. 

1858 Mercer, Thomas James. 7 Connaught Road, Harlesden, N.W., London. 2427, P.M., 7605. Jan. 1895. 

1859 Meredith, Sir James Creed, LL.D. Clonevin, Pembroke Road, Dublin. Deputy Grand Master, 

Ireland. March 1898. 

1860 Meredith, Morgan. Mayne, Brisbane, Queensland. 330 (I.C.), P.M. November 1896. 

1861 Merrick, Rev. George Purnell. Chaplain's House, Camden Road, N., London. P.Pr G.Chap., 

Surrey. June 1891. 

1862 Metcalf, George Reuben, M.D. 110 West Fourth Street, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 3, W.M. 

Local Secretary for Minnesota. March 1892. 

1863 Metcalfe, William. Mount Pleasant, Cheshunt, Herts. 2372, P.M., 2372, P.Z. November 1900. 

1864 Meyer, Ernest Alfred. Boksburg, V.R.C. Lodge Jubilee (D.C.) October 1898. 

1865 Meyer, Frank. Artesian Works, Bear Lane, S.E., London. 1471. March 1895. 

1866 Michael, Dr. Gustave. 188 Commercial Road, E., London. 185. March 1901. 

1867 Michell, George Francis. Cover Street, Adelaide, S.Australia. Past Grand Steward. Jan. 1896. 

1868 Michelsen, Michel Bernard 47 London Road, Enmore, Sydney, New South Wales. 42. Oct. 1900. 

1869 Mickley, George, M.A., M.B Freshwell House, Saffron Waldon, Essex. Past Assistant 

Grand Director of Ceremonies. March 1890. 

1870 Milburn, Robert. 84 Brae Side Street, Glasgow. 87 (S.C.), P.M., 87. March 1900. 

1871 Miles, Charles George. Grahamstown, Cape of Cood Hope. 711. March 1888. 

1872 Miles, William. Tinana, Maryborough, Queensland. 775 (S.C.) March 1895. 

1873 Millar, George W. 64 Duane Street, New York. 271, P.M., 241. May 1897. 

1874 Miller, Frederick Richard, F.R.C.S. 31 Shepherd's Bush Road, W., London. 753. January 1898. 

1875 Miller, George Henry. Mill View, Edgworthstown, Ireland. Pr.G.Ins., Meath. March 1892. 

1876 Miller, Harry Risch. 9 Great St. Helen's, E.C., London. 58. June 1899. ■ 

1877 Miller, James. Rockhampton, Queensland. 677 (S.C), D.M. October 1896. 

1878 Miller, John. Quilmes, Buenos Aires. 2459, P.M., 2329, H. Janaary 1901. 

1879 Miller, T. L. Eyre Cottage, Jews' Walk, Sydenham, S.E., London. 2105. January 1897. 

1880 Miller, W. S. Market Place, Witney, Oxon. 1703, P.M. May 1899. 

1881 Miller, W. Scott. Belfaris, Grove Park, Chiswick, S.W., London. 2500. January 1899. 

1882 Millington, James. Station Road, Horsford, near Leeds. 1221, P.M., 289, P.Z. May 1893. 

1883 Milne, J. G. P.O. Roodepoort, V.R.C. 2539. June 1898. 

1884 Milne, W. G. Box 402, Johannesburg, V.R.C. October 1896. 

1885 Milthorp, Edward Fairburn, J.P. 1 Burns Street, Nottingham. P.Pr.G.A.D.C. January 1900. 

1886 Milton, John Harold. 9 Staple Inn, W.C., London. 2511, P.M., 174. May 1897. 

1887 Mims, Frederick Bosworth. Laurifer, Arkwright Road, Hampstead, N.W., London. 435, P.M. 

October 1898. 

1888 Mitchell, Albert George. Public School, Corrimal, New South Wales. 204, P.M. June 1900. 

1889 Mitchell, Frederick William. Holmbury, Norbiton Avenue, Kingston-on-Thames. 1013, Jan. 1896. 

1890 Mitchell, John Mitchell. 110 Cannon Street, E.C., London. 92, P.M. November 1895. 

1891 Mitchell, William Taylor. Armenian Street, Blacktoivn, Madras. P.Dis.G.S.B. October 1894. 

1892 Mitchell, Wilmot Wadsworth. Medfield, Norfolk Co., Mass., U.S.A. Meridian L., P.M., Putnam C 

March 1900. 

1893 Moar, John Ingram. 15 Beak Street, W., London. 813, P.M. March 1898. 

1894 Mocke, Petrus Johannes Keeve. Mutual Building*, Cape Town. Goede Trouw Lodge. January 1899. 

1895 Mold, Charles Trevor. 760 Calle Cuyo, Buenos Ayres. District Grand Master. Local 

Secretary for Argentine Republic. June 1894. 

1896 Mold, Reginald. 682 Piedad, Buenos Ayres. P.Dis.Gr.Sec, P.Dis.Gr.Sc.E. June 1901. 

1897 Molesworth, Rev. Hugh Thomas. Wynnum, Queensland. P.Pr.G.W. (I.C.) October 1899. 

1898 Molloy, Harry J. French Rocks, Mysore, India. P. D.G. Sup. W., Madras. May 1898. 

1899 Moncrieff, John George. 48 Gracechurch Street, E.C., London. 2696. January 1900. 

1900 Montague, John Henry. 101 New Bond Street, W., London. 2030, P.M. October 1896. 

1901 Monteith, H. Campin. Ipswich, Suffolk. P.Pr.G.W. June 1898. 

1902 Monteith, Robert. State School, St. George, Queensland. 775 (S.C.) October 1894. 

1903 Montesole, Max. Authors' Club, 3 Whitehall Court, S.W-, London. 1766. June 1901. 

1901 Montgomery, Thomas. St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. Grand Secretary, Minnesota. 

May 1893. 

1905 Mooers, Edwin. Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 79,20. March 1896. 

1906 Moon, John G. William Street, Sydney, New South Wales. P.M. October 1896. 


1907 Moore, Edward D. 318 North East Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. 500,6. May 1900. 

1908 Moore, Lieut.-Col. Sir George Montgomery John, R.A.. CLE. Madras. District Grand 

Master, District Grand Superintendent, Madras. May 1893. 

1909 Moore, Silas R. 1015 South G. Street, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A. Grand Steward. Oct. 1895. 

1910 Moore, Lieut.-Col. W. F., A.S.C. 1 Wellington Villa, Military Road, Cork. P.Dep.D.G.M., Malta. 

June 1898. 

1911 Moorhouse, Benjamin Michael, M.D. Christchurch, New Zealand. 2627, P.M. 1900. 

1912 Moors, Henry. 498 Punt Hill, South Tarra, Victoria. 151, P.M., 7, P.Z. October 1892. 

1913 Morecroft, Arthur Hubert. 5 Castle Street, Liverpool. 2316. March 1890. 

1914 Morgan, Charles Talgai. Machay, Queensland. 1554. June 1894. 

1915 Morgan, Robert Barton. 3 Lincoln's Inn, Corporation Street, Birmingham. P.P.G.St.B. Nov. 1893. 

1916 Morgan, T. Westlake. Bangor, North Wales. 1849, W.M. March 1901. 

1917 Morison, William Hunter. Longreach, Queensland. P.Dis.G.Stew. October 1901. 

1918 Morland, John Thornhill. Bath Street, Abingdon, Berks. D.Pr.G.M. June 1896. 

1919 Morley, Edward. Blaclcall, Queensland. 2338. May 1894. 

1920 Morphy, Ferdinand Jamison. Club de Residentes, Estrangeros, Buenos Ayres. Grand Super- 

intendent, Argentine Republic. March 1897. 

1921 Morrill, Warren P. Benton Harbour, Michigan, U.S.A. 298,72. May 1901. 

1922 Morris, John Jones. 24 Lombard Street, Portmadoc. North Wales. P.Pr.G.St. May 1894. 

1923 Morris, Spencer William. 48 Christchurch Road, Streath am, S.W., London. 231, P.M. Jan. 1894. 

1924 Morrish, Samuel William Furze,M.I.N.A. 25 Overstrand Mansions, Battersea Park, S.W., London. 

1593. March 1898. 

1925 Morrison, Robert. 99 Napiershall Street, Glasgow, NB. 413, P.Dep.M., 50, P.Z. October 1888. 

1926 Morrison, W. K. Salisbury, Rhodesia. 2479. November 1900. 

1927 Morton, Francis William Watson. 39 Brunswick Street, Fitzroy, Victoria. Grand Warden. 

June 1896. 

1928 MOSS, William Edward. 7 Rumford Street, Liverpool. 357. March 1899. 

1929 MoSSOp, John. Public Works Dept, Hong Kong. P.Pr.G.R., Worcester. January 1898. 

1930 Moulder, Victor J. 110 Hermitage Road, Finsbury Park, N., London. 2694. March 1900. 

1931 Moulder, Warwick James. Warwick Villa, Goldsmith Road, Friern Barnet, N., London. 1366. 

January 1901. 

1932 Moutray, Rev. John Maxwell, LL.D. Richmond Glebe, Bally gawley, Tyrone. P.G.Ch. March 1895. 

1933 Moyle, J. Copley. Moulmein, Burma. District Grand Master, Grand Superinten- 

dent. March 1893. 

1934 Moysey, Thomas. 71 Gresham Street, E.C., London. 2128. January 1896. 

1935 Muckleston-Allen, Major Francke. Llanfachreth, Valley R.S.O., Anglesey. 1861,384. March 1893. 

Mugford, Sidney Arthur, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 135 Kennington Park Road, S.E., London. 276, 

1936 W.M., J. January 1901. 

1937 Muggeridge, Richard William. The Brewery, Park Street, Southwark, S.E., London. 1704, P.M., 

P.Z. March 1894. 

1938 Muirhead, Rev. John William. Whitewood, Assa., Canada. Past Grand Chaplain. Oct. 1900. 

1939 Muller, Cornelius Johannes. Cathcart Villa, Capetown. P.Pr.G.lns., Netherlands. March 1889. 

1940 Mulligan, J. Chief Jailor, Bloemfontein, O.R.C. March 1901. 

1941 M U Hi ns, Arthur Ernest. 97 Barry Road, East Dulwich, S.E., London. 1446, P.M., 720, P.Z. 

March 1893. 

1942 Munday, Rev. J. G. St. JohnBaptist Vicarage, Felixstowe, Suffolk. P.P. G.Ch., Lincoln. March 1893. 

1943 Munro, John. P.O.B. 174, Pretoria, V.R.C. 770 (S.C.), P.M. January 1894. 

1944 Murphy, James Alexander. Police Station, Queensland. 330 (I.C.), 194 (S.C.) May 1894. 

1945 Murphy, Major J. J. 25 Wrottesley Road, Plumstead, Kent. 913, P.M. June 1900. 

1946 Murray, Alfred Alexander, LL.B., W.S., F.R.S.E. 20 Warriston Crescent, Edinburgh. 2. Grand 

Scribe N. March 1898. 

1947 Murray, James. 144 Craig Par k, Denist oun, Glasgow. 50, P.Z. , Pr.G.Treas., Glasgow. March 1894. 

1948 Murray, James Darling. Mount Morgan, Queensland. 763 (S.C), 227 (B.C.) Local Secretary for 

Mount Morgan. October 1900. 

1949 MurrOW, Baron. Highbury House, St. Leonards. 2189. March 1889. 

1950 Myers, Gabriel. Ficksburg, Orange River Colony. Lodge Star of the Border (D.C) October 1895. 

1951 Myers, Henry. York Passage, High Street, Birmingham. 1180, P.M., 1031. October 1901. 

1952 Myers, Moss Fhineas. 80 Hamilton Terrace, N.W., London. 2522. May 1896. 

1953 Mylne, Thomas. Brisbane, Queensland. District Grand Master, Provincial Grand 

Superintendent (S.C), Queensland. March 1892. 


1951 Nadel, Naley. Mount Road, Madras. P.D.A.G.Pt. March 1897. 

1955 *Nairne, Perceval Alleyn. 3 Crosby Square, E.C., London. Past Grand Deacon. March 1898. 

1956 Naoroji, Dadabhai. Washington House, 72 Anerley Parle, S.E., London. 1159, P.M. Jan. 1895. 

1957 Napper, Sidney. 9 Fenchurch Street, E.C., London. 1471, P.M. March 1898. 

1958 Nash, Frank Archibald. Clnvelly, Strawberry Hill, Middlesex. 2581. January 1898. 

1959 Nash, Stewart. Gympie, Queensland. 1249, P.M., 260 (S.C) May 1897. 

1960 Naylor, Walter Olliver. Box 188, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2313,23/3. October 1896. 

1961 Nelson, George. Villa Devoto, Buenos Ay res. P.Dis.G.D., Dis.G.Stand.B., (R.A.) March 1891. 

1962 Nelson, George Cawood. Myrtle Villa, Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 651 (S.C.) June 1895. 

1963 Nelson, Peter August. Rockhampton, Queensland. 982, P.M , 205 (S.C), P.J. October 1896. 

1964 Nelson, William Cowper. 713 Columbia Building, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S. A. 1,7,P.H.P. Mayl894. 

1965 Ness, James Ross. The Groves, Casal Balzan, Malta. 2755,349. March 1900. 

1966 Nethersole, Captain Alfred Ralph, I.S.C. Waltair, Vizagapatam, Madras. 150,150. March 1897. 

1967 New, Thomas Cheney. 2 Prospect Place, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire. Pr.G.St.B. June 1896. 

1968 Newman, A. P.O., Pretoria, V.R.C. October 1896. 

1969 Newman, Frank. 90 Shardeloes Road, New Cross, S.E., London. 1310. June 1898. 

1970 * Newman, Henry Field. 40 High Street, Pwllheli, North Wales. 117. October 1888. 

1971 Newstead, W. J. 128 Lowden Road, Heme Hill, S-E., London. 1973. November 1899. 

1972 Newton, James. 23 Silverwell Street, Bolton, Lancashire. P.G.Sec, P.G.Sc.E., East Lancashire. 

Past Grand Sword Bearer. February 1887. 

1973 Newton, William John. Brightside, Hesivall, Cheshire. 1289,537. June 1898. 

1974 Newton, William Watson. 52 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow. Past Grand Standard Bearer. 

May 1894. 

1975 Nicholes, W. S. 8 Pownall Gardens, Hounslow, Middlesex. 209, P.M. October 1896. 

1976 Nicholl, Allan Hume. St. Hilda's, Laurie Park, Sydenham, S.E., London. 2744, P.M. June 1900. 

1977 Nichols, H. Bertram. 41 Thornton Avenue, Streatham Hill, S.W., London. 1180. May 1898. 

1978 Nicholson, J. J. Florida, Vaal River Colony. 67 (I.C.) May 1898. 

1979 Nicholson, John. Woodberry Down, Finsbury Park, N., London. 12, P.M. January 1901. 

1980 Nickel, Dr. August Ferdinand Alexander. Perleberg, Germany. L. zur Perle. October 1895. 

1981 Nicklin, John Bailey. Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.A. P.M. March 1892. 

1982 Nickolls, J. B. The Grange, Guernsey. Pr.G.Sec. and Pr.G.Sc.E. Local Secretary for the 

Channel Islands. October 1901. 

1983 Nicol, John Coulson. Elmdon Lodge, Acncks Green, Birmingham. 74, P.M. June 1899. 

1981 Nieuwoudt, Gerrit, M.B., M.R.C.S. Darling, Malmesbury, Cape Colony. St. Jan. (D.C.),56 (S.C.) 
October 1901. 

1985 Nightingale, Charles. Glover's Lodge, Reigate, Surrey. 1362. January 1900. 

1986 Nilsson, Pehr. Concord Junction, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Corinthian Lodge, Walden Ch. Mayl900. 

1987 Nixon, Dr. Edward John. Heidelberg, V.R.C. 2354, P.M. May 1898. 

1988 Nixon, John Clarke. West Riding Asylum, Menston, Leeds. 1522. October 1899. 

1989 Noakes, H. W. 3 Kirkstall Road, Streatham Hill, S.W., London. 108, P.M., 749, Z. May 1892. 

1990 Noakes, J. Norman. The Brewery, Bermondsey, S.E., London. 92, 92. March 1901. 

1991 Nock, George Arthur. National Provincial Bank of England, Hull. 1896. January 1889. 

1992 Nock, Guy Henry. Lloyd's Bank, Shifnal, Salop. 395. May 1901. 

1993 Noehmer, C. W. 3 Havelock Road, Croydon, Surrey. 186, P.M. January 1895. 

1994 Norden, Rev. Henry Louis. 4 The Gardens, East Duhvich, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.Chap., Suffolk. 

June 1898. 

1995 Nordstrom, Dr. A. L. Wexjo, Sweden. June 1901. 

1996 Norfolk, Thomas. 9 Manor Row, Roseberry Road, Bradford. 600. January 1888. 

1997 Norman, George. 12 Brock Street, Bath. 41, P.M., 41, P.J.G.W., Somerset. November 1895. 

1998 Norman, George. Alpha House, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J. May 1888. 

1999 North, W. J. R. P.O. Roodepoort, V.R.C. 2539. June 1898. 

2000 Norton, James Stephen. 8 Broad Street, Hereford. P.Pr.G.J.D. March 1900. 

2001 Nunn, Richard Joseph, M.D. 5 York Street East, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. 15, P.M., 3, P.K. 

November 1889. 

2002 Nuttal I, John Robert. 13 Thornfield, Lancaster. 1051, P.M., P.Z. May 1899. 


2003 OakeS, Jabez James. 37 Rushton Road, Burslem, Staffords. 1339. January 1900. 

2004 O'Donnell, Francis. 1570 Grove Street, Oakland, California, U.S.A. P.M., P.H.P. October 1900. 

2005 O' Duffy, John. 54 Rutland Square, Dublin. 227,93. January 1899. 

2006 Oehley, Oliver Charles. Somerset East, Colony. 1585. October 1897. 

2007 Oetzmann, Charles H. Brighton Road, Surbiton, Surrey. 2146. March 1898. 

2008 Officer, William. 21 Castle Street, Edinburgh. Past Grand Deacon. October 1894. 

2009 Oliver, Andrew, b Queen's Gardens, Lancaster Gate, W., London. 263,2416. May 1900. 

2010 Oliver, Thomas Gordon. One Mile, Gympie, Queensland. 863 (S.C.), P.M., 260 (S.C.) May 1898. 

2011 Oppert, Emile Daniel. 9 New Broad Street, E.C., London. 92, P.M. November 1895. 

2012 Oram, William Adams. Manila, Phillipine Islands. P.Dis.D.G., Japan. May 1897. 

2013 Oranje, Pieter. Barberton, V.R.C. Lodge Jubilee (D.C.), P.M. October 1898. 

2014 Orchard, Vivian. 124 BlacTcheath Hill, S.E., London. 79, P.M. March 1895. 

2015 Orme, James Edgerton. 880 Grand Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 163, P.M., 45. Nov. 1895. 

2016 O'Rorke, William Joseph. 22 Lister Gate, Nottingham. P.Pr.A.G.D.C. Local Secretary for 

Nottingham. January 1898. 

2017 Orr, Andrew William, M.D. Edward Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 286 (I.C.) May 1897. 

2018 Orttewel I, Richard. Maldon, Essex. 1024, P.M., 1024. November 1894. 

2019 Osman, Constant Edward. 132 Commercial Road, E., London. 2469, P.M. November 1898. 

2020 Overbeck, H. E. 51 Station Road, Finchley, N., London. 216, P.M. May 1898. 

2021 Owen, S. Walsh, L.R.C.P. 10 Shepherd's Bush Road, W., London. 901, 201. October 1898. 

2022 Owens, Frederick Edward. 57 Hamilton Square, Birkenhead. 2433, W.M., 2433. May 1898. 

2023 Oxland, Rev. John Oxley. Hill Crests, Qillets, Pine Toicn, Natal. District Grand Chaplain. 

May 1888. 

2024 Packer, Henry John. Asylum, Toowoomba, Queensland. 755 (S.C.),VM.,194 (S.C), H. Oct. 1894. 

2025 Page, Alfred. 1 1 Foider Street, South Shields. 1676,1626. May 1895. 

2026 Page, Alfred. Long Row, Nottingham. P.Pr.G.W., Pr.G.Tr. (R.A.) January 1899. 

2027 Page, Alfred. 25 King Street, Cheapside, E.C., London. 79, P M. March 1899. 

2028 Page, Augustus Hammond. Cobar, New South Wales. 97. October 1894. 

2029 Page, W. S. The Gales, Woodford Bridge, Essex. 186, P.M. October 1894. 

2030 Page, W. T. Lynthorpe, Bromyard Road, Worcester. Pr.G.Sec. October 1896. 

2031 Paine, Charles C. Hillfield, Haverstock Hill, N.W., London. 2242, P.M. January 1900. 

2032 Painter, Edwin Richard. 71 Streathbourne Road, Balham, S.W., London. 766. May 1898. 

2033 Pakes, John James. 2 Cedar Road, Teddington. 871, P.M., 140, P.Z. January 1890. 

2034 Palmer, Maj. A. S. 5 Horbury Crescent, Notting Hill Gate, W., London. 1165. November 1897. 

2035 Palmer, Charles. Jagersfontein, O.R.C. 1469, P.M. May 1896. 

2036 Palmer, Edward Joseph. 6a Austin Friars, E.C., London. 1460. March 1899. 

2037 Palmer, Frank T. 12 Montpellier Avenue, Cheltenham. 246, W.M. January 1901. 

2038 Palmer, Fred Freke. 122 Seymour Place, Bryanston Square, W., London. 46. March 1899. 

2039 Palmer, Henry. Manor House, Medomsley, Co. Durham. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.A.So. June 1899. 

2040 Palmer, Rev. James Nelson. Pembridge, near Ryde, Isle of Wight. Past Grand Chaplain 

and Past Grand Sojourner, England. November 1888. 

2041 *Palmer-ThomaS,R. 5 Horbury Crescent, Notting Hill Gate, W., London. 1929,P.M., P.Z. June 1891. 

2042 Papenfus, Herbert B. Johannesburg, V.R.C. Star of the Rand Lodge. October 1891. 

2043 Papworth, Oliver. 9 St. Andrew's Hill, Cambridge. Pr.G.Sec, P.Pr.G.H. June 1894. 

2044 Paramore, 'David Lewis. Snohomish, Washington, U.S.A. Grand High Priest. Oct. 1893. 

2045 Parke, George Henry. St. Johns, Wakefield, Yorks. 154, P.M., 154, P.Z. January 1895. 

2046 Parker, George Phillip. 3 Ormonde Terrace, N.W., London. 1397, P.M. June 1898. 

2047 Parker, Gerald LoDgley. Box 287, Buluwayo, Rhodesia. 2566,2566. March 1899- 

2048 Parker, William Fox. Armidale, Neiv South Wales. Dis.G.Insp.W. May 1895. 

2049 Parkinson, Thomas James. Argus Printing Co., Tudor Street, E.G., London. 2528. May 1901. 

2050 Parkyn, Alfred Charles. Par, Cornwall. 1151, P.M. January 1900. 

2051 Partridge, Samuel Steads. 16 De Montfort Square, Leicester. Past Assistant Grand 

Director of Ceremonies, Past Grand Sword Bearer (R.A.) January 1889. 

2052 Pastfi eld, John Robinson. Princess Street South, St. Thomas, Exeter. 39. March 1897. 


2053 Patlansky, Joseph Manuel. P.O.B. 378, Johannesburg, V.R.C. De Goede Trouw L. May 1892. 

2054 Paterson, Walter Saunders. 17 Park Road, Craven Road, Willesden, N.W., London. 1268, P.M. 

May 1901. 

2055 Patterson, Dr. John N. Lismore House, Earlestown, Lancashire. P.Pr.D.G.D.C. March 1901. 

2056 Patterson, William George. Townsville, Queensland. 2670, P.M., 908. May 1899. 

2057 Patton, Thomas R. Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, U.S.A. Grand Treasurer of Grand 

Lodge and Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania; Representative of Grand 
Lodge of England. May 1887. 

2058 Paul, George William Frederick, M.D. Sandgate, Queensland. 803. (S.C.), P.M. May 1899. 

2059 Pavitt, G. W. 14 Barking Road, Canning Town, E , London. 860. May 1898. 

2060 Pawsey, W. J. Orchardleigh, Brockhurst, Gosport, Hants. 2153, P.M. May 1900. 

2061 Paxon, Harold Charles. Kivala Lumpar, Selangor, Straits Settlements. 2337. May 1895. 

2062 Paxton, George. 195 Great Portland Street, W., London. 435. January 1901. 

2063 Payne, Henry R. J. Patterson Street, Launceston, Tasmania. 4. January 1899. 

2064 Peacock, Thomas Francis, F.S. A. Springmead, Sidcup, Kent. Past Grand Steward. Jan. 1899. 

2065 Pearce, Christopher. Commercial Hill, Bournemouth. 195. March 1901. 

2066 Pearce, Gilbert P. Mellanear House, Hayle, Comivall. P.Pr.G.W., Cornwall. Librarian of 

Coombe Masonic Library, Hayle. March 1887. 

2067 Pearce, Herbert George. Penhalonga, Umtali, Rhodesia. 2678. November 1900. 

2068 Pearse, Albert, Capt. R.A.M.C. Aldershot. 1174. March 1899. 

2069 Pearson, Ernest A. Eton, MacJcaij, Queensland. 2624, P.M. November 1896. 

2070 Pechey, Thomas Pollard. 24 High Street, Maldon, Essex. 1024, 1024. January 1898. 

2071 Peck, Allen Millard. 82 Elm Street, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 36, P.M. May 1893. 

2072 Peck, Andrew. 1345 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. 719, 209. October 1891. 

2073 Peck, Michael Charles. Park Villa, The Valley, Scarborough. Past Grand Standard Bearer, 

Past Grand Assistant Director of Ceremonies (R.A.) March 1892. 

2074 *Peek, Rev. R. Dreivsteignton, Newton Abbot, Devon. Past Grand Chaplain. May 1888. 

2075 Pellon, Jose F. Ceinfuegos, Cuba. Grand Master. May 1893. 

2076 Pemberton, W. A. Hermitage College, Naini Tal, N.W.P., India. P.D.G.Sup.W., Bengal. Local 

Secretary for the N.W. Prov. and Oudh. March 1898. 

2077 Pembroke, R. W. 45 Carson. Road, West Dulwich, S.E., London. 1155. May 1901. 

2078 Penlington, Thomas. East Street, Rockhampton, Queensland. 319 (I. C.) October 1894. 

2079 Penny, Capt. J., I. M.S. Dep. Sanitary Commissioner, Burma. 542. March 1901. 

2080 Pentz, Henry Home Ley. Athens Villa, Mouille Point, Cape Town. L. De Goede Hoop. Jan. 1899. 

2081 Pepper, J. F. Handsworth, Birmingham. P.Pr.G.W., Pr.G.H., Staffords. March 1898. 

2082 Perceval, John. Slanly View, Wexford, Ireland. Dep.Pr.G.M. May 1899. 

2083 Percival, Ernest Passawer, LL.D. Stefansplatz 8, Vienna. 1415. November 1897. 

2084 Perry, Harry. 30 Barloxv Moor Road, Didsbury, Manchester. P.Pr.G.D., East Lanes. March 1894. 

2085 Perryman, Charles Henry. 55 Doughty Street, W.C., London. 2398, P.M. January 1899. 

2086 Peters, Frederick William. Box 747, Johannesburg, V.R.C. January 1889. 

2087 Peters, Herbert William. West End, Eimberley, South Africa. D.G.Sec, C.S. Africa. June 1888. 

2088 Petherbridge, Robert. 7 Garrick Street, W.C., London. 183. May 1901. 

2089 Petrie, David. Box 152, Pretoria, V.R.C. October 1896. 

2090 Pettigrew, George Attwood. Flandrtau, South Dakota, U.S.A. Grand Secretary. Oct. 1894. 

2091 Phelps, W. E. 6 Diamond Terrace, Blackheath, S E., London. 1670, P.M., 2395. January 1898. 

2092 Phillipson, Ferdinand. Tordenskjoldsgade 24, Copenhagen. L. Ferdinande Caroline, Hamburg. 

May 1893. 

2093 Phillips, Ebenezer S. 440 Kossuth Street, Bridgeport, Connecticut, U.S.A. 3, 13. March 1894. 

2094 Phillips, George Thorne. Wokingham, Berks. 2437. June 1896. 

2095 Phillipps, W. Herbert. Adelaide, South Australia. 38. May 1898. 

2096 Philon, Nicholas. Piraeus, Greece. Grand Secretary, Greece. Local Secretary for Greece. 

March 1890. 

2097 Pickering, George Alfred. Guildhall, E.C., London. Past Grand Steward. Match 1892. 

2098 Pickering, Thomas. 42 Osborne Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 24, 24. June 1892. 

2099 Pickersgill, Charles Phillips. 3 Marlborough Terrace, Dewsbury, Torks. 827. October 1898. 

2100 Pickett, Jacob, M.D. 26 Colville Square, W., London. 766, P.M. January 1895. 

2101 Pickett, John. Stratford, Taranaki, New Zealand. Past Grand Steward. May 1893. 


2102 Pickford, Alfred. 14 Clyde Road, West Didsbury, Manchester. 1375, P.M., 7387, June 1898. 

2103 *Pierce, W.Frank. Crocker Building, San Francisco, California. Deputy Grand High Priest, 

California. January 1897. 

2104 Pi erson, Joseph Waldie. Box 561, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 1665,7665. March 1889. 

2105 Pike, Herbert Watson, I.C.S. Sitapur, India. 391, 1204, P.M., 891, P.H. October 1896. 

2106 Pilcher, Herbert Catchpool. S. Brit. Ins. Co., Cape Town. 398, S.C. January 1901. 

2107 Pile, William. Sutton, Surrey. P.P.G.St.B., P.P.G.Sc.N. November 1893. 

2108 Pi Mincer, Charles Edward. 18 Lawrence Pountney Hill, E.C., London. 902. March 1900. 

2109 Pimlott, William Henry. King's Greek, Clifton, Queensland. 901 (S.C.) October 1895. 

2110 Pinckard, George Josiah. P.O.B. 1759, New Orleans, U.S.A. Past Grand High Priest, 

Representative of Grand Lodge of England at Grand Lodge, Louisiana. 

May 1887. 

2111 Pinder, James. 157 Graham Road, Hackney, N.E., London. P.P.G.Tr., P.P.G.So., Essex. Nov. 1895. 

2112 Pin will, William Richard. 8th King's Regiment, Holywood, Belfast. 2477. June 1897. 

2113 Pittman, J. J. 59 Dingwall Road, Croydon, Surrey. 538, P.M. March 1897. 

2114 Pitts, Alvah Grenelle. 33 Newberry Building, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. 357, 733. Local 

Secretary for Michigan. March 1899. 

2115 Plumbe, Rowland, P.R.I.B.A. 13 Fitzroy Square, W., London. Past Grand Superin- 

tendent Of Works. June 1896. 

2116 Pocklington, W. H. 5 Arthur Road, Holloway, N., London. 1288, P.M. May 1898. 

2117 Pocock, James Charles. Bromley, Kent. 224, P.M., 755. March 1893. 

2118 Poirin, Napoleon Vincent Phillippe. Beckington, Burnt Ash Road, S.E., London. 2579. Jan. 1898. 

2119 Polasky, Dr. A. 416 West Walnut Street, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A. 210, 14, P.H. P. Oct. 1901. 

2120 Pollard, Joseph. 51 Queen Anne Street, Cavendish Square, W., London. P.P.G-W., Surrey. 

October 1889. 

2121 Poison, Thomas Andrew. 33 Knight's Park, Kingston-on-Thames. 1826, WM., 2000. Jan. 1901. 

2122 Pond, Samuel. Blandf or d, Dorset. 1266. January 1897. 

2123 Poole, William George. Redlands, Albion Road, Sutton, Surrey. 860, P.M., 860, P.Z. Jan. 1894. 

2124 *Pope, Edward Barfoot George. Box 1239, Buenos Ayres. 617, 677. May 1892. 

2125 Pope, Seth L. Box 256, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. January 1899. 

2126 Porter, James. Llys Llewellyn, Conway, North Wales. 75."), P.M., P.P.G.Reg. March 1895. 

2127 Postans, Capt. Edward W. Fairfield House, Cheshunt, Herts. 34, P.M., P.Z. March 1898. 

2128 Postlewaite, William H. 1620 Arapahoe Street, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 84. January 1900. 

2129 Poston, Henry. 39 Lombard Street, E.C., London. 19, P.M. March 1892. 

2130 Potter, Robert. 9 Crossley Street, Halifax. 275, P.M., 67, P.Z. June 1900. 

2131 Powell, F. A., F.R.I.B.A. 344 Kennington Road, S.E., London. P.Pr.G.W., Monmouth. Deputy 

Grand Director of Ceremonies (R.A.) November 1887. 

2132 Powis, George Trigance. 78 Loop Street, Cape Town. De Goede Hoop Lodge. May 1899. 

2133 Powley, George Henry. Victoria Street West, Auckland, New Zealand. Past Grand Warden, 

New Zealand. October 1891. 

2134 Pownal I, Wright D. 54 Bleecker Street, Netv York City, U.S.A. Grand Master. May 1900. 

2135 Praeger, Lt.-Col. Henry J. F. 38 Palace Mansions, Kensington, W., London. 2484. March 1898. 

2136 Pratt-Saunders, Col. R. J., R.A. Saunders Grove, Baltinglass, Ireland. Provincial Grand 

Master, Wicklow and Wexford. March 1898. 

2137 Prenzlau, Julius. Bosjes Spruit, Brandfort, R.C. 1022, Lodge Unity (D.C.) March 1895. 

2138 Preston, Donald William. Penryn, Knyveion Road, Bournemouth. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.G.So. 

March 1899. 

2139 Preston, Robert Arthur Berthon, M.A. 1 Elm Court, Temple, E.C., London. 1118, P.M., P.Z. 

January 1890. 

2140 Pretorius, W. J. Roodepoort, V.R.C. 2539. October 1899. 

2141 Pretty, Edward. St. George's Terrace, Perth, West Australia. P.D.G.S.W. Jnne 1900. 

2142 Pringle, Sir Norman Robert, Bart. Junior Army fy Navy Club, St. James' Street, S.W., London. 

92. January 1898. 

2143 Prior, Ephraim. 303 Fulwood Road, Sheffield. 1794. January 1898. 

2144 Probyn, Lieut-Col. Clifford. 55 Grosvenor Street, W., London. Grand Treasurer. May 1897. 

2145 Procter, Alfred. 22 Bootham Crescent, York. 236, P.M., 236. January 1897. 


2146 Proctor, Frederick Stephen. Qu'Appelle, Assa, Canada. Past Deputy District Grand 

Master, Manitoba. October 1896. 

2147 Proctor, John James Beau eh a m p. South African College, Cape Town. P.D.G.W. May 1899. 

2148 Proudfoot, William James Crumpton Dallas. Box 11, St. Vincent, West Indies. Past District 

Grand Assistant Secretary and Registrar, Barbados. June 1901. 

2149 Prynn, Fred. New Union Street, Moot- Lane, E.G., London. 334. June 1898. 

2150 *Pryce, Thomas Lawrence. P.O.B. 186, Johannesburg, V.B.C. 828,2313. Local Secretary for 

Johannesburg. May 1890. 

2151 Puckle, Walter Bridge. Selby Lodge, Lansdowne Place, Brighton. 162. May 1890. 

2152 Pudsey, Colonel Henry Fawcett. 6 Crown Terrace, Anlaby Road, Hull. P.P.G.D. June 1889. 

2153 Pugh, Henry James. Virden, Manitoba, Canada. 43, P.M. March 1901. 

2154 Pulsford, Francis William. New Road. Poplar, E., London. 898, P.M. May 1899. 

2155 Pulvermann, Martin. 26 Minories, E.C., London. 19. October 1895. 

2156 Purey-Cust, the Very Rev. Arthur Perceval, Dean of York. The Deanery, York. Past Grand 

Chaplain. January 1888. 

2157 Purkiss, William Henry. 38 Featherstone Street, E.C., London. 860,860. March 1891. 

2158 Purton, John Frederick. Tenby House, Palace Road, Hornsey, N., London. 1541, P.M., 1269. 

March 1901. 

2159 Purvis, Rev. A. E. 1 Be Vaux Place, Salisbury. 379. March 1897. 

2160 Pye, Lieut. William Edmund. Bolarum, Deccan, India. 1870. March 1898. 

2161 Pyke, John. North Tawton, Devon. 1753. June 189S. 

2162 Pym, Edward Ferriter Lucas. Blackall, Queensland. 2746, P.M. October 1899. 

2163 Pynegar, Henry. 5 Dowgate Hill, Cannon Street, E C, London. 890. January 1900. 

2164 Quayle, Mark. P.O.B. 919, New Orleans, U.S.A. 1, P.M. October 1889. 

2165 Rahman, the Hon. Abdul Dato Sri Amar d'Raja, C.M.G. Johore Bahru, Johore, Straits Settlements 

1152. November 1893. 

2166 Rainey, James Jarvis. Spilsby, Lincolnshire. 426,727. March 1890. 

2167 Railing, Thomas John. Winnock Lodge, Colchester, Essex. Past Assistant Grand Director 

of Ceremonies, Past Grand Sword Bearer. January 1890. 

2168 Ramsay, John Carmichael. Dalhousie, Waratah, Newcastle, N.S.W. Dis.G.Insp. of W. Local 

Secretary for New South Wales. March 1894. 

2169 Ramsay, William Boswell. Box 258, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 851 (S.C.), P.M. October 1899. 

2170 Randell, George. St. Paul s School, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. P.Pr.G.D.C. January 1892. 

2171 Randolph, Lieut.-General Charles Wilson. 76 Chester Square, S.W., London. Grand Superin- 

tendent, Sussex. May 1893. 

2172 Ranken, Hugh Bullen. Bank of Australia, Hughenden, Queensland. 2167. March 1900. 

2173 Ratcl iff e, Charles. 13 Rufford Road, Elm Park, Fairfield, Liverpool. 216, P.M., P.Z. May 1892. 

2174 Rawbone, John. Middelburg, V.R.C- 794 fS.C.) March 1894. 

2175 Raymond, Henry Francis. Elsinore, The Avenue, Yeovil, Somersetshire. P.Pr.G.D. March 1888. 

2176 Raymond, Percy Miles. Box 554, Sacramento, California, U.S.A. 51. January 1896. 

2177 Rayner, Felix Reuben. Umtali, Rhodesia. 1790. November 1900- 

2178 Rayner, William J. Westbury, Chart Lane, Reigate, Surrey. 1362. May 1899. 

2179 Read, R. S. Beaumont, St. Ives, Cornwall. 1272, P.M. January 1895. 

2180 Rebman, Francis Joseph. 129 Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C., London. 1768, 2000. January 1897. 

2181 Redfearn, Thomas Butler. 20 Scale Lane, Hull. P.P.G.W., A.F.G.Sec, A.P.G.Sc.K. Jan. 1895. 

2182 Reece, R. J., M.D. 62 Addison Gardens, W., London. 69, P.M., 410, P.Z. January 1899. 

2183 Reed, Aubone S. 6 Caroline Street, Eaton Square, S.W., London. 5. November 1899. 

2184 Reed, George William. 92 Ritherden Road, Upper Tooting, S. W., London. 13, P.M. March 1899. 

2185 Reed, W. H. 4 Westbury Road, Ealing, W., London. 382. January 1893. 

2186 Reep, John Robertson. Franklin House, South Norwood, SE., London. 1260, P.M. Grand 

Standard Bearer (R.A.) June 1890. 

2187 Rees, Thomas Ernest. Box 691, Cape Town. 1366. March 1898. 

2188 Reeve, William. 65£ York Street, West minster, S. W., London. 901. May 1900. 


2189 Reid, Arthur Henry, F.R.T.B.A. Box 120, Cape Town. P.Dis.G.Sup. of W., Transvaal and 

Eastern Division, South Africa. October 1889. 

2190 Reid, Godfrey Forest. Bethlehem, O.R.C. 2522. May 1895. 

2191 Reid, John. Bloemfontein, O.R.C. 1022. Local Secretary for Bloemfontein. January 1899. 

2192 Reid, Walter Stewart. 4 Somerville Place, Glasgow. 87 (S.C.), P.M., 67, H._ March 190C. 

2193 Rendel I, Arthur Paige. Stanley House, Horton Lane, Bradford. 974,974. March 1893. 
2194. Rend le, Rev. Alfred James, M. A. Rondebosch, Cape Town. P.Dis.G.Ch. March 1899. 

2195 Renwick, James. Toowoomba, Queensland. P.D.G.D. May 1891. 

2196 Retallack-Moloney, Joseph Henry. 360 Romford Road, E., London. 2291,933. November 1894. 

2197 Reuben, Elijah. P. W.D. , Krishnarajpett, Mysore. 1841. October 1900. 

2198 Reynolds, Captain Cecil Edwards, R.A. Ricasoli, Malta. 488, P.M., 488. October 1888. 

2199 *Rhodes, Rt. Hon. Cecil John, M.A., D.C.L. Croote Schuur, CapeTown. 357. November 1899, 

2200 Rich, Harry Nelson. Ladner, British Columbia, Canada. 9, P.M. January 1896. 

2201 # Richards, George. 3 Kensington Palace Gardens, W., London. District Grand Master. 

October 1888. 

2202 Richards, J. Peeke. 6 Freeland Road, Ealing, W., Middlesex. 1584, P.M. January 1896. 

2203 Richardson, Arthur Connor. Granville House, Jesmond, Neuxastle-on-Tyne. 1626, 1664. 

March 1898. 

2204 Richardson, Harry, C-E. 5 Somerset Road, Handsworth Wood, Birmingham. 482. June 1900. 

2205 Richardson, Henry. 4 Church Street, Greenwich, S.E., London. 140, P,M. March 1892. 

2206 Richardson, J. Box 44, Roodepoort, V.R.C. 770 (S.C.) May 1898. 

2207 Richardson, William. Guisborough, Tories. P.G.W., North and East Yorks. January 1898. 

2208 *Rideal, George Samuel. Box 1130, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 744 (S.C.) May 1895. 

2209 Rider, Rev. W. Wilkinson. Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 711, P.M. March 1894. 

2210 Rigden, William Attwood. Bampton, Oxon. 2414. November 1899. 

2211 Riley, Henry. Victoria Mansions, 28 Victoria Street, S.W., London. 2128. November 1894. 

2212 Riley, Thomas. 14 Grosvenor Terrace, Harrogate, Yorkshire. 600, P.M., 600, P.Z. March 1888. 

2213 Rim el I, George. 28 Mattock Lane, Ealing, W., London. 2492. March 1899. 

2214 Rittenhouse, Henry Normau. 1705 North 17th Street, Philadelphia, Penn. January 1899. 

2215 Rivington, Edward. 10 Normanton Road, Redlands, Bristol. P.Pr.G.Sup.W-, Jersey. Oct. 1896. 

2216 Robbins, Alfred Farthing. Dunheved, Villa Road, Brixton, S.W., London. 1928, 1928. Jan. 1899. 

2217 Robbins, John. 57 Warrington Crescent, Maida Vale, W., London. 231, P.M. May 1892. 

2218 Robbins, Joseph. Jacksonville, Illinois, U.S.A. Past Grand Master. January 1S93. 

2219 Roberts, Austin. 20 Park View, Halifax, Yorkshire. 448, P.M., 448, P.Z. March 1888. 

2220 Roberts, Rev. C. E., M.A. Halton, Tring, Herts. P.P.G.Chap., Bucks. January 1900. 

2221 Roberts, Edward, M.A. P'as Maesinela, Caernarvon, North Wales. Pr.G.Fec. Deputy 

Grand Sword Bearer. March 1894. 

2222 Roberts, Hugh Jones, Surgeon, J. P. Gwyddfor, Penygroes R.S.O., Caernarvon. €06, W.M. 

May 1901. 

2223 Roberts, John. Box 321, Cape Town, Cape Colony. D.A.G.Sec. June 1890. 

2224 Roberts, Thomas Harrison. 158 Fleet Street, E.C., London. 1538, P.M. May 1895. 

2225 Roberts, William Field. Fern Bank, Gainsborough Road, Bedford Park, W., London. 1471. 

March 1898. 

2226 Robertson, Rev. Arthur George Lennox. 16 Gauden Road, Clapham, S.W., London. 

P.Dis.G.Chap., Argentine Republic. September 1887. 

2227 Robertson, George. Wellington, New Zealand. Past Grand Secretary, New Zealand. 

Representative of the Grand Orient of Italy. Local Secretary for Wellington, 

New Zealand May 1892. 

2228 Robertson, J. Boss. 291 Sherbourne Street, Toronto, Canada. Past Grand Master of the 

Grand Lodge of Canada. March 1888. 

2229 Robertson, Major J. R. Johannesburg, V.R.C 1413. June 1889. 

2230 Robertson, Walter W. Wardie Bank, Trinity, Edinburgh. 1, P.M. Grand Recorder. 

May 1900. 

2231 Robeson, John Granville. 32 Ridge Road, Stroud Green, N., London. 192, P.M. October 1896. 

2232 Robin, Rev. Leonard Philip. Church House, Westminster, S.W., London. 367, 1388 (N.Z.C.) 

October 1900. 

2233 Robins, Herbert Henry. Box 860, Johannesburg, V.R.C. 2481. May 1898. 

2234 Robins, Rev. James W., D.D. 222 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Grand 

Chaplain. May 1887. 


2235 Robinson, A. A. 113 Bow Road, E., London. 2549. June 1899. 

2236 Robinson, Charles. 8 Baker Street, Portman Square, W., London. 1541. January 1890. 

2237 Robinson, Charles William. Toowoomba, Queensland. 755 (S.C.), 194 (S.C.) June 1892. 

2238 Robinson, Edward Arthur. Boydell House, Avenue Road, Aston, Birmingham. 1163, 1031. 

Maich 1901. 

2239 Robinson, Frederick Cuthbertson. Yorkshire Penny Bank, Manchester Road, Bradford. P.P.G.D., 

P.Pr.G.So., West Yorks. May 1889. 

2240 Robinson, George Herbert. Charterhouse, Godalming, Surrey. 2101, 777. March 1900. 

2241 Robinson, Henry. One Mile, Gympie, Queensland. 816 (S.C), P.M., 260 (S.C), P.Z. Local 

Secretary for Gympie. March 1896. 

2242 Robinson, John. 33 High Road, Darlington, Durham. P.Pr.G.W., 111, P.Z. January 1896. 

2243 *Robinson, John. 28 Arthur Street, Belfast. P.Pr.G.D., Antrim. October 1896. 

2244 Robinson, John Cutler. P.O.B. 14, Hampton, Virginia, U.S.A. Past Deputy District Grand 

Master. June 1892. 

2245 Robinson, Joseph Arthur. 25 Campden Hill Gardens, Kensington, W., London. 1386, P.M. 

November 1898. 

2246 Robinson, William Fearenside. The Borrens, Egremont, Cheshire. P.Pr.A.G.D.C, P.Pr.G.Treas. 

(R.A.) May 1892. 

2247 Robinson, Percy. 72 Albion Street, Leeds. 1221. June 1901. 

2248 Rodda, Rev. E. Carlton, Melbourne. Past Grand Warden, Past Grand Joshua. June 1892. 

2249 Rodriguez, Francisco de Paula. 20 Estrelia, Havana, Cuba. Grand Director of Ceremonies, 

Chairman of Committee on Foreign Correspondence, Cuba. May 1893. 

2250 *Roffey, James Richard. Oakfield Villa, Hough Green, Widnes. 1937. March 1889. 

2251 Rogers, R. S. Canterbury, Victoria. 141, P.M., 17, Z. January 1897. 

2252 Rogers, William. 93 Chancery Lane, W.C., London. 1339, P.M. March 1896. 

2253 Ronaldson, Rev. W. Dunedin, New Zealand. Past Grand Secretary. May 1888. 

2254 Room, J. H. Launceston, Tasmania. Pro-Grand Master. May 1895. 

2255 Rooth, Edward. Pretoria, V.R.C. 1747. June 1894. 

2256 *Roper, John. Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland. 1974. March 1893. 

2257 ROSS, George. Railway Station, Maryborough, Queensland. 752 (S.C), P.M., 246 (S.C), P.Z. 

Local Secretary for Maryborough. October 1895. 

2258 Ross, Peter, LL.D. 62 West 66th street, New York. Grand Historian, Representative 

of Maryland. May 1897. 

2259 Rossiter, George Fry. 23 Powerscroft Road, Lower Clapton, N.E., London. 907 P.M. Jan. 1900. 

2260 Ross-Johnson, Dennis. Central Station, Madras, P.D.G.W., P.D.G D.C (R.A.) October 18y.3. 

2261 Roundell, Christopher Foulis. 17 Buckingham Gate Gardens, S.W., London. 357. May 1899. 

2262 Roux, Adrian J. T. Malmesbury, Cape Colony. Lodge San Jan (D.C), P.M. May 1898. 

2263 Rowbotham, Charles David. Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 711. March 1898. 

2264 Rowe, James Tovey. Lynton House, Primrose Hill, N.W., London. P.Pr.G.D., Herts. May 1898. 

2265 Rowel I, Benjamin W. 206 Masonic Temple, Boston, Massachusetts. May 1898. 

2266 Rowe-Rowe, H. Box 769, Cape Town. P.D.G.St. June 1898. 

2267 Rowland, W. H. Inverell, New South Wales. 48, P.M. May 1895. 

2268 Rowley, Walter, M.I.C.E., F.S. A., F.G.S. Alderhill, Meanwood, Leeds. 289. March 1888. 

2269 Rowlinson, A II. 36 Union Avenue, Newton-on-Axjr, N.B. 1890. January 1899. 

2270 Rowsel I, Alfred William. Pietermaritzburg, Natal. P.D.G.D. October 1889. 

2271 *Roy, Robert. 2 Garden Court, Temple, E.C., London. P.Pr.G.Pt., Cambridge. November 1888. 

2272 Royston, Rev. Peter. Orton Longueville, Peterborough. May 1897. 

2273 Ruby, William Harry. The Gables, Burstoio, Horley, Surrey. 1362. May 1899. 

2274 Rudd, John. 172 Palatine Road, West Didsbury, Manchester. 2688, 1045. June 1899. 

2275 Ruddock, John Waring. 32 Windsor Terrace, St. George's Road, Glasgow. Grand Steward 

May 1892. 

2276 Rush, Conductor John Shipman. 19 Civil Lines, Poona, India. P.D.G. D.C, P.D.G.S.B. (R.A.), 

Burma. January 1895. 

2277 Rushforth, Robert Henry. High Street, Amersham, Bucks. March 1901. 

2278 Rushton, W. H. Agra Canal, Muttra, N.W.P., India. 413. June 1895. 

2279 Rushton, William. 32 Hurley Street, W., London. 2528. November 1899. 
22S0 Russack, W. J. C. Marine Hotel, St. Andrew's, N.B. May 1899. 

2281 Russell, Joseph. 27 and 28 Milk Street, E.C., London. Past Grand Standard Bearer 
March 1898. 


2282 Rust, George Robert Dewey. Kingston. Jamaica. 207, P.M. October 1900. 

2283 *Rustomjee, Cusetjee, I.C. S. Moradabad, N.W.P., India. 2018. October 1898. 

2284 Rustomjee, Heerjeebhoy Manackjee, J. P. 18 Chowringhee Road, Calcutta. Past Assistant 

Grand Director Of Ceremonies. Local Secretary for Bengal. January 1890. 

2285 Ryan, John Hugh McAuley. High Court Chambers, Madras. 150, 750. October 1896. 

2286 Ryles, Rev. J. G. Humvick Vicarage, Willington R.S.O., Durham. P.P.G.Chap. March 1900. 

2287 Rymer, Sir Joseph Sykes. 17 Parle Place, Tori: P.Pr.G.R., P.P.G.H., North and East Yorks. 

November 1888. 

2288 Sadler, William G. Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. P.M. March 1893. 

2289 Salter- Whiter, James. Sunny Bank, Wallington, Surrey. 1892, P.M., 1347. March 1898. 

2290 Salwey, Theophilus John. Guildhall, Ludlow, Salop. P.P.G.W. Local Secretary for Shropshire. 

November 1891. 

2291 Samuelson, Frederick, C.E. 83 Cannon Street, E.G., London. 2562. June 1898. 

2292 Sandbach, Arthur Edmund, Lieut.-Col. R.E. 129 Mount Street, W., London. 1960. May 1896- 

2293 Sanders, John D. Waynesboro, Georgia, U.S.A. 274, 76. June 1899. 

2294 Sanders, Rev. Canon Samuel John Woodhouse, LL.JJ., M.A., F.G.S. St. Martin's Vicarage, 

Leicester. Past Grand Chaplain and Past Grand Sojourner. January 1890. 

2295 Sanderson, Charles Edward Penwick. Singapore, Straits Settlements- Dis.G.W.,508. Oct. 1894. 

2296 Sandford, James Benjamin. Qu'Appelle, Assa., Canada. 32. March 1898. 

2297 Sandford, Prof. Philip G., M.A. Queen's College, Galway. 13, P.M. May 1899. 

2298 Sarson, Henry Logsdail. Vinegar Works, City Road, S.E., London. 2000, PS. October 1896. 

2299 Saulez, Hev. Wilberforce. Little Milton, Wallingford, Berkshire. 1753. May 1898. 

2300 Saunders, Alexander. 1 Canning Street, Birkenhead. P.Pr.G.St.B., Pr.G.J. (R.A.) October 1896. 

2301 Saunders, Alfred. Fairlawn, Parson's Green, S.W., London. 144, P.M. January 1900. 

2302 Saunders, George Richard. Heathside, Worcester Gardens, Sutton, Surrey. 1347,7347. June 1901. 

2303 Saunders, John. Sea Cliff House, near Cape Town, Africa. P.Pr.G. Sup., Cape (S.C.) Oct. 1888. 

2304 Saunders, Sibert. The Bank, Whitstalle, Kent. P.Pr.G.Reg., P.G.J. November 1887. 

2305 Saunders, William John H. P.O.B. 537, Grand Haven, Michigan, U.S.A. 139, P.M. May 1887. 
2806 Sawkins, Arthur Wise. Rondebosch, Cape Town. 2220, 334. January 1892. 

2307 Sayer, John Phillipps. Wellington Road, Maldon, Essex. 1024, P.M., 1024. November 1895. 

2308 Scarth, Alfred. 9 Ash Grove, Victoria Road, Headingly, Leeds. 289, P.M. May 1893. 

2309 *SchaufusS, Camillo Festivus Christian. Colin Elbe, Saxony. Lodge zur Akazie. November 1899. 

2310 Schaul, Lewis Julius. Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A. 1, 2. March 1898. 

2311 Schendel, Simon. 409 Broadway, New York. 739. March 1898. 

2312 Schiller, Ferdinand P. M. 12 Westbourne Crescent, Hyde Park, W., London. 357. June 1891. 

2313 Schmieder, Hermann. 149 Grays Inn Road, W.C., London. 228. May 1899. 

2314 Schmidt, Clarence, R.M. Ooctacamund, India. 1285, 1285. October 1898. 

2315 Schneider, Frank Louis. 69 Bridge Road, Hammersmith, W., London. 2512. June 1898. 

2316 Schoder, Anthony. Woodbridge, New Jersey, U.S.A. Past Grand High Priest. June 1897. 

2317 Schofield, Frederick William. Chadlington, Charlbury, Oxfordshire. 1036, P.M. May 1893. 

2318 Schonberger, B. 4 Whitehall Court, S.W., London. 2108. June 1897. 

2319 Schott, Charles Jacob. 44 Laisteridge Lane, Bradford, Yorks. 302, 302. November 1888. 

2320 Schreiber, R. 16 Douglas Mansions, West End Lane, N. W., London. 2150. October 1898. 

2321 Schroeder, Gustav Georg Friedricb. Box 28, Krugersdorp, V.R.C. Libertas